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PUBLIC DOCUIVIENT .... .... No. 2.5. 


or THE 


ON ajruLaTrvH. 


Year ending Deceiviber 31, 1902. 



18 Post Office Square. 


K '^ 

Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



General considerations : — page 

Appropriations, . . . ... . . . . . 5 

Expansion of the work, . 6 

Fish culture : — 

Appropriation, 8 

Scope of the work, 9 

Expansion, 10 

Output of fish, 11 

New method of distribution, ........ 11 

Concerning fry and fingerlings, . . .... 15 

Work at the hatcheries, 18 

Rearing young fish, . . . . . . . . . 19 

Rearing ponds, etc., . 26 

Brood fish, 27 

Taking trout eggs, 29 

Artesian well at Hadley, ....... .30 

Purchase of land, .32 

Fencing State land at Sutton hatchery, 32 

Ponds stocked, . . . ., . . ... . 33 

Ponds leased, 36 

Brooks stocked and closed, . . 36 

Rivers stocked, 36 

Examination of ponds, 37 

Work of the United States Fish Commission, . . . . 44 

Fishways, 46 

Prevention of stream pollution, . . . . . . . 47 

Pond and brook fishing, 50 

Fisheries : — 

Notable features of the year, 55 

Statistical returns, 59 

Shore weir and net fisheries, 60 

Lobster culture and lobster fishing, 67 

Sea fisheries, . 73 

Inspection of fish, 97 

Game : — 

Relation of game to public welfare, 99 

Need of protective legislation, . . . .... 102 

Status of game, ... . . . . . . . . 103 

Sea and shore birds, 106 


Gam e — concluded. ^^^^ 

Partridge, woodcock and quail, 107 

Pheasants, 116 

Deer, 119 

The Belgian hare, 125 

Squirrels and rabbits, 128 

Breeding game birds and animals : — 

Winchester, 129 

Pheasants, 129 

Ruffed grouse, woodcock and quail, 133 

Experiments with foreign game birds, 134 

The Belgian hare, . . . 134 

Sutton, 135 

Report of the superintendent, . . . . . . .135 

Experiments elsewhere, 138 

Distribution of game birds and animals, 140 

Concerning introduction of new species, 141 

Exhibit at Sportsman's Show, etc. : — 

Authorization by the Governor, 142 

Scope and character of the exhibit, 142 

Request to participate in agricultural fair, . . . . . 147 

Enforcement of laws : — 

Financial resources, 147 

Force employed, 148 

System adopted, 148 

Result, 154 

Deductions from the work, . 162 

New legislation, 162 

Courtesies, . . . . 166 


A. List of commissioners, 171 

B. Distribution of food fish, 177 

C. Distribution of pheasants, 182 

D. Distribution of Belgian hares, 184 

E. Arrests and convictions, . . . . . . . . 185 

F. Legislation, 192 

G. Statistics of shore fisheries, 198 

C0mm0ntofall]^ ai P^assat^ws^tts. 

To His Excellency the Qovernor and Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Fisheries and Game respectfully sub- 
mit their thirty-seventh annual report. 

General Considerations. 

Appy^opriations . — The aggregate appropriations made for 
the conduct of the commission's work in its various branches 
during the current year amounted to $24,765. At this time 
it is not practicable to show the amount expended, and in- 
asmuch as this will be clearly shown in the Auditor's report, 
exact figures here might not be required, even if they were 

The appropriations were divided as follows : $4,930 for 
compensation of the commissioners; $1,550 for travel and 
other necessary expenses of the commissioners ; $780 for 
clerical services; $16,705 for enforcement of laws, the propa- 
gation and distribution of fish, birds and other animals, and for 
running expenses, rent, purchase of land and maintenance of 
hatcheries ; $500 for stocking ponds, and $300 for stocking 
brooks under special acts. 

As will be seen, the item of $1,000 for erecting fish ways, 
which formed a part of the sum allotted last year, was omitted 
from this year's appropriations, and this without detriment to 
the public service, since there would have been no occasion to 
draw on it had the money been available. 

A most gratifying change in drafting the appropriation bill 
was made, whereby the sums allotted for the enforcement of 
law, the conduct of hatcheries, distribution of fish, and the 
breeding and rearing of game birds and animals were combined 
under one head. Inasmuch as the deputies must be called 
upon to distribute fish, birds and animals, or, perhaps, to 


attend to various duties other than the enforcement of law, 
this method of making appropriations simplifies accounts, 
materially lessens the office work, and in other ways enables 
the commission to prosecute its work with greater vigor and 

The moderate and much-needed increase over the sum total 
of last year made practicable the accomplishment of several 
important objects, detailed reference to which will be made 
under their proper headings. The chief of these were the 
purchase of additional land at Sutton, the enlargement of the 
work of distributing fish and the sinking of an artesian well at 
the Hadley hatchery. 

The growing appreciation of the work of the commission is 
strongly evidenced by the action of the Legislature, which 
generously complied with the recommendations in our pre- 
vious report, and liberally provided the money required for an 
economic conduct of the various affairs which must receive 

The greater efficiency resulting from the proper expenditure 
of the additional money thus made available has not only 
appealed to the public in many ways, notably in the new sys- 
tem of distributing fish, and the vigorous enforcement of law, 
but has likewise led to a noteworthy enhancement of the efforts 
put forth by the commission in various other directions. 

In this connection it may be permissible to say that the 
greatest care has been exercised regarding expenditure, and 
the strictest economy consistent with efficiency has been re- 
quired in all branches of work. The controlling thought has 
been to secure the largest possible result from the money 
expended, and it is believed this ambition has been realized to 
a degree seldom equalled in similar official duties, with less of 
discouraging mishaps or errors than usually occur. 

Expansion of the Work. — The determined effort to en- 
large and broaden the scope of the commission's work, so 
happily inaugurated in recent years, has not been relaxed in 
any particular this year. As will appear in detail elsewhere, 
there has been an increase in the output of young fish, in- 
cluding fingerlings, and much has been done to improve the 
facilities for breeding and rearing fish. In other respects the 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 7 

hatching stations and their surroundings have been improved 
or beautified. 

The results of breeding and rearing game birds and animals 
exceed those of last year, which was far in advance of any 
previous record. Present plans contemplate a material .in- 
crease in the output of fish, birds and animals. 

The statistical work of the commission has been enhanced 
and improved by special effort and judicious appeals to the 
fishermen. The results are growing in value. 

By act of the Legislature the inspection of fish has been 
placed under the control of the commission this year. The 
importance of this change, considered from an economic stand- 
point, may be more largely apparent in the future than now. 

The commission successfully participated in the Sportsman's 
Show held at Mechanic's Hall, Boston, and for the first time in 
its history undertook to make a public illustration of its work 
at an exhibition. 

Interesting experiments in breeding and acclimating game 
birds, and in holding them in captivity, have been made. 
Facts not previously known have been determined, and much 
of scientific and practical value may yet be learned as a result 
of the continuance of these important and instructive re- 

The co-operation and cordial relations existing between the 
commission and scientific institutions, notably the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology and the Institute of Technology, 
continue, and there is reason to hope that this may lead to 
satisfactory results in the future, both as regards abstract and 
applied science. 

Correspondence has been continued with persons resident in 
foreign countries, with the object of benefiting our fisheries. 
On various occasions the chairman has addressed societies or 
associations regarding the fisheries and their needs, and has 
delivered illustrated lectures on the work of the commission. 
In this manner much useful information has been imparted, 
and no doubt the public has obtained a clearer conception of 
the work and purposes of the commission, and how these are 
liable to effect the welfare of the people in a practical manner. 

Another result which may be pleasantly anticipated is that 


the people have been made to understand how they can best 
work to benefit themselves and thereby aid in securing the 
objects the commission is striving to obtain. 

The additions to the collection illustrating the work of the 
commission have unquestionably been less in number than 
they would have been if the facilities for their installation and 
care had warranted contributions. The o^atherino: too;ether of 
a collection of moderate dimensions for the instruction of 
those having relations with the commission, and likewise to 
aid in more clearly presenting facts to legislative committees, 
is a matter of such consequence to the proper conduct of the 
work the commissioners are charged with doing, that it is most 
earnestly hoped the day is not far distant, when, at least, it 
will be possible to receive and properly care for the material 
that is freely given it, or that may be gathered by those con- 
nected with the commission. When it is stated, without fear 
of successful refutation, that no fish and game commission 
ever constituted, in this State or elsewhere, can do the best 
work possible without some tangible representations of the 
objects and materials it has to deal with, it will be seen that 
there is ample reason for the hope expressed. It is true much 
has been accomplished and more may 3^et be done, but it is 
important to consider the question whether it is desirable to 
be content with less than the welfare of the service demands, 
especially if little else is required than facilities for caring for 
such material as may be brought together. 

Fish Culture. 
Appropriation. — As has been indicated in the preceding 
paragraphs, no specific appropriation was made this year for 
fish-cultural work, nor can such an assignment of funds be 
made specifically without detriment to the service. Owing, 
however, to the system adopted of preparing an unofficial, de- 
tailed itemized estimate of the money required for the various 
purposes connected with the prosecution of fish culture, it is 
not difficult to state the aggregate amount appropriated for the 
conduct and increase of this work. The total amounted to 
$6,335. Of this amount, $500 was for stocking ponds, under 
a special act, and $300 for stocking brooks under a similar 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMEXT — No. 25. 9 

provision of law. It should likewise be noted that $1,000 was 
for the purpose of enabling the commission to distribute fish, 
birds and animals bred by it, so as to relieve applicants from 
the expense and trouble of going for them ; $600 was for sinking 
an artesian well at Hadley and provision w^as made for the pur- 
chase of land at Sutton, for which $225 have been expended. 

Special reference has been made to the last three items for 
the reason that they are new features in the appropriation for 
fish culture, two of them made necessary by conditions at the 
hatcheries and the other by the reasonable demand of the public 
for consideration which might appropriately have been given 
at an earlier date. 

The special appropriation for stocking brooks was made 
$200 less than it was last year for the very excellent reason 
that it was not anticipated more than $300 would be required 
to carry out the purposes of the act (section 5, chapter 91 of 
the Revised Laws). This conclusion has been justified by the 

While of course the intimate relation between fish culture 
and other branches of the commission's work would make diffi- 
cult any attempt at precise difierentiation of expenditure, the 
figures given are sufficient for a very close approximation to 
the actual cost of this particular work. At the same time it 
is but just to say that the sinking of a well and the purchase 
of land are extraordinary charges, for the permanent improve- 
ment of the hatcheries, in order that they may meet the re- 
quirements of public demand, and these items may not properly 
he included in the ordinary running expenses demanded solely 
for fish-cultural effort. 

Scope of the Work. — The term fish culture, as used for the 
purposes of this report, is intended to embrace not only fish 
culture proper, — the breeding, rearing and distribution of 
fish, — but various other matters more or less closely allied 
thereto, all of which have an important bearing on the attempt 
to conserve or increase the supply of fish in State waters. 
Thus the examination of ponds, the sinking of a well, or the 
purchase of land to enlarge the possibilities of hatcheries, de- 
serve consideration ; while the establishment of fishways and 
the prevention of pollution of streams are included under 

10 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

this head because of their influence on the abundance of fish, 
although, as a matter of fact, orders compelling the construc- 
tion of fishways or prohibiting the discharge of sawdust into 
streams are, strictly speaking, acts connected with the enforce- 
ment of law. 

Thus the work dealt with under this head covers a wide 
range of effort, especially when mention is very properly 
made of the important results attained at the hatcheries of the 
United States Fish Commission located in this State. 

Expansion, — Although there has been one notable disap- 
pointment this year in the fish-cultural work, due to no pre- 
ventable cause, so far as the commission is concerned,* and 
while anticipations have not been fully realized at Hadley, 
despite the determined and well-directed effort made, the gen- 
eral result has been a most gratifying increase in the output of 
fish, amounting to fully 100 per cent., or more, above that of 
last year, which was a record at that time. 

Partial success was attained at Hadley in rearing finger- 
lings, and expansion in various other ways has characterized 
the work at that station, as well as elsewhere, as will be shown 
in more detail under other heads. But the work of the year 
was no more remarkable for the increased output than it was 
for new lines of application of effort and the preparation for 
still larger advancement in the future. 

With the increased possibilities resulting from a hoped-for 
betterment of conditions at Hadley ; the assurance of a con- 
tinuous water supply at Sutton from land now owned by the 
State ; with an increased number of breeding trout of several 
varieties now becoming available ; with anticipation of soon 
being able to collect eggs from landlocked salmon raised at our 
hatcheries, and with the prospect of continued appropriations 
for the satisfactory distribution of fish, there is reason for 
gratification with what has thus far been accomplished, as well 
as cause for hope that the immediate future may see an en- 
laro'ement of the work commensurate with the needs of the 
State, and as a proper result of the plans that have been carried 
through for that purpose. 

* Reference is made to the failure to obtain pike perch eggs from the United 
States Fish Commission, mention of which is made elsewhere. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUIVIENT — No. 25. 11 

Output of Fish. — The most important incident in the dis- 
tribution of fish, considered from the stand-point of numbers 
as well as an innovation in the fish-cultural work of the com- 
mission, was the planting of 6,000,000 shad fry in the head 
waters of rivers of this State. The first lot of 3,000,000 was 
put into Assawompsett Pond, the source of Taunton Great 
Kiver, on May 24, 1902, and four days later 3,000,000 more 
•were planted in Furnace Pond, the head waters of North 

These consio-nments were received from the United States 
Pish Commission, by one of its cars, and the fry were in ex- 
cellent condition when planted. 

The trout fry put out in the spring numbered 1,010,000. 
This is a record on trout fry, and exceeds the output of last 
year by nearly 16 per cent. In addition to these plants 4,000 
yearling and 65,000 fingerling brook trout, and 1,000 brown 
trout fingerlings have been put into the streams, while 6,500 
rainbow trout fingerlings, 1,000 landlocked salmon fingerlings, 
125 adult brook trout and 2,750 white perch have been used to 
stock ponds,* while 8,500 brook trout fingerlings have been 
reserved to increase the brood stock. 

This brings the total output to 7,091,375, and the fact that 
so many of the salmonidee species were either fingerlings or 
yearlings when put into State waters gives a larger importance 
to this work than the fissures would seem to indicate. 

When considering the output of fish mention may properly 
be made of the distribution of large quantities of landlocked 
smelt eggs in various ponds and lakes. Thus other thousands 
offish have been added to the interior waters. 

JSfeiv Method of Distribution. — There is occasion for grati- 
iication that the recommendation made by the commission in 
its last report, concerning the need of a change in the method 
of distributing fish, met with prompt appreciation of the public 
and the Legislature. As a consequence the sum of $1,000 
was added to the general appropriation to meet the necessary 
expense of shipping the fish to applicants, and sending a 
special messenger with each consignment. Thus the fish are 
taken from the hatcheries by the messengers of the com- 

* In addition 350,000 landlocked smelt eggs were planted in ponds. 

12 FISH AND GAME. [Dec; 

mission (who are usually the deputies ordinarily employed in 
the enforcement of law), and delivered to applicants at the 
railroad stations in their respective localities, or they are 
deposited by the messengers in the Avaters to be stocked. 

The ideal w^ay would be for each messenger to take the fish 
in his care to the stream or pond they are intended for and 
deposit them himself. This is almost invariably done in the 
case of ponds, but it often happens that shipments of fry or 
fingerlings are assigned to one town or city to stock several 
streams, which may be more or less widely separated. It is a 
matter of economy to make all these shipments at one time 
and thus limit expenses of railroad travel, team hire, etc., but 
it is manifestly impracticable for a messenger to do more than 
to take the fish to the town or city they are destined for and- 
turn them over to the several applicants. Aside from this he 
may go with one lot and put them into the water, but to 
attempt an^^thing beyond this would result in a large increase 
of cost or a probable great loss of fish, since it is evident that 
some of the fish would die if left at the stations while the 
messenger was engaged in planting other lots. 

The problem is not a simple one, if satisfactory results are 
to be obtained with a moderate outlay, and the commission 
has given much thought to it. 

On the whole, the plan adopted has worked well, and with 
slight modification another year, which has already been pro- 
vided for, together with the increased experience gained by 
the deputies, the most satisfactory results may be anticipated. 

Previous to this year it has been customary for applicants 
for fish to be compelled to go after them, upon notification, 
and those livino- at Ions: distances from the hatcheries w^ere 
subjected to considerable expense, loss of time and possible 
interference with business, in the efibrt to secure fry or finger- 
lings for stocking public waters, in which others had as much 
right to fish as they had. 

While instances of this kind, which were numerous, indicated 
an enthusiasm and self-sacrificing public spirit which might be 
commended, the actual result was that the effort to keep the 
streams stocked bore too heavily upon a few individuals. This 
fact was modified in no particular because the work performed 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCU:VIEXT — No. 25. 13 

was done uncomplainingly and frequently with great thankful- 
ness that the fish could be secured from the State, even with 
the unavoidable trouble and personal sacrifice connected there- 
with. But, aside from the inequality of such a system, which 
laid burdens upon some that others did not have to bear, or at 
most felt them to a less degree, the results of this method of 
stocking the inland waters were sometimes disappointing or 
even discouraging. The method was crude, naturally it could 
not always command experience, and the best that can be said 
of it is that it was born of necessity. The commission did the 
best it could while compelled to continue it, but was glad to 
improve the opportunity given it to adopt a better and more 
satisfactory plan to carry out the beneficent purposes of the 

The present n'lethod is to notify applicants in advance that 
fish will be sent them in the near future by special messenger, 
and each person who is to receive fish is instructed, upon 
notification from the messenger, to meet him at the railroad 
station specified, on the arrival of the train indicated in the 
messenger's notification. If, however, fry or fingerlings are 
taken by other transportation facilities, such as a team, for 
instance, that is mentioned in the notices sent, and the par- 
ticular time and place where the messenger can be met are 
indicated. In all cases the co-operation of the applicant (per- 
sonally or by deputy) is sought, even when a messenger can 
take the fish to the waters they are intended for. This usually 
prevents possible errors in planting fish, especially when a 
messenger is unfamiliar with a locality,* and inasmuch as most 
applicants are glad to provide teams for transferring the cans 
from stations they arrive at to the localities where the fish must 
go, additional cost to the State is thus often obviated. Beside 
this most applicants are glad to participate in this work and see 
for themselves the fish put into the streams or ponds. 

In all cases the messenger is furnished with a list of the 
addresses of those to whom he is to take fry or fingerlings, and 
he is instructed to notify each person in advance, by wire or 

* It is evidently too much to expect that the deputies shall be thoroughly 
familiar at the start with every locality and every brook in the State, for compre- 
hensive knowledge of this kind can only be acquired by experience and a wide 
,range of work of this kind. 

14 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

postal, of the time when he will arrive at the place of meetings 
whether he goes by train or other means of conve3^ance. This- 
notification also generally carries with it a request that the 
person to whom the fish will be taken will have in readiness a 
team capable of transporting a specified number of fish cans. 
If the messenger thinks ice will be needed on his arrival, that 
also can be included in his request. 

Most of the applicants know something about moving fish,, 
and therefore are generally able to intelligently provide for 
their transportation by team, if they know the number of cans 
to be carried. They likewise know why ice is required, if it 
is asked for, and being familiar with local conditions can secure 
it without loss of time. Thus they can assist materially to- 
provide against disaster which might result from delay. 

The chief obstacle met with in carrying out this method was 
due to the fact that the extreme pressure of other matters pre- 
vented the early despatch of the preliminary fall notices for 
the distribution of fingerlings. In a few cases the parties to 
whom notices were sent chanced to be absent ; in some in- 
stances the applicants were not residents of the localities 
where the fish were to go, and for some other reasons the 
parties interested failed to receive notification until after their 
allotments of fish had been sent to them. In consequence of 
this the messengers, in a few instances, were not met as they 
expected to be, and failing to receive co-operation did the best 
they could to carry out the purposes of the commission. 
Whenever practicable the waters named in the application 
were stocked, but when this could not be done the best dispo- 
sition possible was made of the fish. 

The spring distribution of fry was made very successfully, 
substantially without a hitch of any kind, and the few obstacles 
met with in the fall distribution of fingerlings served a useful 
purpose, to the extent that they suggested desirable changes 
which were promptly taken to prevent a recurrence of them. 

No further trouble of any kind is anticipated in carrying on 
this work, and the many commendations on the new method of 
distribution that have come to the commission from all over the 
State indicate the unmistakable popularity of this innovation. 
There is a temptation to quote many of these, especially as they 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 15 

refer to an important improvement, in the effort being made 
to replenish fish life in the interior waters of the State, but the 
desire for conciseness does not admit of this. The two fol- 
lowing brief extracts must serve as examples of many other 
similar statements received. 

Hon. John H. Casey, Lee, Mass., in acknowledging receipt 
of fingerling trout sent to him October 28, writes as follows : — 

The young trout sent are of good size, and are very vigorous. The 
unanimous opinion of the several gentlemen who saw the fish is that 
the method of handUng and distributing is correct. 

Mr. Isaac D. Pope of Dan vers, acknowledging receipt of 
fingerling trout on October 31, made the following comments : — 

The fish were received at station from 11.34 train in excellent 
condition. I had them placed in the stream at 12.15. Every one 
was alive and all conditions seem favorable for good results. 

Ooncerning Fry and Fingerlings. — The question of the 
relative advantage of planting fry or fingerlings, in stocking 
inland waters with trout or landlocked salmon, has ever been 
a mooted one, concerning which eminent fish culturists have 
radically disagreed. Forcible arguments have been presented 
by the advocates of both systems, but, as a matter of fact, the 
leading men engaged in fish culture to-day have adopted in 
practice a method which embodies both of the systems alluded 
to. That is, they have found it most conducive to success to 
plant both fry and fingerlings. This applies more specifically 
to trout, for there are some species, the pike perch, for instance, 
which, because of its early developed cannibalistic tendencies, 
must be put out in the fry stage only. 

For various reasons it is not practicable for the State hatch- 
eries to furnish sufficient trout fingerlings to adequately stock 
all the brooks for which applications are received. It is 
comparatively easy to produce fry and bring them to the 
feeding stage, or about an inch in length, which they must 
reach before being sent out. If care is then exercised in 
planting them, and they are put into the head waters of the 
streams, which should be the rivulets tributary to the brooks 

16 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

to be stocked, success may be anticipated. The fry, however, 
should not be dumped into a rivulet in a bunch ; they should 
be scattered along thinly, so that the food suppl}^ available to 
them will not be quickly exhausted, as might be the case if 
they are massed together. Baby trout require food as much 
as any other animal that must develop vigor and growth, and 
this should be considered. A supply of suitable food occurs in 
the head waters of brooks, if the fish are not bunched too much ; 
beside, they are in less danger from enemies there. When 
they grow larger and stronger and more food is required, 
nature has taught them to drop down to where the brook is 
deeper and broader, and where the species they need for food 
occur in greater abundance. 

Some excellent results have been obtained within the past 
three years from planting fry, when care and intelligence were 
exercised in the work. Nevertheless, because it is practicable 
to raise a limited number of fry to fingerlings at the hatcheries, 
with comparatively less loss than occurs to fry put into the 
brooks, and because experience shows that fingerlings have 
many more chances in the battle of life in the streams than 
fry have, it is deemed desirable and important that a part of 
the fish used to stock the inland waters should be raised to 

The fry are usually distributed in April, while the finger- 
lings are planted in October and November. 

In stocking with fingerlings less attention is given to put- 
ting them at the head waters of the streams. Indeed, it is 
usually better not to put them too high up for various reasons. 
A cold snap might quickly freeze a tiny rivulet and thus 
destroy the fish before they found time to drop down stream ; 
while the food possibilities there would scarcely be adequate 
in the fall, if at any time, for fingerlings. For these and other 
reasons it is advisable to distribute them thinly farther down 
the brook, especially where there seem to be good places for 
them to hide, since the opportunity to hide from enemies, 
among which may be reckoned larger trout, is of as much con- 
sequence to their existence as the obtainment of food. 

Less care in distribution can be exercised in stocking ponds, 
and probably less is required, especially when fingerlings are 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 17 

used, as is always the case in this State when ponds are 
stocked with trout or landlocked salmon. There the bound- 
aries are not so restricted ; there is larger opportunity to 
scatter, greater resoitrce in the way of food supply and wider 
range for escape from enemies, although the chances for hiding 
are more restricted as a rule. 

Although fingerling trout are all one age Avhen distributed, 
being about eight months old, there is a wide variation in size, 
which may range from not more than two and a half inches to 
six inches or more in length. The average length approxi- 
mates four inches, — about a finger's length, — hence the name 
fingerling. Fish hatched at the same time from a lot of eggs 
taken on the same day will difi'er, some developing much faster 
than others. It is a race for life ; the strong, active fish crowd 
aside the weaklings, and, as growth depends on food, the 
disparity in size and strength increases with passing weeks. 
Here the fish culturist must interfere to prohibit the continu- 
ance of this robbery or the more fatal result of cannibalism. 
He therefore separates the fish according to size, putting the 
larger and stronger together, then those of medium size and 
lastly those that are smallest. This not only saves the small 
fish from being eaten by the larger ones, but enables them to 
grow more rapidly. Some fish breeders claim that when trout 
six months old have been thus separated, and the small ones 
properly fed, they have grown so rapidly that they reached the 
same size as the largest when yearlings. This emphasizes the 
importance of classification of young trout or salmon, accord- 
ing to size, as well as care in feeding them, and incidentally 
indicates the value of the tub system, by which separation can 
be easily arranged. 

Just how far, in point of numbers, it is practicable to go 
in rearing fingerlings with our present facilities, it is not easy 
to say at this time, since so much depends on the water obtain- 
able in summer from the well recently sunk at Hadley. In 
any event too much should not be expected. For, while we 
have practically demonstrated the feasibility of raising finger- 
lings by the tub system, with only a fraction of the water per 
thousand fish deemed requisite by competent fish culturists, 
nevertheless, the available flow of water at Hadley and Sutton 

18 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

is so restricted, even at the best, as to fix a limit on the possi- 
bilities of rearing fish. 

It is true that better results may be anticipated from the 
planting of fingerlings than from the planting of fry, if the 
numbers come anywhere near approximation, but there is un- 
doubtedly an exaggerated idea of the relative value in the public 
mind, and a consequent misconception of what should be done. 
Let it be said that probably the best results can be secured by 
planting both fry and fingerlings, but generally the increase of 
fish in the streams will depend more on the care observed in 
distributing the fish, and especially the fry, than on anything 

Wo7^k at the Hatcheries. — At no time has the work at the 
hatcheries been prosecuted with greater energy or success. 
Inasmuch, however, as this chapter deals solely with fish cul- 
ture, mention of what has been accomplished at Winchester 
and Sutton in breeding and rearing birds and rabbits will be 
omitted here, and the reader is referred to the special discussion 
of that particular subject which appears in detail elsewhere. 
Aside from some improvement in the water supply at Win- 
chester, due to cleaning out the pipes, etc., and a possible 
slight accession to the number of eggs incubated at Adams, 
there has been no material change or improvement at either 
the Adams or Winchester hatcheries, unless the covering of the 
well at Winchester may be accounted such. This item of re- 
pair was much needed, not only for the betterment of the prop- 
erty used for fish-cultural purposes, but also that all accessories 
of the hatchery should harmonize with the beauty of the 
Middlesex Fells, where the building is located. 

Much has been done at Sutton to perfect and improve the 
pond and tub systems for rearing fry to fingerlings and to 
insure the healthy condition of the brood fish, mention of which 
appears in detail under other heads. New floor sills and floor 
were put into the hatcherj^ the condition of the old timbers 
and floor making this change imperative. The building was 
further improved by removing the posts that supported the 
ceiling and suspending the latter to the rafters. The meat 
house was sheathed and painted inside. 

The jar-hatching capacity at Sutton and Hadley has been 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 19 

doubled in the current year, so that it is now possible to place 
m incubation a large number of eggs of those species for the 
hatching of which jars are required. 

A large hen house has been built at Sutton for the accommo- 
dation of the hens and bantams required in breeding and rear- 
ing pheasants. 

The grounds about the hatchery and residence at Sutton 
have been materially improved by removing stumps, grading 
the land, widenino^ and orradins: the road, seedino- down, etc. 
Aside from the advantage of beautifying the grounds and thus 
making them attractive, it is necessary to improve them in 
order that they may be utilized for raising material necessary 
for feeding pheasants and hens, both of which require green 
food and the seeds from flowers, etc. 

In addition to all this the underbrush has been cleared out 
beneath the trees, the dead or dying trees have been cut and 
utilized for lumber, and various other thinos have been done at 
the Sutton station to improve the conditions there and make it 
better adapted to the purposes for which it is used. Much 
still remains to be done to brins^ the station to that dea'ree of 
fitness and equipment which is consistent with the needs of such 
a place, if it is to be a credit to the State and is to accomplish 
the work that may be expected of it. The present plan is to 
gradually make such changes as can be eflfected with the utmost 
economy, by having the work done almost exclusively by the 
hatchery force. But, while this may be economical from the 
stand-point of present expenditure of money, it is, perhaps, an 
open question whether it would not be as wise to complete all 
necessary improvements promptly, and thus begin to derive 
the benefits from them at an earlier date than is possible by the 
slower process. 

Rearing Young Fish. — The work included under this head 
has been prosecuted on a larger scale this year than ever be- 
fore. While discouraging obstacles have been met with, due 
chiefly to the conditions at Hadley, to which extended refer- 
ence was made in our last report, the general result has been 
gratifying to the extent that it has been a distinct advance 
upon anything heretofore accomplished. 

The experience at Hadley would have been as disheartening 

20 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

as that of last year, or even worse, had reliance been placed 
solely on the brook water which supplied the tub system. 
While the temperature of this water was not generally high 
enough to be considered a serious menace to the existence of 
fry, and especially the rainbow trout fry, it was, nevertheless, 
subject to fluctuations when sudden rains or warm days oc- 
curred, and to that extent was dangerous to young trout, al- 
though it has been noticeable that trout thrive in it remarkably 
w^ell after they have passed the yearling stage, The effect on 
the young trout was the appearance of a gill disease which soon 
proved fatal. The gills became inflamed and badly swollen ; 
the eyes bulged, as a rule ; the fish apparently ceased to feed ; 
they gradually grew thin and after a few days died. 

Last year the brook trout and brown trout sufiered most 
from this disease ; practically all of them at Hadley succumbed 
to it, but the rainbow trout did better, and, m consequence, it 
was thought no serious trouble would probably be met with in 
raising them to fingerlings in the rapidly running and well- 
aerated brook water. The experience this year, however, has 
shown that this conclusion was too hastily arrived at, for the 
mortality to the rainbow trout fry at Hadley was as severe as 
that experienced by the brook trout and brown trout fry left 
in the tub system. Practically none survived in the tubs. 
The lesson learned was that it is unsafe to risk trout fry of 
any species in the pools or tubs supplied with brook water ; 
to do so is to invite disaster and the attendant work and 

The attempt to raise fingerlings at Hadley would have been 
almost an utter failure, despite fish-cultural skill and continu- 
ous labors of the superintendent, except for one of the arti- 
ficial ponds which is fed by springs and one or more small 
pools similarly supplied with water. The latter did not, how- 
ever, cut much of a figure, owing to small dimensions and the 
very limited amount of flowing water, hence we relied almost 
w^holly on the larger artificial pool. This, as well as every 
other suitable place, was utilized exclusively for rearing brook 
trout, since it was deemed most important to have as many 
fingerlings of this species as possible. 

The fry seemed to do well in this pond, where they gathered 

IT s^^Id 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 21 

under the floating screens, or about the pipes from which the 
spring water flowed. But as the season advanced and the fish 
OTew laro'er it was observed that there was a o'radual diminu- 
tion, noticeable almost from day to day, and this seemed unex- 
plainable for the reason that very few dead trout were seen 
on the bottom, and there w^ere few or no indications of weak- 
ness or sickness among the fish. Because there was no other 
water into which the trout could be put, even temporarily, it 
was not practicable to draw the pond and thus make a search 
for the supposed destructive agency, whatever it might be. 
The only thing was to wait until the distribution of fingerlings 
in the fall, when, of course, the pond could be drawn down 
and the. cause of decimation could be sought for. 

Tliis was done, when it was found that the destruction had 
undoubtedly been caused by a number of the young trout 
which had grown to an abnormal size for their age, due to an 
early start in life, and thereafter gratifying their cannibalistic 
instincts by preying upon their weaker brethren. These large 
trout lay hidden under the banks of the pool, and it was 
evident they had for weeks or months been in the habit of 
darting forth from these lairs to capture the smaller fry, which 
they must have preferred to the food supplied to them by the 
superintendent. It is probably due to this, and the fact that 
they seldom or never appeared at feeding time, that their 
remarkable growth was not noticed earlier, or otherwise the 
gradual diminution of their companions could sooner have 
been accounted for and the marauders might have been removed. 

This experience has led to a change in the pond, which has 
been divided by screens into four nearly equal sections. It 
will, therefore, be feasible another season to separate the trout, 
from time to time, into groups according to size, and thus pre- 
vent a repetition of the destruction caused b}^ cannibalism this 
year. By this arrangement the output of fingerlings from this 
pool, which aggregated several thousands this year, despite the 
conditions mentioned, may be multiplied several times in the 
future. And if a supply of spring water should ever be avail- 
able through the^ summer from the artesian well, sufficient to 
furnish a tub system, the outlook for future work at Hadley 
will be more hopeful and encouraging than it has heretofore 

22 FISH AND GAME. , [Dec. 

been, even though the promise of making a first-class station 
of it is not so flattering as it might be. Unfortunately the 
flow from the artesian well does not exceed twelve gallons per 
minute, which is too limited to amount to much in supplying 
water to a tub system. It may help a little but is decidedly 
inadequate for the needs of the station. 

At Sutton the success met with in rearing trout and land- 
locked salmon to fingerlings has been most gratifying, despite 
attacks of disease in the fall, and there is reason for believins: 
that, considering the limited supply of water available, it has 
exceeded anything accomplished elsewhere, whether in the 
private hatcheries of this State or in public hatcheries in other 
sections of the country. 

The tub system has continued to give the most gratifying 
results, exceeding those secured by other methods. Aside 
from other advantages of the tub system which have been men- 
tioned in previous reports, it makes impossible such dire 
results from cannibalistic tendencies of trout as were experienced 
at Hadley. While improvements in this system are no doubt 
practicable, and while other provision may be made at Sutton 
to enlaro:e or make better the facilities for rearino^ finoerlins^s 
or yearlings, the fact remains that the conditions there are so 
nearly satisfactory that radical changes can scarcely be looked 
for, although advantage will be taken of every opportunity for 

The following interesting details concerning the rearing of 
fish at Sutton have been furnished by Superintendent Arthur 
Merrill : — 

Three hundred and ten thousand brook trout fry were distributed 
in April and May. This left 150,000 brook trout fry, and beside 
these there were in the aggregate 57,000 fry of landlocked salmon, 
rainbow trout and brown trout. Thus there were 207,000 fry as a 
stock for rearing. The work was attended with varying results, but 
on the whole it showed a decided gain over the previous year. 

The rainbow trout, brown trout and landlocked salmon — species 
suited to water of varying temperature — were kept in the tubs and 
pens below the dam. The brook trout, which require the purest 
water of uniform temperature, were put into tubs and ponds that 
received a supply of water direct from the springs. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 23 

The small lot of rainbow trout eggs taken at the Sutton station 
in February produced very weak fry, and few of these fish survived 
until fall. The rainbow fry in the larger lot were strong and vigor- 
ous at all times, until late in September, when repeated attacks of 
disease reduced the number of fingerlings of this species from 11,000 
to 6,500. The latter number was distributed. 

The brown trout hatched well, but the fry grew slowly, and there 
was a continuous loss of feeble ones in the tubs up to the time of 
distribution. A small lot in one of the pens supplied with pond water 
developed much better and were healthy at all times. In all 1,000 
fingerlings of this species were distributed. 

The landlocked salmon were an unusually vigorous lot, for more 
than 8,000* survived until nearly the season for distribution. On 
September 28, however, they were seized with an epidemic which 
destroyed about one-half the lot. This attack was speedily checked, 
but others followed, constantly reducing the numbers, until only 2,000 
healthy fish of this species were left for distribution. 

The brook trout did well in all of the tubs and ponds except two, 
where they were somewhat sickly, but the loss was slight. In the 
upper tubs the number raised to'fingerling size was 30,000, an in- 
crease over last year of 50 per cent. More than 10,000 were taken 
from the upper pond (or pool) where last year less than 6,000 were 
obtained. The total product of fingerling brook trout was fully 
70,000, an increase over 1901 of about 18,000 fish. Add to this the 
other species of trout and landlocked salmon, and the aggregate 
result of rearing fingerlings at the Sutton station this year is nearly 

The fish did not suffer severely through the summer from attacks 
of disease, and on one occasion only were threatened with serious 
loss. This was when a parasitic fungus developed in the gills of the 
salmon. A cure of this was effected, however, before much loss 
occurred, and the chief damage sustained was seen in the weakened 
condition of some of the fish, — a condition most noticeable in two of 
the tubs. It was a recurrence of this disease that caused the severe 
mortality in September, as well as some loss of rainbow trout, and 
its virulence then was doubtless due to the poor quality of the water 
at that time. Aside from the disease the unsatisfactory condition of 
the water caused much weakness in the fish, and this combined to 
make the loss much heavier than is common from such attacks. 

Salt baths was the remedy applied in these cases. In the early 
attack a single application effected a cure. In the later instances 

* This lot was hatched from 10,000 eggs. 

24 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

marked improvement followed each treatment, but the effect was not 

Other diseases caused small losses. The fungus known as "fish 
mold " appeared on brook trout moved from the upper to the lower 
tubs and destroyed the whole of them, although trout had been so 
changed in previous years without any appearance of disease. 

Many rainbow trout died during and after the gill trouble pre- 
vailed, and their condition suggested an unknown disease. 

Among the fish below the dam fungus threatens to become more 
troublesome as the stock is increased in the brood pond and its 
tributary springs, for the consequent deterioration of the water that 
flows into the tub and pen systems below the dam increases the 
liability to attack and weakens the resistance of the fish. It is not 
possible to entirely avoid fungus on young fish b}^ merely having a 
pure water supply, for the fungus spores can generally be found in 
water suitable for fish-cultural purposes. Immunity from attacks 
must be sought chiefly through keeping the fish in a strong, healthy 
condition, and this depends largely on the purity and proper tem- 
perature of the water. At its source the water here has all the 
requisite qualities for growing vigorous, healthy fish, but when it 
reaches the dam it has been used to such an extent for the upper lots 
of fingerlings and yearlings, as well as the large stock of brood fish 
in the pond, that its vitalizing forces are materially reduced, and its 
character is so changed when it reaches the lower groups of tubs and 
pens that there is constant danger from its weakening effect and the 
probability that it will promote disease. Measures have been taken 
to secure an improved water supply from the dam b}^ extending the 
intake into the pond, and additional efforts are needed to secure 
greater purity and a more equable temperature. 

Additional and irritating losses, amounting to considerable in the 
aggregate, were caused by the depredations of various enemies to 
fish, such as fish-eating birds, snakes, etc. The efforts to keep 
these enemies in check were attended with good results, but constant 
vigilance was required, and even this could not prevent visitations 
to the ponds and consequent loss of fish. Ten large snakes were 
killed; 12 herons and 27 kingfishers were trapped or shot (many 
only after persistent hunting), and other foes of less consequence 
were destroyed. 

An unknown enemy, probably some water-frequenting insect, 
visited the upper tubs very persistently and destroyed hundreds of 
trout. Covers were fitted to the tubs to protect the fish, but these 
proved ineffective until all holes that would admit an insect as large 
as a house fly were closed. And even then the loss continued in 

Ill n^Xd 

1902.]. PUBLIC DOCUMENT— Xo. 25. 25 

some tubs, showing that the destructive invader was very small. All 
efforts to discover what this enemy was failed, although trapping was 
tried as well as watching the tubs night and day. 

The fingerlings were as good as usual in size and condition. In 
ponds where large numbers were reared, and crowding resulted, the 
fish were under the average size, but the gain in size in the tubs and 
some of the other pools offset this and brought the average up to a 
good standard. 

The trout were put out in good condition except two lots taken 
from the lower ponds ; these had many undersized fish that were less 
strong than the average. The unhealthy conditions in these pools 
were enhanced b}^ great masses of leaves that drifted in, nearly filling 

Of the various means adopted to improve the ponds an increase of 
shade has proved the most effective. Wherever floating shades were 
used the capacity of the water area for rearing trout was materially 
increased. As an instance, one pool shows an increase from 3,000 
fingerlings last year, before it was provided with shade, to 10,000 
this year, as a result of adequate shade. Two other small pools 
show increases of 1,000 and 2,000 trout respectively. For lack of 
other material brush has been largely used for shade, and, though 
unsightly, it is possibly the best thing for the purpose. 

Further increase in the fingerlings it is possible to raise at the Sut- 
lon hatchery can be reasonably expected only through the utilization 
of some unused springs below the hatchery building. The ponds 
now in use cannot be expected to produce much more than they do 
now, and in building additional ponds at the source of the water supply 
that feeds the brood pond there is danger that, because of an excessive 
utilization of water at the source, the water in the brood pond and 
below the dam may become more or less vitiated so as to reduce its 
capacity for supporting fish life. Whatever extension is contemplated 
should be undertaken with caution, and measures should in all cases 
be adopted to keep the water as cool and pure as possible. 

The foregoing explicit statements not only show the diffi- 
culties attending the rearing of fingerling fish, in which success 
has been attained at Sutton equal to the best we know of, but 
they also indicate unmistakably the limitations of the work 
with the present facilities available to the commission. 

Rearing Ponds, etc. — Little has been done this year in 
building rearing ponds. A small pool was built near the tub 
system at Hadley which was fed by a very limited supply of 

26 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

spring water of low temperature, but the flow was so small 
that only comparatively few fry could be put into it. 

Pendino; the results obtainable from sinkino- an artesian welL 
it was deemed unwise to do much to enlarge the pond area^ 
even if that is practicable, for it was felt that if the well proved 
a failure the commission would be compelled to abandon its 
purpose to raise fingerlings there in any numbers, and to use 
the station only, or chiefly, as a hatchery and a distributing 
point for trout fry. 

The artificial pools at Hadley, both below and above the 
large pond, have been utilized for the growing fish, but only 
one, aside from the little pool mentioned, has been devoted to 
raising fingerlings. The others — one pool below the dam de- 
voted to brown trout, and others above the brood-trout pond 
— have been assia^ned to s^rowino' various species of trout 
and the landlocked salmon which have attained to or are near 
sexual maturity. As already stated, these fish have done well. 

With the object of improving these pools, as well as to add 
to the general appearance of the hatchery surroundings, wil- 
lows have been planted along the sides where shade is needed, 
while one side of each pool is left clear so that a seine or other 
device can be used if circumstances demand it. Willows have 
also been planted along the brook that feeds most of the ponds, 
the object being to shade it and thus keep the water cooler. 

At Sutton, one pool or rearing pond eight by sixty feet has 
been built below the hatchery, which, like all the other pools 
there, is fed by spring water. This was constructed under 
very difficult circumstances, the site being soft mud in which 
numerous pine logs and stumps were embedded. The brook 
below the hatchery was cleaned of accumulated mud, deepened 
and prepared for holding yearlings. 

The ponds or pools heretofore used at Sutton for yearling 
spawners are very shallow, and Superintendent Merrill ascribes 
much of the loss met with in this class of fish to their o-reater 
exposure on this account. Lack of depth, and of accessible 
means for hiding, place the trout at much disadvantage. This 
condition is, however, susceptible of remedy, and all time that 
the hatchery force can possibly spare frorn other duties will be 
devoted to improving the ponds, by deepening them and mak- 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 27 

ing such other changes as experience has shown to be desir- 
able. The deepening and cleaning of the brook below the 
hatchery, heretofore mentioned, are steps in the direction of 
perfecting the water system that will continue until all that is 
practicable has been accomplished. 

Much is contemplated in the way of providing shade for the 
brood pond or ponds at Sutton by planting young trees to take 
the place of the old dead trees already cut down, or of others 
which may die and therefore have to be similarly disposed of. 
Inasmuch as it will take some years for trees to grow to suffi- 
cient size to furnish the requisite shade, it is deemed advisable 
to begin the planting of them now, especially as this work can 
be done without additional cost to the State, and the matter is 
vastly important to the preservation of the brood stock of fish. 
Considerable has already been done along this line and the 
work will be continued as opportunity offers and the conditions 
seem to demand. 

The tub system has been enlarged by the erection of a new 
structure at the west end of the hatchery building, upon which 
eighteen tubs were placed. Two lines of pipe were laid to 
supply these tubs with water, one from the brood pond and one 
connecting with the hatchery supply. Sixty screens — a 
double set — were made to cover the tubs. 

All the water system at Sutton, including ponds, pools, 
tanks and tubs, has been utilized this year, but to what extent 
it can be made capable of meeting larger demands in the future 
remains to be seen. In any event it may, perhaps, be safely 
predicted that it will be drawn upon to the limit in the not 
distant future, and all possible additions to it will be made. 

Brood Fish. — There has been considerable increase in the 
numbers of brood fish this year but far less than was expected, 
due to causes that will be mentioned. Many of the young 
trout that the commission has been raising for the past two or 
three years to add to its brood stock have been destroyed by 
enemies, despite the persistent efforts of the hatchery super- 
intendents to prevent it. The following statements give in 
detail the status of the brood fish and also show the determined 
fight waged by those in charge of the hatcheries to protect and 
preserve the fish under their care. 


The landlocked salmon are approaching maturity and will 
probably yield eggs in a year from now. 

At the Hadley station there are about 500 rainbow trout that 
should spawn next February, and some 350 others which 
should reach maturity a year later. There are also 140 egg- 
bearing brown trout, about 500 large brook trout and 300 
smaller brook trout, a year and a half old, which will yield 
some eggs this year. 

The brood fish in the large pond at Hadley have been deci- 
mated materially during the year ; Superintendent Tripp esti- 
mates the decrease at fully one-third. The greater part of this 
loss is undoubtedly due to enemies, against which a constant 
fight must be waged. These enemies are fish-eating birds and 
animals, some of which are largely destructive. This is espe- 
cially so of the otter, which is supposed to prey upon the 
trout ; but, although tracks have been seen and efforts have 
been made to trap the nocturnal visitor to the ponds, no otter 
has yet been seen or taken. Two minks have been trapped 
this fall, and twenty-five kingfishers, seven herons and one 
fish hawk have been shot. The continuance of efforts to de- 
stroy such enemies it is hoped will finally result in ridding the 
station of their depredations, or at least minimizing the losses. 
It is evident, however, that, in the mean time, it will be neces- 
sary to continuously provide for a large yearly increase of 
brood fish at Hadley in order to keep the stock where it should 
be, after the losses that must result from enemies and other 

The brood fish also suffered material loss at Sutton, most 
pronounced among the trout just reaching maturity, conse- 
quently the anticipation of having all the mature fish at that 
station that could be kept in a healthy condition has not been 
realized. The causes of the decrease are somewhat various, 
but the loss is chiefly ascribable to enemies. 

Superintendent Merrill reports that 50 of the largest spawn- 
ers were taken from the brood pond dead, during the summer, 
and he thinks many others probably died and were covered by 
the mud at the bottom of the pond and thus escaped observa- 
tion. Fifty or 60 large spawners were rendered infertile by 
the prevalence of throat disease, and consequently were lost, to 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMEXT — No. r;y, 29 

the extent at least that they bore no eggs. As a result of 
all this, and losses probably caused by enemies, the older 
trout in the brood pond were several hundred less than 
anticipated: the}^ numbered 1,300. These were nearly all 
brook trout, for the rainbow trout and landlocked salmon 
have all been assembled at Hadley, and most of the brown 
trout as well, there being now only a few of this species at 

The greatest mortality to brood fish at the Sutton station 
was noticeable among the brook trout which had just attained 
sexual maturity. Two thousand of these had been put into the 
runway below the hatchery, where the conditions were good, 
and only normal loss was expected. Only 400 of these fish 
were left this fall when the breeding season opened. This 
excessive loss is believed to have been due largely or wholly 
to the predatory attacks of the night heron, which is the most 
troublesome to the fish culturist of all the herons, because of 
its nocturnal raids on fish ponds. These are difiicult to pre- 
vent, while it is equally difficult to detect and kill these feath- 
ered marauders in the darkness. Many of these herons were 
killed, as a result of care and watchfulness, but despite this 
their numbers seemed to increase during the summer, many 
coming from a heronry apparently not far distant tow^ard the 

To compensate for these losses, so far as possible, 8,500 
brook trout fingerlings have been reserved at Sutton from 
which to select next year as many as are required to bring the 
breeding stock up to the highest standard of efficiency that the 
water resources there will admit of. 

Taking Trout TJggs. — The work of taking trout eggs at the 
Hadley and Sutton stations began in early November, as usual, 
but apparently many of the fish w^ere slow in reaching a spawn- 
ing condition, due possibly to the exceptionally mild w^eather 
in October and November. The most remarkable thino- in 
connection wdth the annual collection of trout eo-o-s is the fact 
reported by Superintendent Merrill that, at Sutton, the fish 
yielded nearly 43 per cent, less eggs than trout of the same age 
and size have produced heretofore. He says : "A smaller col- 
lection of eggs than expected was made by reason of the small 

30 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

yield per fish, — only about 1,000, as compared with 1,750 the 
season before." * 

Because of this, the eggs obtainable at Sutton will not prob- 
ably exceed in number those collected there last year, but the 
prospect is that more will be secured at Hadley than ever be- 
fore. Thus, despite the destruction of brood fish to an un- 
parallelled extent, and this altogether unlooked-for decrease in 
the yield of eggs per fish, the number taken so far equals or 
exceeds any previous record, and it is reasonably certain that 
there will be a larger yield for the balance of the trout-hatching 
season than ever before, although the total will come far short 
of what was hoped for and expected. 

The one consolation to be derived from the present condi- 
tion, in which unexpected losses have played so prominent a 
part, is this : the vigorous measures taken at the hatcheries 
have had the eflfect of maintaining their productiveness, despite 
the most untoward circumstances, thereby obviating any real 
evil effects, where otherwise the result would have been dis- 
astrous in the extreme. 

Artesian Well at Hadley, — After the experience of last 
year in the attempt to raise fingerling trout at Hadley, and the 
mortality resulting from the use of brook water, it was evident 
that it would be necessary to sink an artesian well on the hill- 
side above the hatchery, with the hope and purpose of securing 
an adequate supply of spring water of suitable temperature, or 
abandon the effort to raise trout at that station. It was, there- 
fore, decided to ask for an appropriation deemed probably 
sufficient for the purpose of sinking a well. The amount 
asked for was $600, and this was granted. 

As soon as practicable, after the money became available, 
bids for sinking the well were invited. Several bids were re- 
ceived, but all of them were much in excess of that accepted. 

After the bids were opened. May 16, 1902, a contract w^as 
concluded with F. A. Champlin of East Longmeadow for sink- 
ing the well. This contract, signed June 9, 1902, provided 
for the sinking of a well that should be sufficiently large above 
the point where a solid ledge was met with to receive an iron 

* We are informed that those engaged in private fish culture have had the same 
experience with their trout, but no one has ventured an explanation of the cause. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— Xo. 25. 31 

pipe or sleeve six inches in inside diameter, this pipe to pass 
far enough into the ledge to prevent seepage or leakage ; the 
diameter of the hole below the foot of the pipe and downwards 
throuo^h the leds^e was to be six inches. 

The price agreed upon was as follows : ' ' The contractor 
agrees to furnish all material and labor necessary to drill a hole 
and sink the pipe heretofore referred to to the ledge, and into 
the same sufficient to prevent drainage, for the sum of two 
dollars per foot, and to drill a hole six inches in diameter into 
the ledge to the depth desired for the sum of two dollars and 
twenty-five cents per foot." 

The work of sinking the well was slightly delayed, but it 
was begun June 20, and continued practically without inter- 
ruption until its conclusion. A few feet below the surface 
stone was encountered, and this continued practically without 
interruption or change, except in the character of the strata, 
which varied somewhat. 

The well was sunk to a depth of 275 feet, which exhausted 
the sum that had been appropriated for it. 

Hopes were entertained that, before this, a flow of water 
might be struck which would have considerable force. This 
was not the case, how^ever, and such flow as was met with was 
more in the nature of seepage than a distinct stream, — a con- 
dition not uncommon with artesian wells in this region we 
understand, although the contour of the hills would indicate 

The spot where the well was sunk was at the extreme corner 
of the State land in the rear of the hatchery, and toward the 
hill lying back of it. There the ground is about 22 to 25 feet 
higher than the water outlet at the hatchery. This was suffi- 
cient decline to justify the hope that the water in the well could 
be taken into the hatchery by a siphon without difficulty. The 
several attempts made by Commissioner Delano to accomplish 
this proved unsatisfactory, however, and finally it was deter- 
mined to dig a ditch for a pipe that should lead direct from the 
hatchery to the well pipe, which was tapped twelve feet below 
the top. This permits the w^ater to flow from the well into the 
hatchery troughs by gravitation, insures steadiness of flow and 
obviates any danger of freezing. The flow is limited to twelve 

32 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

gallons per minute, which, it is assumed, may always be relied 
upon at any season. To this extent a supply of water for 
hatching is assured, but this amount will not prove an impor- 
tant factor for raising fingerlings, for which it was much needed. 

Purchase of Land. — For the past two years or thereabouts 
the commission has, through the courtesy of the owner,* en- 
joyed the privilege of using, free of rent, some land adjoining 
that owned by the State at Sutton. This land, while not spe- 
cially valuable for general purposes, was of a swampy nature 
and filled with springs, hence its possession by the commission 
as a source of w^ater supply was of the utmost consequence to 
the fish-cultural w^ork, particularly the raising of fingerlings. 
Indeed, it is not too much to say that the continuation of the 
work of raisins: fino^erlins: trout and salmon at the Sutton 
hatchery, on the scale planned, would not have been practicable 
except for the control of the water supply from the land referred 
to. At the same time it is but just to say that this land may 
prove highly serviceable for other purposes, such as the rearing 
of game birds and animals, in the event it is found desirable 
to develop this line of efi*ort to a greater extent at the station. 

Money having been appropriated for the purpose at the last 
session of the Legislature and proper authorization given, the 
commission purchased two small lots of land adjoining that it 
had before, the w-hole aggregating three and three-quarters 
acres, for which the sum of $225 was paid. 

The acquirement of these lots, aside from the advantages 
already specified, rounds out and completes the area owned by 
the State at Sutton, and in this particular alone vastly im- 
proves it for any purpose for which it may be required by the 
commission. It is now practicable to develop this station to 
its fullest capacity, with the confidence that ownership gives, 
and the assurance of success which is inspired by the knowl- 
edge that well-devised plans may not be interfered with 
because of lack of tenure, or uncertainty concerning it. 

Fencing State Land at Sutton Hatchery. — For some time 
past the success of the attempt to raise fingerling and yearling 

* Until this year, when a definite survey was made, it was supposed that the 
land in question was the property of more than one owner, and so confident was 
every one concerned that such was the case that the fact was stated in our last 
report that we were indebted to two owners. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 33 

trout and salmon at the Sutton station has been jeopardized, 
in a measure, by the lack of any means to prevent flocks of 
domestic ducks from frequenting the trout-rearing pools, 
where they were liable to destroy many young fish. There 
was also constant danger that cattle might make incursions on 
to the State land, upset the small coops or boxes where pheas- 
ant eggs were in course of incubation, or destroy valuable 
young trees, the material grown to feed pheasants, or orna- 
mental shrubs or flowers. For these reasons the hatchery 
grounds have been fenced on three sides this year with 110 
yards of Page wire fencing five feet high. This was done 
before the purchase of the new addition to the hatchery land, 
and the fence was extended only far enough to keep out cattle 
and ducks for the present. What has been done is a much- 
needed improvement, but the purpose is to ultimately enclose 
the whole tract of land with a wire fence, and to that extent 
seclude the fish, plants, etc., from injury or interference. 

The labor attendins; the buildino' of this fence, owino- to 
conditions of soil, etc., was very hard on the hatchery force of 
two men, who did this in addition to their routine duties. A 
similar fence is needed at Hadley. 

Ponds stocked. — Nineteen great ponds of the State have 
been stocked with food fish, and the fisheries in seventeen of 
them have been reofulated in accordance with section 19, 
chapter 91 of the Eevised Laws. Except for action due to 
unusual conditions, and for which the commission was not 
responsible, twenty ponds w^ould have been stocked, which 
would have equalled the number stocked and closed last year. 

FolloYving are the names and locations of the ponds, to- 
gether with the species of fish put into them : — 

Onota Lake, Pittsfield ; Cranberry Pond, Spencer ; and 
Hardwick Pond, Ware, were each stocked with rainbow trout 
and landlocked salmon ; Pentucket Pond and Rock Pond, 
Georgetown ; Queen Lake, Phillipston ; Whalom Pond, Lunen- 
burg ; and Snows Pond, Ware, were stocked with rainbow 
trout alone. White perch were put into Little Sandy Pond, 
Pembroke ; Maquan Pond, Hanson ; Milford Pond, Sw^ansea ; 
Scaddings Pond, Taunton ; Winnecunnet Lake, Norton ; 
Dennis Pond, Yarmouth; Stiles Pond, Boxford; North Pond, 
Orange ; and Middle Pond, North Dana. 



The rainbow trout and salmon put into the ponds were 
fingerlings, and the white perch were nearly of adult size, 
being much larger than are commonly used for such purpose, 
due in part at least to the fact that the}^ were caught a full 
month or more later in the season than is customary. 

Uniform regulations have been applied to the ponds and 
lakes above mentioned. These regulations prohibit, for three 
years from date of issuance, "all fishing from the first of 
November to the first of June of each year." Fishing is per- 
mitted, however, '*with single hook and handline,.or line 
(with single hook) attached to a rod or pole held in the hand, 
on Monday, Wednesday and Saturday of each week, from the 
first day of June to the first day of November of each year," 
while the regulations are in force. A penalty of twenty dol- 
lars for violation of these regulations has been fixed by the 

The attempt of the commission to stock Harris Pond, in 
Methuen, was defeated, because the selectman, who directed the 
planting of the white perch sent there, had the fish put into the 
water on an overflowed meadow not connected with the pond. 
On this account no regulations could be applied to Harris 

Long Pond, Wellfleet, and Pocksha Pond, Rock, were 
stocked, but no regulations were applied to them. 

Several ponds have been stocked with landlocked smelt. 
Mr. Merrill, superintendent of the Sutton hatchery, reported 
upon this as follows : — 

On April 8, 1902, I, iu compaDy with Mr. Luman, went to Poor 
Farm Brook to get smelt eggs. Evidence was found that the fish 
had spawned iu the stream in great numbers. Beginning at a point 
just above the back water from the lake, for a long distance up the 
stream, probably 15 rods, the bottom of the stream, except in a few 
holes, was sheeted with spawn, in some places several layers deep. 
The number deposited must have been hundreds of millions. Evi- 
dence was seen that thousands of fish were destroyed, for they were 
scattered all along the banks of the stream and lay in heaps in the 
dead water at the lower part of the stream. Information given by 
inmates of the city farm and electric car men indicated that large 
numbers were caught until notice was given out that the catching of 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 35 

them was illegal. During the latter part of the run the stream was 
watched by the inmates of the city farm and fishermen were warned 
away. It is reported that the smelt spawned in Mud Pond Brook 
and Coal Mine Brook as freely as they did in Poor Farm Brook. 
Fifty thousand eggs were collected and planted in Lake Chaubuna- 
gungamaug in the town of Webster, and 50,000 in Forest Lake in 
the town of Palmer, by Mr. Luman. On April 12, 125,000 were 
collected and planted in Dority Pond in the town of Millbury, 
75,000 in Singletary Lake in the town of Millbury, 25,000 in Cog- 
gins Reservoir in Sutton and 25,000 in Ripple Lake in Grafton. 

The object of stocking these ponds with smelt was, primarily, 
to provide a natural food for landlocked salmon. It is alto- 
gether probable, however, that the smelt may prove a desirable 
food for other species, notably bass, perch and trout. It is 
also a fine food fish, and, though it is diminutive in size, it can 
furnish some sport, if very fine tackle is used. 

The method of stocking w^as simply to transfer eggs from the 
streams that empty into Lake Quinsigamond to the ponds men- 
tioned. Nothing more is required. 

It was planned to stock several ponds this year with pike 
perch, and a request for a large number of eggs was sent to 
the United States Fish Commission. Unfortunately, however, 
owning probably to the temporary absence of the commissioner 
and some clerical error, the application was misplaced, with 
the consequence that no eggs of this species were received by 
this commission. This was a serious disappointment and is to 
be regretted, especially in view of the fact that except for this 
unexpected happening there is no question but a liberal assign- 
ment of pike perch eggs would have been sent us. 

The heavy mortality to rainbow trout, and consequent reduc- 
tion of the number of fingerlings available for distribution, 
made it impracticable to do more with this species than was 
done. There w^ere no fish of this kind to put into other ponds, 
hence the intent to supplement the stock in other waters had 
to be abandoned. 

Many of the ponds stocked this year and the two previous 
years are becoming, more and more, favorite resorts in sum- 
mer for those fond of fishing^ and boatino-. For this reason 
there is a growing demand for stocking ponds and regulating 

36 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the fishing in them, since any increase in fish makes them 
doubly attractive and correspondingly valuable to the com- 
munity where they are located. The fact that forty-nine 
ponds have been stocked in three years is sufficient evidence 
of public feeling in relation to this matter. 

Pond leased, — The commission leased Farm Pond, so 
called, in Cottage City, Dukes County, to Thomas D. Crowell 
for a term of eleven years, from May 7, 1902. This lease was 
made in conformity to chapter 283, Acts of 1902. 

BrooTcs stocked and closed. — Petitions for stocking three 
streams and regulating the fishing therein, in accordance with 
section 5, chapter 91 of the Eevised Laws, have been received. 
It was found that one of these streams, Lily Brook, at Cohasset,. 
is liable to run dry in summer, and for this reason no attempt 
was made to stock it. 

The two streams stocked were the Shawsheen River in the 
town of Tewksbury, and Fort Meadow Brook, Marlborough. 
One thousand fingerling brown trout were planted in the 
former, and 2,000 yearling brook trout were placed in the 
Marlborouo'h brook. 

These streams are closed to all fishing for three years, with 
the following exceptions: fishing is permitted '*with single 
hook and handline, or line (with single hook) attached to rod 
or pole held in the hand, on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday 
of each week durino; the trout-fishino' season for the year 
ending Dec. 1, 1905." Penalty for violation of regulations 
is 120^'. 

Li addition to the above-mentioned distribution of fish under 
the statute referred to, 1,000 yearling brook trout were put 
into Flat Brook, Ware, and 1,000 of the same kind of fish in 
Stock Company's Meadow Brook, at Wrentham. Flat Brook 
was first stocked last year, but inasmuch as the fish then 
planted were insufficient, it was deemed necessary to restock it 
this year, in accordance with a plan adopted in reference to- 
brooks. Stock Company's Meadow Brook had also been pre- 
viously stocked, and the fish put into it this year completes the 
trout deposits in that stream, under the special act referred to. 

Rivers stocked. — In recent years the commission has limited 
its fish-cultural efi"orts to stocking brooks and ponds, and for 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMEXT — Xo. 2b. 37 

some time nothing has been done to stock the rivers, due to 
the unsatisfactory results obtained from stocking the Merrimac 
with salmon and the Connecticut witli shad. This 3'ear, how- 
ever, a renewed effort has been made to improve the conditions 
of fish life in some of the smaller rivers, although the hopeless- 
ness of securins: anvthinor like encouraorino^ results in either the 
Merrimac or Connecticut is still too apparent to warrant any 
attempt to stock either of them. 

Large plants of shad have been made this year in the head 
waters of the Xorth Eiver and the Taunton Great River, and 
brown trout fingerlings have been put into Miller's River and 
the Shawsheen River. 

It is believed the brown trout, which attains to large size 
under favorable conditions, may thrive in these rivers much 
better than the native brook trout, and, perhaps, may su^^ply 
good fishing in a few years where now there is practically 
nothing to tempt the angler. 

While X^orth River and Taunton Great River are not entirely 
exempt from obstacles to the increase of fish, there is reason 
to believe shad may thrive in them, and may be able to reach 
their spawning grounds at the head waters by means of the fish- 
ways or otherwise. If this reasonable anticipation is realized, 
the efi'ort made to stock these streams this year, which it is 
proposed to repeat in subsequent years, if practicable, may 
prove of much consequence in establishing a profitable shad 
:fishery within the limits of this State. The fact that immense 
numbers of young shad were seen at Middleborough in October 
on their way down Taunton Great River, and that many thou- 
sands were seen descending Xorth River, is at least encouraging. 

Examination of Ponds. — The examination of ponds by the 
chairman has been continued, and every opportunity has been 
improved to secure such data as seem necessary to insure proper 
^nd intelligent action in stocking these waters. It is evidently 
of the highest importance that there should be available knowl- 
edge of the conditions in the great ponds of the State in order 
that the work undertaken for the betterment of the fish life in 
them may be well expended, and that the public may be cor- 
respondingly benefited. Much has been done in this direction 
during the summers of 1900 and 1901, as well as this year, and 

38 FISH AND GAME. [Dec, 

a continuance of this system will ultimately put into the hands 
of the commission facts concerning practically all the ponds in 
the State. 

Fifteen ponds have been examined during the period covered 
by this report. There was an earnest desire to extend this 
work farther, but the very limited time for it after the adjourn- 
ment of the Legislature (before which it could not be under- 
taken), and the many demands in other directions, made 
impossible further accomplishment in this direction. In one 
instance, as noted, a satisfactory examination could not be 
made because no boat could be secured. Followinsf are con- 
cise statements of the conditions deemed most important for 
the purpose indicated, so far as ascertained in the ponds visited 
or examined : — 

Kound Pond, Tewksbury : The principal species of fish in 
this pond are pickerel, pout or catfish, yellow perch and 
shiners. The bottom is chiefly soft mud. The pond is 
largely covered with lily pads. The surface temperature on 
July 23 was 74° F. ; 66^ at 13 feet, which was the maximum 
depth found. 

Rock Pond, Georgetown : The most noticeable species of 
fish in this pond are black bass, yellow perch, pickerel, white 
perch, catfish, sunfish or roach and shiners. There is gener- 
ally a scarcity of fish in the pond, though yellow perch and 
pickerel are reputed to be most abundant. While it is stated 
that there are white perch in the pond, they are so scarce that 
some doubt their presence there. The bottom of the deeper 
parts is soft mud, at least over a large area, but there are 
patches of sand, gravel and stones around the edges of the 
pond. Scragg Brook and Eock Brook run into the pond. The 
surface temperature on July 29 was 76° F. The temperature 
at difi*erent depths was as follows: 71° at 12 feet; 68° at 14 
feet, and 6Q^ at 17 feet, which was the maximum depth ob- 

Pentucket Pond, Georgetown : The same varieties of fish 
found in Rock Pond also occur in Pentucket Pond, which is 
connected with the former by a small stream. On July 29, 
when the pond was visited, one man had caught 22 pickerel, 
but they were all of small size, the largest not exceeding 2^ 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCOIEXT — Xo. 25. 39- 

pounds to 3 pounds in weight. There is a soft mud bottom 
through the centre of the pond in the deeper areas, but patches 
of gravel and pebbles near the shore. Xo brook runs into 
this pond excepting the one which connects it with Rock 
Pond, but a brook flows out to Parker River. Surface tem- 
perature was 76^ ; temperatures at various depths as follows : 
68° F. at 24 feet and hard bottom ; 62° at 27 feet, which was 
the maximum depth found. 

Bald Pate Pond, Boxford : The leading varieties of fish in 
this pond are black bass, pickerel, white and yellow perch, 
catfish or pout and shiners. Shiners are reputed to be scarce, 
but there is a fair abundance of black bass and pickerel. 
There are patches of greater or less extent of gravel and peb- 
bles near the shore, but the bottom in the centre of the pond, 
or in the deeper portions, is soft mud. The surface tempera- 
ture on July 29 was 76° F. ; 58^ in 27 feet, 54° in 34 feet, 
and 52° in from 36 to 40 feet, which were the maximum 
depths obtained. One brook runs into this pond at its head, 
near the so-called poor farm, and one flows out of it at the 
opposite end. 

Whalom Lake, Lunenburg : This fine pond has in recent 
years become a favorite resort of many people during the 
summer season. The principal species of fish are pickerel, 
black bass, yellow perch, catfish or pout, sunfish and shiners. 
Perch are reputed to be most abundant, but practically all 
species are scarce. The character of the bottom is varied, 
there being patches of rocks, pebbles, gravel and mud. It is 
more or less grassy over a considerable area. Xo lily pads 
were seen at the time of examination, on September 5. The 
maximum depth of 40 feet was obtained at a point near the 
outlet, but the average depth was about 15 feet. The tem- 
peratures obtained on September 5 were a^ follows : surface, 
730 F. ; at a depth of 17 feet, 70° ; 32 feet, 59°; 40 feet, 55°. 

Massapoag Pond, Lunenburg : This is a shallow pond with 
comparatively high temperature. The principal species offish 
are pickerel, black bass, yellow perch, catfish and sunfish. 
Catfish or pout are comparatively abundant in spring, but all 
species are reputed to be scarce. Bass are seldom taken. It 
has a soft muddy bottom over the greater part of its extent,. 

40 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

but there are stones, gravel and sand around the shores. The 
bottom is covered with patches of grass, and there are lily pads 
in places, making it apparently a good pond for pickerel, and 
probably white perch or black bass might thrive there. The 
maximum depth obtained was 13 feet, with a soft muddy 
bottom. The temperatures on September 5 were as follows : 
surface, 76^ F. ; depth of 13 feet, 70^. 

Cattacoonamaug Pond or Shirley Reservoir, Lunenburg : 
This pond, which has been much enlarged by flowage, is charac- 
terized by a remarkable number of bays and coves and by long 
narrow points jutting out into it. It is shallow over a large 
area, but is comparatively deep in that section which was for- 
merly the natural pond. The maximum depth obtained was 
36 feet, but at the time of examination the pond was about 6 or 
7 feet below its maximum height. The principal species of 
j&sh are black bass, pickerel, yellow perch, sunfish, and pout or 
catfish. The bottom was muddy in the greater depths, with 
patches of pebbles and gravel along the shore in some places. 
No lily pads were observed. The temperatures obtained on 
September 5 were as follows : air, 67° F. ; surface, 73° ; at a 
depth of 13 feet, 62° ; at 19 feet, 58° ; and at 36 feet, 52°. 
This pond furnishes a water supply for mills, but not for 
towns. It was originally a great pond of the State, but, as 
already indicated, its area has been materially increased by 
flowao^e so that it is claimed it covers a thousand acres when 
completely full. 

Onota Lake, Pittsfield : This is a large, fine pond much 
resorted to for fishing, especially in summer, when it is highly 
prized by the citizens of Pittsfield. It is reputed to have a 
depth approximating 100 feet, but the maximum depth obtained 
in the examination made on September 9 was 65 feet. The 
principal species o/ fish are pickerel, black bass, bull-heads or 
catfish, yellow and white perch. The pond was stocked in 
1892 with white perch and other varieties and about 1895 with 
carp. It has also been stocked with rock bass which, though 
plentiful, are little appreciated. It is claimed that black bass 
are not taken in abundance, but that the fishing for pickerel 
and bull-heads is fairly good. The bottom is varied in its 
characteristics. In the shallower areas it is covered with a 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUIVIENT — Xo. 25. 41 

profuse growth of aquatic grass. The shores are sandy, rocky 
and pebbly in patches, and soft mud prevails in the deeper 
areas. The temperatures obtained September 9 were as fol- 
lows : air, 72° F. ; surface, 70° ; at a depth of 30 feet, 64° ; 
38 feet, 60° ; 42 feet, 58^ ; 54 to 65 feet, 55° ; and, in one 
place, 56° in 60 feet. There appear to be few, if any, lily 

Pontoosuc Lake, Pittsfield : This pond is also a favorite 
resort for Pittsfield citizens, ])ut is not so large as Onota Lake. 
It is shallow over its entire extent, and markedly so over con- 
siderable areas, especially across the centre, w^here a bar ex- 
tends almost from shore to shore. The depth for the most 
part does not appear to exceed 10 or 15 feet, with a heavy 
growth of aquatic grass on the bottom. The principal species 
of fish are pickerel, black bass, yellow perch and bull-heads. 
The bottom is soft mud in the deeper sections of the pond, but 
there are patches of sand, gravel and pebbles around the shore. 
The temperatures obtained on September 10 were as follows : 
air, 58° F. ; surface, QQ"" ;* at a depth of 10 feet, 66"^ ; at depths 
of 14 feet and 19 feet, 64°. 

Garfield Lake, New Marlborough : This is a beautiful pond 
of large area, with good depths for the most part, deep water 
in places being close to the shores. The maximum depth 
obtained was 30 feet, and this depth extends over a very large 
area, with a uniform temperature of 66° F. The shores of the 
pond are fast becoming favorite resorts in summer. The prin- 
cipal species of fish are black bass,| rock bass, pickerel, yellow 
perch, bull-heads or catfish, sunfish and shiners. This lake 
was formerly noted for the abundance of fish in it, but it is 
claimed that when the pond was drawn down a few years ago 
to some extent by Connecticut manufacturers, who are reputed 
to have control of it as a water supply for running their mills, 

* The surface temperature was doubtless considerably affected by the low air 
temperature at the time the observations were made, and it is probably fair to^ 
assume that in hot days in summer the surface temperature may rise to ap- 
proximately ten degrees or more above that obtained at the time it was taken on 
this occasion. 

t On September 11, when this pond was examined by the chairman of the com- 
mission, a black bass was caught reputed to weigh over five pounds. Another 
bass had been taken a short time previously by Mr. J. H. Parker that weighed 
four and one-half pounds. 

42 FISH AND GAME. ^ [Dec. 

great quantities of fish were allowed to escape from the pond. 
Since that time those who fish there claim that fish have been 
much scarcer than formerly. The principal change, however, 
appears to be observable in the lack of abundance of black 
bass. Pickerel are reputed to be plentiful, perch fairly abun- 
dant and rock bass more numerous than is desirable. The 
bottom of this pond is muddy in spots in the maximum depths, 
but apparently there are large areas of stone, pebbles, gravel 
and sand. In some sections, and especially in. the coves, the 
bottom declines gradually, and there are weeds and lily pads ; 
but in many places it falls off steeply to depths from 20 to 25 feet 
close in to the shore. The temperatures obtained on Septem- 
ber 11 were as follows : air, 70^ F. ; surface, 71° ; at a depth 
of 21 feet, 67° ; and, in depths ranging from 22 to 30 feet, a 
uniform temperature of 66°. 

Johnson's Pond, Boxford : This is a pond of considerable 
extent and generally rather shallow, with depths ranging from 
4 to 7 feet over large areas. Fish are reputed to be scarce. 
The principal species are y^ickerel, black bass, yellow perch, 
bull-heads or catfish, sunfish and shiners. Pickerel are said to 
be most abundant, but, generally speaking, there is a lack of 
plentifulness of fish. The bottom for the most part is covered 
with a rank growth of grass and weeds, but is apparently soft 
mud, gravel and sand. There are some lily pads in the shal- 
low parts. A brook runs into the pond on the northwest 
side. The following temperatures were obtained on Septem- 
ber 16: air, 70° F. ; surface, 70° and 71°; at a depth of 8 
feet, 68° ; at a depth of 27 feet, which was the maximum 
depth obtained, 67°. 

Harris Pond, Methuen : The principal species of fish in 
this pond are pickerel, yellow perch, sunfish and shiners. 
The perch are abundant, but pickerel are small and not very 
plentiful. The bottom is soft mud in the deeper portions, but 
there are patches of hard stones, coarse gravel and sand in 
some sections in depths varying from 10 to 12 feet, and nearer 
shore. Along the shore in some places are pond lilies. The 
maximum depth found was 28 feet. The temperatures obtained 
on September 17 were as follows: air, 68° F. ; surface, 70°; 
at a depth of 10 feet, 68° ; at 27 and 28 feet, 60°. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 43 

Cranberry Pond, Spencer : This pond was visited on Sep- 
tember 18, but, owing to lack of a boat, it was impracticable 
to examine it satisfactorily. The principal species of fish are 
pickerel, yellow perch and pout or bull-heads. The first two 
species are reputed to be abundant. The shores are composed 
chiefly of stones, coarse gravel, pebbles and sand, and it may 
fairly be assumed that the bottom near the shore is more or 
less of this character. The pond is fed by springs, there 
apparently being no stream running into it, but there is a small 
brook that runs from it as an outlet. The temperatures 
obtained were as follows : air, 67° F. ; surface at shore, 6S^ ; 
at a depth of 5 feet, eQ"".* 

Queen Lake, Phillipston : The bottom is rocky for the most 
part, but with patches of gravel and pebbles. The maximum 
depth obtained was 20 feet, although the water at the time of 
examination was about 5 feet below high-water mark. The 
water is very clear. On September 20 the temperature at 
depths of 10 and 12 feet was 62° F., and at 20 feet 61°, 
which was the minimum temperature obtained. The principal 
species of fish in this pond are pickerel, pout or catfish, black 
bass, white and yellow perch. 

Flax Pond, Lynn : This is a fair-sized pond and thickly 
settled on one side, and evidently destined soon to be sur- 
rounded to a greater or less extent with dwellings, and thus be 
included in the comparatively densely settled section of the city 
of Lynn. At the present time it is important as a source of 
recreation to the citizens of Lynn for rowing, sailing and 
fishing, and probably will become increasingly so. It is note- 
worthy for having several shallow bars, some of them extending 
wholly or nearly across the pond. These bars, as a rule, are 
sandy or gravelly, and doubtless afiord good spawning beds for 
certain species of fish. The most important kinds of fish found 
in the pond are pickerel, black bass, white and red perch, horn 
pout or catfish, sunfish and shiners. Pickerel, white perch 
and yellow perch are reputed to be plentiful, but black bass 
and catfish are not so numerous. The bottom, as a rule, is soft 
mud, but gravel and hard sand are found at the east end in 

* This temperature was obtained at the so-called dam, at or near the outlet, 
where there is a depth of 5 feet. 

44 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

from 8 to 12 feet of water. The maximum depth obtained was 
26 feet. A few lily pads were observed in the coves. A 
small, sluggish, stream-like waterway, with apparently no 
flow either one way or the other, connects this pond with 
Spruce Pond. This narrow waterway is apparently badly pol- 
luted by discharge from a leather mill located on its bank. 
The temperatures obtained on September 26, when the pond 
was examined, were as follows : air, 60° F. ; surface, 64° ; at 
a depth of 7 feet, 64° ; at depths ranging from 24 to 26 
feet, 61°. 

Work of the United States Fish Commission, — The output 
of fry from the hatcheries of the United States Fish Commis- 
sion at Woods Hole and Gloucester, during the period covered 
by this report, was undoubtedly the largest in the history of the 
fish-cultural work of the federal government on the coast of 
this State. While the production of cod fry was not equal to 
the output of 1900, it exceeded that of last year, and the work 
of hatching flatfish has reached extraordinary proportions this 

Owing to favorable conditions in the spring, at the very 
beo^innino; of the lobster-hatchins^ season, the result at the 
Gloucester station was largely in advance of that of last year. 
At the Woods Hole station, however, even favorable weather 
could not overcome the conditions resulting from a marked 
decadence in breeding lobsters, consequently there was a fall- 
ing ofl" from last year. 

The statements received from the United States Fish Com- 
mission show that the total yield of the hatcheries at Woods 
Hole and Gloucester was 458,136,000 fry, of which 418,656,- 
000 were planted in the coast waters of Massachusetts. Of 
the number of fry thus added to our waters, 212,001,000 were 
cod, 168,133,000 were flatfish and 38,522,000 were lobsters.* 

The aggregate output of fry from the two hatcheries this 
year exceeded that of last year by upwards of 47 per cent. 
This result should be of much interest to citizens of this Com- 
monwealth, especially those concerned in the prosecution of 
the coast fisheries. 

* Of the lobster fry planted in State waters, 8,170,000 were hatched from eggs 
ohtained outside the State, as will be shown in detail elsewhere. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 45 

The following detailed statements, furnished by the United 
States Fish Commission, clearly indicate the points along the 
coast of this State where cod and flatfish fry have been dis- 
tributed, the numbers of each planted, and the totals produced 
at the hatcheries : — 

Statement of Cod and Flatfish hatched and planted in Massachusetts Waters by 
the Gloucester and Woods Hole Stations of the United States Commission 
of Fish and Fisheries, during the Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1902. 

Cod. YTy. 

Woods Hole great harbor, Woods Hole, . . . 1,257,000 

Vineyard Sound: 

Robinsons Hole, 32,265,000 

Tarpaulin Cove, 69,574,000 

Nashewena Island, 16,315,000 

Quicks Hole, 5,231,000 

Off French watering place, 3,132,000 

Hadley harbor, 1,036,000 

Atlantic Ocean : 

Gloucester, 60,033,000 

Rockport 23,158,000 

Total, 212,001,000 

Woods Hole great harbor, Woods Hole, 
Eel Pond, Woods Hole, 
Waquoit Bay, Waquoit, 

Hadley harbor, 

Buzzards Bay, Monument Beach, 






Total, 168,133,000 

It seems scarcely necessary to invite attention to the impor- 
tant proportions of this work and its possible efiect on the 
fishing industries of the State, for no one can fail to be im- 
pressed with its consequences to those who depend on the 
fisheries. Details of the distribution of lobster fry will be 
found in the chapter on lobsters. 

In other chapters mention is made of the eggs and fry of 
fresh-water species contributed by the United States Fish 
Commission for stocking our inland waters. 

Fishivays. — There has apparently been less occasion for 
active work this year in the matter of fishways than at any time 


during the past two years. Nevertheless, considerable time 
has been devoted to it, and examination has been made of 
dams, etc., in every case where it has been represented that 
action should be taken. Thus, although it has been found 
necessary to order the building of comparatively few fish ways, 
much other work has been done in the way of procurement of 
data. In several cases no action has been taken for very good 
reasons, and in other instances help was given in the adjust- 
ment of fishways, etc., as the circumstances demanded. 

Complaints came to the commission in the spring that the 
fishway at Weir Eiver, so-called, in Yarmouth, was not working 
satisfactorily, and also that there was some trouble about ale- 
wives getting up Herring Eiver at Mars tons Mills. As a 
result of this Commissioner Delano visited the fishway at Weir 
River on April 28, and his examination and suggestions re- 
sulted in a satisfactory arrangement for the passage of fish. 
He also went to Marstons Mills on May 2 and made arrange- 
ments with parties there to have a screen put in and other 
changes made which would enable the alewives to get through 
to the pond without difficulty and without going through the 
cranberry bogs. 

A numerously signed letter, inviting the attention of the 
commission to Neponset River, so far as the fishways are con- 
cerned, was received late last autumn. As soon as practicable 
a careful examination was made by the commissioners of the 
dams on the Neponset River, and of the condition of the river 
itself. There are several dams at Milton and farther up the 
river where there are no fishways ; but the river is so badly 
polluted with the material poured into it from the mills along 
its banks that the investigation led to the conclusion that the 
establishment of fishways would be of no practical use, since it 
is not believed that fish can live in a stream in such a condition 
as the Neponset River is in above Milton. For not only was 
the water thick and filthy to look upon, but the stench of the 
river in certain reaches was offensive to a degree, the filth pol- 
luting the water so completely that it must be deleterious to 
health as well as an impracticable barrier to fish. 

The chairman and Commissioner Delano visited the stream 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 47 

at Kingston during the spring and examined a well-designed 
fishway, then nearly completed, that was being built by the 
town for the passage of alewives. Another site farther up the 
stream Avas examined but no official action was taken, for 
the reason that it was understood the owner would voluntarily 
build a fishway. 

The dam at Howlett's mill in Saugus and the water gate on 
the sluiceway between Saugus River and Hawkes Pond — both 
under the control of the water board of the city of Lynn — 
were examined, and measurements were made upon which to 
design fishways in the event that the water board decides it is 
more advisable to construct them than to adopt other measures, 
such, for instance, as tearing down the old dam at Howlett's 
mill, and thus permitting the passage of fish up the natural 

Prevention of Stream Pollution. — The work of enforcing the 
law (section 8, chapter 91, Eevised Laws) relating to the pol- 
lution of streams ])y sawdust has been continued with the same 
vigor that has characterized it during the previous two years. 

Orders prohibiting the discharge of sawdust were sent to the 
following mill owners during 1902: M. E. Hildreth & Co., 
Petersham; Enoch Foster, Tewksbury; W. O. Loveland, A. 
A. Carr and Albert M. Wilder, Ashby ; William F. Symmes, 
Billerica; O. Ames & Sons, Daniel B. Davis and Algernon 
S. Lyon, West Bridge water ; the Rugby Chair Manufacturing 
Company and the Union Chair Company, Sterling; Bellows 
& Bradford, Clarksburg ; Lucius S. Lawless, New Salem ; 
Bowen, Hadley & Co. and Thomas Laporte, Templeton ; 
David Shorer and John Yanstone, Prescott; D. A. Witter, 
George Thomas and J. C. & W. F. Hay den, Otis ; Henry 
W. Soule, Tolland ; heirs of the estate of N. L. Pratt and 
the Johnson Lumber Company, Sudbury ; Gilbert Bradford, 

Li some cases the owners thus notified operate two or three 
mills each, hence the number of mills affected by the order is 
larger than the list of firms and individuals owning them ; thtis 
the orders sent to the owners applied at least to twenty-six 

48 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

It is somewhat remarkable that this section of the commis- 
sion's work, so far as the number of orders served and the 
number of mills affected, exactly parallels that of the previous 

In three years — 1900, 1901 and 1902 — the discharge of 
sawdust into streams from sixty-seven mills has been prohib- 
ited, and the application of the law to this form of pollution of 
trout brooks and rivers has now become so sreneral that the 
evil consequent upon filling the brooks with sawdust has been 
reduced to a minimum and little more remains to be done to 
obliterate it. 

With this menace to fish life removed, and liberal stocking 
with fish, the streams should regain something of their pristine 
importance in supporting a numerous progeny of trout, — alike 
valuable for food and as a means of healthful recreation. The 
rehabilitation of the trout streams in many of the out-of-the- 
way places, thus making them a special source of attraction to 
those who delight to angle, is of larger consequence to those 
sections than may appear at first thought. Those who have 
carefully considered the matter are convinced that, even in 
Massachusetts, the only present prospect for material im- 
provement in certain localities lies in an increase of their 
natural attractions ; more especially those relating to fish and 

If persons of wealth who are fond of fishing are influenced 
to spend a portion of each year in some locality because con- 
ditions are favorable to the enjoyment of their favorite sport, 
the. people of the town are benefited. The actual money value 
of fish as placed upon the market is one thing, and may be far 
short of large importance. But, in such cases, the real practi- 
cal consequence of fish in the waters may be justly based upon 
the amount of money put into circulation by sportsmen, by the 
increase of demand for farmers' products, by the employment 
of labor, by enhancement of value of real estate because of 
residences built, or purchases of estates, and by the money 
that unavoidably flows through many other avenues to benefit 
local residents when natural attractions in country districts 
are sufficient to draw those who, as temporary visitors or 
builders of estates, have it in their power to promote the wel- 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMEXT — Xo. 25. 49 

fare of towns where there is seemingly no other opportunity to 

Many of the water-driven sawmills in this State are situated 
in localities where the available supply of timber is more or 
less nearly exhausted, and where the chief natural asset, so far 
as a source of attraction is concerned, is found in the brooks, if 
they can be preserved from pollution and be restored to a fish- 
supporting condition. 

To achieve this end is the evident purpose of the law, and 
even if the question of danger to health resulting from impure 
water should be ignored,* the action taken by the commission 
in the effort to save the trout streams from further deteriora- 
tion must be deemed justifiable. 

The objection to the enforcement of this law^ naturally 
resulted in a determined efi'ort on the part of certain sawmill 
owners to secure the repeal of the law, in part at least, at the 
last session of the Legislature. This attempt failed. 

One feature attending the enforcement of the law^ relating to 
sawdust pollution which aflfords occasion for gratification is the 
fact that, in many instances, the ow^ners of mills have found it 
practicable to dispose of the sawdust, sometimes at consider- 
able profit. In this way they have been saved from any actual 
loss, — always a matter of grave concern when people are 
working on small capital and wath a limited margin of profit, — 
and in some cases there is reason to believe they have been 

* Although the peril to health resulting from sawdust pollution may be less 
than is caused hy the unrestricted discharge of many poisonous substances into 
streams from various other mills and manufactories, it is, nevertheless, no mere 
figment of the brain to declare that decaying sawdust, which, when stirred, emits 
gases and a stench almost unbearable, is a menace to human health as well as to 
fish life. An instance of this kind was found this year on the Shawsheen River, 
where dead or dying fish floated down stream or lay rotting along the banks, — 
indisputable evidence of the effect of sawdust pollution, in the face of which the 
claim that the pouring of sawdust into a stream is harmless to fish life must be 
dismissed as misleading if not purposely fictitious. 

The Shawsheen River was investigated by the commission and the conditions 
found there, as a result of filling the stream with sawdust, fully demonstrated the 
evil and the peril of continuing this practice. Although the summer was far from 
oppressively hot, as is well known, the masses of decaying sawdust that lay on the 
bottom, or that had been swept by the current against the sides of the stream, con- 
stantly emitted gas, which rose in bubbles to the water surface and burst. The 
stench of the sawdust was remarkable when the mass was stirred, and one could 
not wonder that the water was too heavily charged with poisonous gases for fish 
to live in it. 

50 FISH AND GAME. [Dec, 

financially benefited as a consequence of the enforcement of a 
measure believed by most of those concerned to be a positive 
hardship. This phase of the adaptation of man to new condi- 
tions, and the acquirement of profit where no trade was 
deemed feasible, is at least interesting, especially when con- 
sidered in the light of a desire to inflict as little hardship as 
possible upon those most directly afi'ected by the law, without^ 
at the same time, shirking either duty or responsibility. 

It is not practicable within available limits to discuss here the 
questions which cause a marked divergence of view concerning 
the individual and public rights invalved in this question. 
Were it otherwise, a consideration of this subject might be 
justified, for the reason that a clearer idea of relative rights 
might thus be gained by many, and no doubt much bitter feel- 
ing that now exists toward the law, believed by some to have 
been enacted solely in the interest of the idle or rich and 
against the interests of those struggling to earn their bread by 
the sweat of their brow, would be modified or entirely removed. 
Nevertheless, hope may be cherished that a better feeling may 
develop ; that even the farming communities may realize 
the advantage of preserving the purity of the streams, and 
likewise that law for the prevention of stream pollution was 
intended for the greatest good for the greatest number and is 
being enforced with that end in view, as well as a matter of 

Pond and Brook Fishing, — The notes extracted from the 
reports of deputies in various parts of the State, and classified 
under three heads, embody much information concerning the 
condition of fish and fishing in the several localities of the 
eastern, central and western sections of the Commonwealth. 
They also indicate unmistakably the influence of artificial 
stocking with fish, and the regulations imposed by the commis- 
sion under special acts. As will be seen, an increase of fish 
is noted in a large majority of cases, and since the restoration 
of life in our inland waters is almost wholly dependent upon 
fish culture and the enforcement of protective laws, the impor- 
tance of those phases of the commission's work will be 
apparent. If, instead of being more or less barren and unat- 
tractive, our ponds and streams can be brought to a condition 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCU:\IENT — Xo. 25. -51 

which will cause them to yield large quantities of food, in 
addition to furnishing much healthful recreation, it is difficult 
to over-estimate the public benefit to be derived from the change. 

Among the statements made in the extracts which follow, 
those relating to the pike perch are peculiarly noteworthy. In 
introducing this species into our ponds in 1900 and 1901 there 
was of necessity an element of doubt concerning it. Xo one 
could say with certainty that it would live in the ponds, with 
their conditions of temperature, etc., while it was impossible 
to be free from apprehension of the effect of predatory attacks 
by other species, notably the pickerel. If, then, the state- 
ments made concerning the pike perch can be fully credited 
(and we see no reason for doubting them), there is reason for 
much encouragement, so far as its introduction is concerned : 
for not only is it a good food and game species, that attains a 
considerable size, but it is prolific and can be bred in large 
numbers. When adult fish become reasonably abundant in our 
ponds it will be easy for the commission to collect all the pike 
perch eggs it needs, and then many millions of fry can be pro- 
duced from Massachusetts fish for stocking the ponds. While 
this result may not be realized immediately, it is far from 
visionary to expect it in the not distant future. 

The smelt and smelt fishing is included under this head for 
the reason that this species is anadromous, running into the 
brooks during its spawning season, and also because in recent 
years it has attracted anglers to a considerable extent. Its 
unusual abundance this year, and its well-known excellence as 
a food product, have no doubt caused it to be angled for by 
sportsmen to a larger extent than common. 

The first group of extracts which follow deals with conditions 
in the eastern section of the State : — 

White perch are large and plentiful. — D. R. Simmons, Cochesett. 

There has never been for many years such an abundant catch of 
smelts by fishermen and sportsmen as there has been for the present 
season. It has been reported that men have caught as high as 
seventy-five pounds in one day with hook and line. — Charles N. 
Hunt, Quincy. 

Smelts have been very plenty. — Frank Serrtlla, Boston. 

52- FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The run of smelts was about the same as last year, although the 
catches have not been as large. — W. I. James, Hingham. 

Bass, pickerel, perch and smelt fishmg have been good, but trout 
are very scarce. — Otis Thayer, Quincy. 

Trout fishing was very good this season. Bass fishing was most 
excellent and of good size. — Ethan Bothwell, Northborough. 

Fishing here has been good this year. — G-eorge Williams, Lynn- 

Some excellent catches of pickerel and black bass were made [in 
Horn Pond] in the early part of the season, showing favorable results 
from closing the pond through the colder part of the year. From 
my own observations, and also those of others, the pike perch placed 
here [Horn Pond] last year have lived, and have shown that the 
water is adapted to their growth. I have noticed the apparent free- 
dom they seem to enjoy from destruction by larger fish. They have 
grown to five inches or more in length for the first year. — Fred J. 
Brown, Woburn. 

The trout that were put in our streams are doing remarkably well. 
I have caught them weighing over nine ounces apiece, and within a 
week I saw in one spring nineteen that would measure from five to 
eight inches in length. — Herbert E. McIntire, Reading. 

The trout which have been placed in our streams are doing well in 
most of them. — L. E. Reed, South Acton. 

The pike perch that the pond [Wenham Pond] was stocked with 
are growing fast, and will no doubt be a great addition to the fishing 
there. — Fred S. Knowlton, Wenham. 

A few smelt have been caught in Gloucester harbor and Squam 
River this season. In the ponds here perch are plentiful, black bass 
and pickerel fair. Trout fishing is fair. — William W. Nixon, 

Fishermen report fair luck. — E. T. Wildes, Georgetown, 

The fish in the Great Pond are numerous and are still increasing. 
There have been some very nice black bass, pickerel and white perch 
caught this year. — William J. Toohey, North Andover. 

Al a^^ld 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 53 

Argelia Brook has not been fished this year and is full of trout. — 
Louis C Gordon, Groveland. 

I have found very many trout in some of the brooks. — A. J. 
Rausch, Lawrence. 

Trout fishing has been very fair. There have been some good 
catches. — A. J. Kennedy, Lancaster. 

The following excerpts from the AYorcester '* Telegram " of 
April 6, 1902, are of interest here, since they show the favor- 
able conditions at the opening of the fishing season in the 
central section of the State : — 

The first week of the trout season has nearly passed, and easily 
sustains the record promised on the opening day. The season has 
thus far shown the best opening of any trout season in the memory 
of Worcester fishermen. With ordinary weather, the coming weeks 
will be better than the first, and the season will have an earlier and 
better opening than ever. 

But taking everything into consideration, what is and what might 
have been, trout fishermen must acknowledge that a better opening 
was never given them, and a better one could not be asked without 
making a demand that is not consistent with what should be looked 
for in April. 

Not only has brook fishing been excellent, but fishing at the lake 
has proved far beyond expectations. 

Last year none were caught, and those who did not take kindly to 
the plan of stocking the lake laughed at the results. But the catches 
reported this week show the work of the commission of inland fish- 
eries and game was beneficial, and that there are many large- sized 
trout in the lake. 

Deputies report as follows : — 

The trout fry I put into the brook are doing finely, — better than 
I expected. — George Pogue, Grafton. 

Trout are very scarce. — Daniel A. Warren, West Upton. 

Trout fishing has been excellent, and some large catches have been 
reported from streams stocked by the commission. The work done 
by the commission in stocking ponds, lakes and brooks with suitable 
fish is meeting with much approval by citizens, and they are just 
awaking to the fact that it is for their own interest the work is 


being done. I predict that, although the output from the hatcheries 
this year has been a record breaker, the number of applications 
which will come in next season for restocking ponds, lakes and 
brooks will be double in number. — John F. Luman, Palmer. 

I find trout very plentiful, and some fine strings have been taken 
in the western section of the State. — Dennis Shea, Ware. 

Trout were plentiful this year and they should be still more 
abundant next year. — Fred S. Casavant, G-ardner. 

Trout, bass and pickerel fishing has been excellent. — Wm. G. 
NiCHOLL, Northampton. 

The following extracts are from the western section of the 
State : — 

Trout fishing was better this year than last, there being a good 
number of large trout caught. — M. J. -Cranson, Buckland. 

Trout fishing was the best this year in the mountain streams that 
it has been for several years, and the season closed with the brooks 
well stocked with trout of good size. — L. E. Ruberg, Hoosac Tunnel. 

Deputy A. M. Nichols of North Adams, in a postscript to a 
letter dated July 12, 1902, made the following statement : — 

While out at South Williamstown to-day I fished for trout for a 
little while in the New Ashford stream, and out of one hole in about 
three minutes I caught three trout, each weighing one-half pound and 
measuring eleven inches in length. And still they say there is no 
trout over six inches in length in Berkshire. 

In his annual report he says : — 

The trout season has been one of the best that we have had in the 
western part of the State in years, especially in Berkshire County, 
where I have seen more large trout and larger strings than in any 
other section. The sportsmen are greatly in favor of the six-inch 
law in Berkshire the same as the rest of the State. 

On August 17 he wrote : — 

They are now getting nice strings of bass in southern Berkshire. 
A Mrs. Hyde of New York a few weeks ago caught a six-pound bass 
at Stockbridge Bowl. Mr. Parker of Boston got one at Lake Gar- 
field weighing four and a half pounds. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 55 


Notable Features of the Year, — In the varied history of the 
sea fisheries of this State there ha^ seldom been a year more 
remarkable for notable features than 1902. Some of these are 
ascribable to natural causes alone, while others are wholly 
artificial, and, for the most part, of a character which indicates 
progress and justifies anticipations of success, providing the 
fisheries are not handicapped by governmental action. 

The meteorological conditions prevalent in the region chiefly 
frequented by our fishing fleets during 1902, and especially in 
that period of the year — March to November — ordinarily 
termed the '' fishing season " (within the limits of which alone 
several branches of fishery can be pursued, notably the mackerel 
industry), have been extraordinary, if not phenomenal, and it 
is questionable if any such remarkable summer weather has 
been seen since the ever memorable summer of 1816, when ice, 
frost and snow were not unknown in the mid-summer months. 

It is true that the early spring months of this year were mild 
in temperature and not exceedingly windy ; but all through the 
summer, beginning in May, there Avas a remarkable prevalence 
of easterly winds, with frequent blows or gales, varied by heavy 
rain storms, the whole forming a combination which badly in- 
terfered with nearly all kinds of fishing, and proved a serious 
hindrance to certain branches of fishery. More extended ref- 
erence to this will be made in cor;nection with the discussion 
of the mackerel fishery. 

The reintroduction of steam in the prosecution of the mackerel 
fishery is one of the most important events of the year. Allu- 
sion is made to the building of the schooner-rigged, wooden, 
screw steamer '* Alice M. Jacobs," of Gloucester (Fig. 2, 
Plate VI), which was launched in the spring and got away 
rather late for the early southern mackerel fishery. 

Inasmuch as this marks a new era in the deep-sea Atlantic 
fisheries from this State, and because it is an event frauo-ht 
with larger consequence than might at first appear, it seems 
desirable that brief mention should be made of a previous 
attempt to employ steam in the New England mackerel fishery. 

In 1885 the wooden, schooner-rigged, screw steamer 


FISH a:nj) game. 


** Novelty," of Portland (Fig. 1), was built at Kennebunk- 
port, Me., expressly for the mackerel fishery. She was com- 
manded by Capt. Hanson B. Joyce, one of the most noted 
skippers among the mackerel fishermen of New England. 

The vessel was 150 feet long between uprights, 27 feet 
beam, 11.2 feet depth of hold, 291.5 gross tons and 197.46 
tons net tonnage. Her nominal horse-power was 300 and her 
speed about 8 or 9 knots under steam alone. She had a 
moderate sail area, which served to cruise slowly under or as 

Fig, 1.— Mackerel Fishing Steamer " Novelty." 

auxiliary power when sails could be used on a passage. She 
was fitted to carry two seine boats and two seine crews, and in 
every respect but two seemed well adapted to the purpose for 
which she was built. Her steam power was too limited for 
one thing, as judged by recent standards, but this was less of 
an objection than the fact that her deck room was much 
restricted by the long deck house over the engines and boiler. 
In this respect the steamer * 'Alice M. Jacobs" is a distinct 
improvement over the ''Novelty," and also has greater speed, 
notwithstanding her boiler is below deck. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 57 

What fortune might have attended the *' Novelty" under 
normal conditions may now only be conjectured. Unfortu- 
nately, at the time of her advent the mackerel, true to its 
reputation for erratic habits, suddenly became scarce, after a 
season of phenomenal abundance, and for a series of years the 
catch fell off to a remarkable degree. The greatest skill could 
not succeed in making a steamer pay under such circumstances ; 
the enterprise had to be abandoned, and the vessel was finally 
sold to the Haytians for a war cruiser. 

The experiment was not, however, entirely lost, for it taught 
useful lessons, and under happier auspices there can be no 
doubt that it would have proved successful, and the utilization 
of power-driven vessels in the Atlantic food-fish fisheries would 
have been advanced several years in time. 

The specially distinctive features in the <' Jacobs," which 
seem to deserve notice when comparing her with the '' Novelty," 
are the following : — 

1. She has a quarter deck sufficiently raised above the main 
deck to admit of the boiler and engines being installed without 
high deck houses over them, thus securing the maximum of 
deck room, which is always a matter of large consequence to a 
vessel eno'ao'ed in the mackerel fishery. This additional heio^ht 
of deck aft also adds materially to the cabin accommodations. 

2. The "Jacobs" is equipped with an electric plant which, 
in addition to serving various other useful purposes, is of 
special importance when catches of mackerel must be stowed 
away in the ice house at night. 

3. The- pilot house of the " Jacobs" is near the bow of the 
vessel. Its location there, while open to objection on other 
accounts, was deemed necessary by Captain Jacobs, her owner 
and commander, in order that it should obstruct the deck as^ 
little as possible, and also that the important evolution of going 
alongside a seine boat and seine could be conducted with a 
better view of the boat and net than might be obtained from a 
pilot house placed further aft. In this respect the precedent 
set by the menhaden fishermen has been followed. 

The " Jacobs " is not so large as the ** Novelty " was, but is 
large enough for the purpose for which she was built, being 
141 feet 7 inches long over all, 24 feet beam and 12 feet depth 

58 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

of hold, with, (estimated) speed, under steam alone, of 10 to 
11 knots. 

It is only just to say that her advent and success may well 
be watched with much interest, notwithstanding she has been 
badly handicapped by the unfavorable weather that has pre- 
vailed much of the time since she first sailed, and the expense 
of running her has been unduly enhanced because of increase 
of the price of fuel, due to the famous coal strike for which 
this year is noted. 

The addition of a new steel fishing steamer to the fresh hal- 
ibut fleet of this State is an important event, to which reference 
is made elsewhere. 

The extensive employment of naphtha dories in the coast fish- 
eries is one of the most notable occurrences of the year, since 
our fishei'men have profited largely thereby, and thus have had 
an instructive lesson in the advantage to them of using power- 
driven craft in the market fishery. This motive power has 
been applied to a number of shore craft larger than dories, and 
also to several auxiliary schooners, built primarily for the 
mackerel fishery. All of this indicates the growing tendency 
of our fishermen to recognize the demands of the age, which 
call for sustained speed, regardless of fluctuations of wind, and 
the elimination of uncertainty in the transportation to market 
of perishable fares of fish. 

Some of the largest stocks ever earned in the sea fisheries 
make the year a notable one, since these have been the result 
of extraordinary catches and the market demand due to the 
general prosperity of the country. 

A revival of the old-time prosperity in the sperm whale 
fishery is one of the most remarkable happenings in the sea 
fisheries of this State that has occurred in many years. 

The profitable and somewhat extensive utilization of certain 
products heretofore considered comparatively of little value 
suggests a distinctive advance in the intelligent direction of our 
fisheries, which is creating a better appreciation of and demand 
for materials heretofore not valued at their true worth. 

The negotiation of the so-called Hay-Bond fishery treaty, 
whereby, if it is ratified by the Senate, fishery products may 
be admitted free from Newfoundland to the markets of the 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 59 

United States, is fraught with greater possibilities of influence 
upon the fisheries of this State, and indeed of all New England, 
than anything that has transpired in many years ; it may well 
be considered the leading event of the year, so far as its 
probable influence upon the deep-sea fisheries is concerned. 

The strike at Gloucester of fish skinners and packers is be- 
lieved to be without parallel in the history of the fisheries of 
this Commonwealth, in which labor troubles of this kind have 
heretofore been unknown. 

Statistical Returns. — There has been considerable improve- 
ment in the statistical returns of coast fisheries received by the 
commission this year. This is due chiefly to a letter of in- 
structions sent to each fisherman or fishing company, with the 
blanks for returns. The fact that this letter invited special 
attention to the penalty for not making returns of certain fish- 
eries, and that it clearly indicated the duty of the commission 
to enforce the penalty if the law was not complied with, also 
probably caused the returns to come in more promptly than 

That a larger number of fishermen than usual, and especially 
of lobster fishermen, have reported this year, is doubtless due 
to the extra effort that has been made to ascertain the names 
of those who should make returns, so that blanks and letters 
of instructions could be sent them. A personal canvass of the 
coast has been made by deputies of the commission, and the 
name and address of every net and lobster fisherman not 
already on the list have been ascertained, so far as practicable. 
So far as this bears on the lobster fishery, and the number of 
persons employed therein as fishermen, it is probable the data 
in possession of the commission are more nearly accurate than 
have heretofore been obtained by any agency. 

It is regrettable that there are those so entirely regardless 
of law, or the requirements of the State, that some have failed 
to comply with the statute requiring statistical returns of certain 
fisheries. It will probably be necessary to take legal action in 
these cases, if the law is not to be ie^nored altoo-ether, but it 
is assumed that there may be no need of a repetition of this 
in the near future. It is fair to anticipate that, as a result of 
this probable action, whereby law breakers may be taught a 

60 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

useful lesson, and because of the efforts in other directions, the 
statistics gathered will be as nearly correct as it is reasonable 
to expect they should be, and therefore a proper basis for in- 
telligent consideration of these industries. 

Shore Weir and Net Fisheries. — So far as the appearance 
of the mackerel in inshore waters is concerned, this year does 
not differ much from last season. The hopes and anticipations 
of the shore fishermen, prompted as they were by the appear- 
ance of large numbers of mackerel in the early spring on the 
southern fishing grounds, were again doomed to disappoint- 
ment. The rough weather of late spring and early summer 
may account for a much smaller catch of mackerel on the off- 
shore grounds than otherwise might have been the case, but it 
will not explain why the mackerel kept away from Cape Cod 
Bay or other inshore waters, nor has any other satisfactory 
explanation been ofiered, so far as we are aware, for this con- 
tinued absence from the coast of large bodies of this species. 
All that can be said is that this is in harmony with the well- 
known erratic habits of the mackerel, the movements and 
abundance of which vary so greatly, generally from causes 
entirely unknown to man, that the most expert are unable to 
predict correctly concerning it. 

The horse mackerel or tunny has now become highly prized 
as a market fish, selling for prices rivalling those paid for the 
best halibut or other choice species. We are informed by 
Capt. Atkins Hughes, of North Truro, that it has sold for 
$10 to $20 each this season. The tunny is like all of the 
mackerel tribe in the uncertainty of its appearance. It has 
been rather scarce this year, as well as for the previous two 
years, although there have been seasons not long ago when it 
has been abundant in inshore waters. At that time it was less 
fully appreciated than now as an article of food. Its return 
to inshore waters in abundance will not only add materially 
to the income from the shore fisheries, but there is reason to 
anticipate that the species, which is similar to the so-called 
" leaping tuna" of the Pacific, might be eagerly sought by 
anglers, whose presence in the seaside villages should prove 
advantageous to the coast populations. 

The bluefish, another of the mackerel family noted for the 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 61 

erratic traits that distinguish this group of fishes, has been 
rather scarce this year on some of the inshore fishing grounds. 
Except for its well-known peculiarities, its almost entire ab- 
sence from Buzzards Bay (where it is supposed to be protected 
by the prohibition of all net fishing) might be considered re- 
markable, especially in view of the fact that it was reported to 
have occurred on some other sections of the coast in consider- 
able numbers, notably at Nantucket. 

The squeteague or weakfish has still continued in great 
abundance, and has been one of the important objects of in- 
shore fishery, especially by the weir men. 

The bait species — herring, alewives and squid — have been 
among the most important objects of inshore fishery. Although 
quantities of these species are utilized for food, even the squid 
now being in demand to some extent for that purpose, a large 
percentage of herring and squid and many alewives are sold for 
bait. The importance of the bait fishery on the shores of this 
State is of larger importance in making possible the prosecu- 
tion of the deep-sea fisheries than is generally understood, and 
it is practically certain that it will become of greater conse- 
quence with passing years. This assumption is based on the 
fact that every year shows a greater demand for fresh sea fish. 
As a consequence, the ocean fisheries will be prosecuted more 
extensively on grounds within easy reach of the home markets 
and less on distant banks. Therefore, home-caua^ht bait will 
be required in larger quantities, and it is probable there will 
be less dependence on bait obtained in British provincial ports. 
Indeed, conditions are conceivable that will make desirable the 
entire dependence of the deep-sea fishing fleet upon a home 
supply of bait, and a consequent abandonment of the practice 
of seeking bait in foreign ports. In that event — and stranger 
things have happened in this age of progress — these bait fish- 
eries on our own shores will become of paramount importance. 

A feature of the weir and net fishery this year si)ecially 
worthy of mention is the larger utilization for food purposes of 
certain species of fish that heretofore have been deemed of little 
value for the table. 

It is evident that anything of this kind which can be done 
may add materially to the income from fishery, and to that 

62 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

extent it places the industry on a safer and more profitable 

We are creditably informed that the whiting or silver hake 
(^Merlucius bilinearis) caught in the Cape Cod pound nets this 
year has become an important commercial product instead of 
being mostly thrown away, as was the case a short time ago. 
This fish is sweet and nutritious, but will not retain its firm- 
ness long after being taken from the water, hence its value as 
a fresh-fish product has heretofore been inconsequential. It 
having been suggested, however, that the silver hake might 
meet with favor as a salted product the experiment was tried 
with good success. The result has been that fish of this species 
have been purchased in large quantities from the weir men at 
$1 to $2 per barrel, as taken from the water; subsequently the 
fish were beheaded, split down the back and salted in brine, in 
the same manner as mackerel. Apparently a good demand has 
been created for this product, and future years may see large 
sales. It is possible that the silver hake may prove valuable 
as a kippered fish, or cured like finnan baddies. If so, its 
advent in this field will be an important innovation, for it is 
abundant, — has often been superabundant, to the great annoy- 
ance of the weir men, — and its low cost will place it within 
the reach of all. 

Among the fish utilized to a considerable extent is the men- 
haden, which, for the first time, so far as we are aware, has 
been sold fresh in large quantities for food. It has been com- 
monly seen in the markets of Boston, and the demand for it is 
evidenced by the fact that the writer was informed that one 
stand alone sold an average of about 200 menhaden a day, at 
ten cents each. If this is a fair basis for an estimate, the con- 
sumption of this species for food in greater Boston must be 
considerable, since there are large numbers of fish markets in 
the city proper and its suburban municipalities. 

Perhaps the most remarkablp feature of the shore fishery 
this year has been the building of a large fleet of dories fitted 
with gasoline or naphtha engines. These boats range from 25 
feet or less to 35 feet or upward in length. They are round- 
bottomed dories, with considerable over-hang at the bow, nar- 
row, flat bottom, round bilge, flaring sides, a narrow, Y-shaped, 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 63 

strongly raking stern and skag. As a rale, a short space is 
decked at bow and stern and washboards extend along the 
sides. They are generally lap-streak built, few if an}^ l^eing 
carvel built. The power varies somewhat, according to the 
ideas of the fishermen and the speed required, but generally 
a 3 horse-power engine is put on a boat 25 feet long, and a 
4 horse-power engine on a boat 30 feet long. 

The accompanying plans (Plate V.) show the general fea- 
tures of one of these boats built at Lynn, Mass., the present 
year by R. M. Benner, now of East Boston. This was a 
clinker-built, round-sided dory, w^ith the following proportions : 
Length, over all, 32 feet; on bottom, 24 feet; beam, 7 feet 8 
inches; depth amidships, 30 inches. She was fitted wdth a 
4 horse-powder naphtha engine, and her speed is approxi- 
mately 7 knots. These boats are usually planked with three- 
fourth inch cedar; the frames, stem, stern and bottom are hard 
wood, oak being commonly used. 

While boats of this type have been employed generall}^ in 
the shore fisheries, they seem to be most conspicuously adapted 
to the cod fishery from Provincetown, the beam trawl flounder 
fishery at Cape Cod, and the night herring fishery wnth 

For many years during the winter season the cod fishery 
has been pursued in dories from Provincetow^n. The dories 
used were, as a rule, 15 feet long on the bottom and about 20 
feet long over all. They were fitted with sails, — usually a 
single sprit sail, sometimes a jib also, — and with a favoring 
wind these served as an important auxiliary power. But the 
fishing ground commonly resorted to lies off Race Point, six to 
ten miles from the harbor, while the course to it, ovvdng to the 
curve of the Cape, must necessarily be nearly circular. Thus, 
whatever the direction of the wind, such a boat must be row^ed 
more or less, either going to or returning from the fishing 
ground. The progress is therefore slow and laborious under 
the most favorable conditions, and, inasmuch as calms often 
prevail in winter when small boat fishing is practicable, the 
labor is frequently enhanced thereby while the speed is reduced. 
For this reason it has been common for the fishermen to arrive 
late on the fishing ground, quite worn out with their exhaust- 

64 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

ing labor at the oars, and less fitted than they otherwise might 
be for the work of settins; and haulino- trawl lines. 

However, despite the importance of this, it was of less con- 
sequence to the welfare of the fishermen than when their lives 
have been imperilled by a sudden increase of an off'shore wind, 
which made it nearly impracticable for them to reach the shore 
anywhere and thus save their lives, not to speak of returning 
to the harbor with their catch. 

The adoption of the power-driven dories has changed all this. 
The fisherman, knowing the speed of his boat, can calculate to 
a nicety the time required to reach the fishing ground; beside, 
it is not necessary for him to start so early. His boat is 
larger, too, and far safer, especially with a fare of fish on 
board, while the knowledge of her ability to reach the har- 
bor under trying conditions gives greater confidence to brave 
threatening weather, thus increasing the catch considerably. 
In addition, the men reach the fishing ground without having 
overtaxed their strength ; they are always there as soon as it 
is light enough to work, if the morning is fine, and every 
advantage in fishing is thus assured. And when the lines and 
fish are on board, and the boat headed for the harbor and 
market, the time of her arrival is known almost to a minute. 
Even head winds make little difference, and almost no heed is 
given to thick weather. The terrors of this winter boat fishery 
are thus minimized, and financial success has been enhanced 
to a remarkable degree. 

The success of the Provincetown shore cod fishery this year 
is reported to be beyond precedent. Cod were abundant, the 
prices good, and the returns unusually large. An episode of 
the fishery came to our knowledge which emphasized the pos- 
sibilities of the new type of boat as well as of the fishery. 

One morning the fleet of boats lay waiting around the weirs 
for a supply of bait ; but when the nets were lifted there was no 
bait. Squid, which had been relied on theretofore all through 
the late fall, had apparently moved off shore or had left entirely. 
A single bucketful of squid constituted the entire catch, and 
this was only a fraction of the supply required by a single boat 
under ordinary conditions. All were eager to get the lot, 
nevertheless, and so the squid were put up at auction. They 
were finally sold for the unheard-of price of $4 ! And it is no 




A 9^«Id 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 65 

less remarkable that the two men who ventured to make the 
purchase landed fish enough that day to earn more than $60. 

The power-driven boat is almost an ideal craft for torching 
herring, especially when fitted with an electric light. She is 
equally well adapted to towing a small beam or otter trawl, and 
doubtless will soon supersede sail boats in the flounder fishery. 

Their high earning capacity and their comparatively low cost 

— ranging from $400 to about $800 — insure their almost uni- 
versal adoption in the shore fisheries, which, it is reasonable 
to expect, will be immensely benefited thereby. 

The shore flounder fishery has grown materially in impor- 
tance in recent years. The increasing appreciation of flat fish 
as an article of food has led to this, and has also resulted in the 
introduction of new features in the industry. 

The use of the beam trawl, undertaken a few years ago in a 
very limited way on small boats at Cape Cod, has become 
more general now, and the utilization of power-driven boats to 
tow the trawls, such, for instance, as the pound-net or weir 
launches, has shown more clearly than ever before what may be 
accomplished in this particular fishery by the adoption of proper 

It is pertinent to state here that, in order to attain the highest 
success, it will be necessary to substitute the otter trawl for the 
beam trawl, the latter device having now become largely obso- 
lete in countries where net trawling is extensively prosecuted. 
In Great Britain, for illustration, the otter trawl is exclusively 
used on the steam trawlers. The limits of this report will not 
admit of a detailed description of the -otter trawl. It must 
suffice here to say that its general features and purpose are 
similar to those of the beam trawl, it being a large, purse- 
shaped net that is towed over the bottom for the capture of 
bottom- feeding fish, especially various species of flat fishes. 
It differs from the beam trawl in having no beam, its mouth 
being spread by the action of oblong pieces of plank called 
otters,* that are attached to the extreme wings of the net. 
What are termed bridles are fastened to these in such a way — 
very similar to the way in which a string is fastened to a kite 

— that the otters, when towed by the haw^ser that is bent to the 

* Large otters are made of several pieces of heavy i^lanks bolted together. 

66 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

bridles, shoot out in opposite directions, and thus stretch the 
wings of the net as far apart as possible, so that its mouth will 
cover the largest area practicable as it moves along the bottom. 
The fact that the otter trawl can cover a much 2:reater surface 
of the sea bottom than a beam trawl, that it would be practicable 
to operate from a boat or vessel of approximate size, makes it 
much more effective for the capture of fish. Many claim it 
will catch double the fish that a beam trawl will. It is also 
much easier to handle, and usually less expensive, all of which 
makes its introduction desirable. It should be specially advan- 
tageous for boat fishing. 

Many Italians have recently engaged in the flounder fishery 
from Boston, and a large fleet of their boats can be seen daily 
at T wharf, where they resort to sell their catch. The fish are 
taken chiefly on trawl lines in the lower harbor or a short dis- 
tance outside, but always within easy reach of the market. At 
present the large fleet employed in this fishery is composed of 
open boats of various types, the sail dory predominating. 
They are generally old craft and to that extent ill adapted to 
the purpose they are used for. But the fishermen are thrifty, 
disposed for the present to get along with cheap boats, and to 
endure many discomforts and hardships that might be mini- 
mized by having better craft. No doubt the latter will be 
utilized in time, and the day may not be distant when well-built 
power-driven boats, with some cabin accommodations, may find 
profitable employment in this fishery from Boston, chiefly be- 
cause they can go further afield to seek more prolific fishing 
grounds, or can use more effective devices for the capture of 

The shore herring fishery, which employs many boats in the 
fall, has been less prosperous this year than usual. There has 
been a marked scarcity of large herring on the inshore grounds, 
where they are caught chiefly by torching at night, and the 
catch has been chiefly small fish. Even the latter have not 
been abundant, and the season's work has not been satisfactory 
on this account. This scarcity of fall herring off the coast not 
only affects the fishermen directly engaged in catching herring, 
but it unfavorably affects those branches of deep-sea fishery 
that require freshly caught herring for bait. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCmiEXT — No. 25. 67 


Lobster Culture and Lobster Fishing. — The following re- 
ports from the superintendents of the iish-hatching stations of 
the United States Fish Commission at Gloucester and Woods 
Hole present in detail the facts concerning the artificial propa- 
gation of the lobster within the borders of this State : — 

United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, 

Gloucester, Mass., Oct. 7, 1902. 

Capt. J. W. Collins, Chairman, Board of Commissioners on Fisheries and 

Game, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — lu response to your request of the 3d instant, I sub- 
mit herewith a brief report of the propagation of lobsters at Glouces- 
ter, Mass., station during the current year. 

As in past seasons, our field of collections covered the principal 
fishing centres between Cape Ann and Cobasset, Mass. Favorable 
weather during April enabled us to start operations somewhat earlier 
than has been possible the past few seasons. During April and May 
the receipt of egg lobsters was larger than usual, but after June 1 
they dropped off considerably and coutmued small for the remainder 
of the season. 

From Massachusetts waters we collected 2,020 egg lobsters, which 
yielded 28,897,000 eggs; from these w^ere hatched 26,870,000 fry, 
which were distributed at various points along the shore, from Ips- 
wich Bay to Cohasset, Mass. In addition to these, 8,170,000 fry, 
obtained from eggs taken outside the State, were also planted in 
these waters, making the total fry planted in Massachusetts waters 

We also received from Maine and New Hampshire 3,881 egg 
lobsters, which yielded 54,521,000 eggs, from which were hatched 
47,650,000 fry. 

Yery respectfully, 

C. G. Corliss, Superintendent. 

United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, 

Woods Hole, Mass., Sept. 30, 1902. 
Capt. J. W. Collins, Chairman, Board of Commissioners on Fisheries and 
Game, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — I beg to submit the following brief report of the 
work done in propagating lobsters at this station during the season of 

About the middle of April arrangements were made for securing 
egg-hatching lobsters from the fishermen in local waters and also in 
Scituate. At Plymouth, where we usually get from 1,000,000 to 

68 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

2,000,000 eggs, the prospect was so poor that only about four men 
set pots, and we were forced to abandon this territory. 

The fishermen in local waters were late in getting started, and after 
their pots were set the continued windy weather made it impossible 
for them to tend their gear with any degree of regularity.* Eight or 
ten men from New Bedford set a few pots each at the beginning of 
the season, but soon abandoned lobstering to engage in other branches 
of fishing. 

In all, 341 egg-bearing lobsters were collected in Massachusetts 
waters. These yielded 4,344,000 eggs, a decrease of 26 per cent, 
from last year. This decrease is caused by the loss of eggs from 
Plymouth. The receipts from the territory included in Vineyard 
Sound and Buzzards Bay show an increase of 24 per cent, over last 
year. About 370,000 of these eggs were used for experimental pur- 
poses, and from the remainder 3,482,000 fry were hatched and 
planted in the waters of this State. 

In accordance with our usual custom, collections were also made 
from Connecticut and Rhode Island waters, the total number of eggs 
received at the station being 20,480,000. 

Very respectfully, 

E. F. Locke, Superintendent. 

The foregoing statements show an increase in the output of 
lobster fry in the waters of this State of 3% per cent, above 
that of last year. As in previous years a considerable per- 
centage of the fry thus planted was obtained from lobster eggs 
brought from other States. The increase, however, is due 
entirely to the opportunity for collecting egg-bearing lobsters 
in April and Maj^, when exceptionally fine weather prevailed, 
but even this did not suffice to add to the Woods Hole collec- 
tions, for there was a distinctive falling off in the output of fry 
there, amounting to 1,458,000, or nearly 30 per cent. 

The unusual mild spring weather, which enabled the collect- 
ing launch to safely patrol the coast from Cape Ann to Cohasset 
in the two spring months, made it possible to increase the 
supply of Qgg lobsters at Gloucester, and the consequent out- 
put of fry, as compared with last year, 

* "The continued windy weather," referred to by Mr. Locke, must have 
occurred in late May and thereafter. It is well known the three summer months 
were windy and rough, but April and May were remarkably fine, with more 
moderate winds than usual. 




But while the total results exceed those of 1901, they fall 
below those of 1900, despite the fine weather and the effort 
put forth, as will be seen by the following tabulated statement, 
which presents with exactness the comparative figures for the 
three years : — 

Table shoiving Comparative Statistics of Lobster Culture by the United States 
Fish Commission at the Massachusetts Coast Stations in 1900, 1901 and 




Number of <^gg lobsters, 
Eggs obtained, 
Fry hatched, 




The special feature of these reports is the statement by Mr. 
Locke that lobster fishing at Plymouth was practically aban- 
doned, to such an extent at least that he gave up the attempt 
to collect eggs there. The important question in this connec- 
tion is, does this foreshadow a more general diversion of labor 
to other pursuits and a consequent decline in the lobster 
fishery ? 

It is not the purpose of this report, however, to enter into 
anything like an extended discussion of the lobster fishery or 
w^hat is needed to produce more desirable conditions. Year 
after year, for a long time, this commission has availed itself 
of the opportunity to present in its annual reports many in- 
teresting facts concerning the lobster, its decadence, and the 
necessity of further protecting it, in order to preserve it from 
too rapid decimation in the waters of this State. Recom- 
mendations, based on studies of the lobster and the fishery for 
it, have been made, but these have generally been met by 
determined opposition, until a '' lobster fight," resulting from 
attempts to abolish protective legislation or to secure better 
laws, has become almost a perennial incident of the sessions 
of the General Court. While some progress has been made 

* The figures given in this table relate solely to egg-hearing lohsters gathered 
in Massachusetts waters, and the eggs and fry obtained from them. 

70 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

as a result of these struggles, and the ultimate commercial ex- 
tinction of the lobster has been somewhat delayed thereby, it 
is an open question how long this commission will be justified 
in contending with opposition and indifference in the effort to 
preserve a valuable sea animal and the industry based upon it. 
It is increasingly evident that adequate measures must soon 
be taken, if the lobster is to be preserved as a commercial 
factor in New England, and the time has already arrived when 
it seems that little which really promises satisfactory re- 
sults can be accomplished without co-operation on the part 
of the several coast-bordering States and the British maritime 

If nearly uniform legislation or regulations can be secured 
for the lobster-producing States and provinces much can be 
gained, especially if those enactments are based on knowledge, 
practical common sense and scientific principles, and are not 
the product of selfish interest or political expediency. It is 
high time that a question so important as this, involving as 
it does the welfare of the general public of the United States 
and Canada, should be removed from the influences which con- 
sider onl}^ temporary personal advantage, and be put on a 
higher plane. With this end in view, authority will be sought 
by this commission to participate in a convention of State 
commissioners, if such can be assembled, to the end that all 
reasonable effort shall be made to secure such action on the 
part of the several lobster-producing States and provinces as 
may be best for the preservation of the lobster and the lobster 

Meantime, it is advisable to slightly modify some of the 
lobster laws of this State, in order that they may fulfil the pur- 
pose they were enacted for, but at present it seems inadvisable 
to go beyond this. It is certain that no benefit can result from 
the enactment of radical measures by Massachusetts alone, 
such, for instance, as a change in the laws permitting the 
catching of all lobsters less than 10^/2 inches in length, and 
prohibiting the capture of adult lobsters. The only result of 
legislation of this kind by a single State will be the substan- 
tial withdrawal of all protection, unless there is a prohibition 
of the sale or possession of adult lobsters, and anything of 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 71 

that kind will necessarily interfere with trade and meet with 
the determined opposition of dealers, who may be able to get 
only adult lobsters from Maine and the provinces because of 
the laws or reoulations in force there. 

While there are probably those who will claim there is no 
appreciable diminution of the lobster, there is a multitude of 
evidence showing the contrary, if reliance can be placed on the 
statements made. Indeed, those engaged most extensively in 
the sale of short lobsters, in open defiance of law, relying on 
their expertness to evade the penalty of transgression, have had 
no hesitancy in saying that the lobster could last only a few 
years at the present rate, but they proposed to get all the 
profit they could until it is commercially exterminated. It 
would be easy now, as in previous years, to quote extensively 
regarding the decadence of the lobster, but a few extracts from 
letters and the press must suffice. 

Mr. Samuel H. Benson of Plymouth, in his annual report of 
the number of lobsters caught and sold, makes the following 
statements : — 

I have noticed a very much larger per cent, of short lobsters than 
in 1901, by actual count. In 1901, one lobster in seven was of legal 
length; in July, 1902, one in ten; in August, 1902, one in twelve; 
in September, one in sixteen. 

This would seem to indicate a decreasing percentage of adult 
or legal-sized lobsters. 

Mr. William K. Norris, a lobster fisherman of Bourne, 
says : " Lobsters were not very plenty this season." 

A Scituate despatch published in the Boston ''Herald" of 
May 24, 1902, contained the following : — 

Some of the fishermen have had to be content with less than 20 
lobsters for an entire week's fishing. Some of the most successful 
fishermen have caught as many as 50 counters in a week. . . . 
Many of the lobster fishermen at Scituate harbor, who have followed 
the business many years, have become so discouraged as to give up 
the vocation within the past week for mossing and farming. Six 
more followed their example to-day. . . . The general opinion is 
that a close season from July 5 to September 15, during which no 
lobsters should be allowed to be taken, is the only thing that will 
keep the lobsters from being exterminated. 

72 FISH AND GAME. . [Dec. 

The day previous the ' ' Herald " published the following 
from Marshfield : — 

Summer residents are finding it next to impossible to secure a 
otbsome lobster, and the si 
item from their bills of fare. 

tootbsome lobster, and the summer hotels are obliged to cut out this 

A Salem despatch published in the Lynn "Item'" of July 
24 stated that *' Lobsters are o-ettino- scarce alono' the North 
Shore, and hotels and restaurants are feeling the shortage." 

The statistics of the lobster fishery for this year show an 
increase of men, traps, boats, etc., as compared with last year. 
This is ascribable to the fact that in previous years some of the 
fishermen failed to report. This year a canvass of the coast 
has been made, with the purpose of getting the name of every 
lobster fisherman, so far as practicable ; the result is a con- 
siderable increase in the list. 

A significant fact of the year has been the return, unfilled, 
of forty-seven of the blanks sent lobster fishermen. State- 
ments accompanied thirty of these to the eflfect that the persons 
returning them had abandoned the lobster fishery, and the 
remainder were returned unclaimed or blank, which suggested 
the probability that the parties to whom they had been sent 
had also engaged in some other work, and in a large majority 
of cases had gone to some other locality. 

The tabulated returns show an increase over the figures for 
1901 of 79 men, 3,300 pots and 78,066 lobsters. The decrease 
in the catch per pot, which is unquestionably the surest index 
of the status of the lobster, still continues, the average catch 
being nearly 6 per cent, less this year than in 1901, which had 
considerably the lowest average up to that time in a period of 
fourteen years. When the average catch per pot has fallen 
from 84 lobsters in 1891 to 33 in 1902, no other statement 
seems necessary to indicate what may be the future of the lob- 
ster in this State, unless it is practicable to check this decadence 
more than heretofore has been possible. 

The introduction of power-driven dories and new methods 
of evading the law have added to the difficulties of enforcing 
the statutes for the protection of the lobster. The naphtha 
dories now used by lobstermen are swift, the men in them are 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 73 

alert, and the only way they can be prevented from supply- 
inof illesral lobsters to customers is to have a boat of the same 
type, swifter than they use, devoted to the enforcement of the 
fish and game laws. 

The employment of a naphtha dory for the enforcement of 
the lobster laws, during a comparatively brief period of the 
present season, had a most salutary effect. While a number 
of arrests and convictions resulted from the use of this craft, 
her most important work was in chasing boats with illegal 
lobsters on board, and, as she could generally overhaul them, 
their crews, to escape arrest, were compelled to throw back 
into the sea hundreds or thousands of undersized lobsters, 
which otherwise would have been sold and consumed. This 
dumping of cargoes of lobsters into the sea was to dispose of 
the evidence of crime, and, aside from saving the immature 
crustaceans for the time being, it had a discouraging influence 
upon certain illegal dealers and others, who sometimes were 
compelled to throw away what they had paid for, or what they 
otherwise might have sold. Such was the fear inspired that 
every naphtha dory was viewed with suspicion by those guilty 
of illegal acts, and there is reason to believe that on one occa- 
sion at least a boat load of short lobsters was thrown into 
Boston harbor because the owner of them mistrusted the pur- 
pose of the occupants of another similar craft that was chasing 
him, although the owner of the pursuing boat was a notorious 
dealer in illesfal lobsters. 

It is, of course, impossible to even approximate the number 
of lobsters that were thrown overboard because of the naphtha 
dory employed, but 4,116 *' shorts" were seized and thrown 
into the sea. The bulk of these were seized on steamers arriv- 
ing from the provinces, but a considerable number were taken 
while in the hands of express companies. Everything prac- 
ticable has been done to enforce the lobster laws, but it is 
evident there is still too much indifference regarding the lobster 
to make it easy to protect it as it should be protected. 

Sea Fisheries. — The loss of life and property in the sea 
fisheries has for many years been one of the most important 
factors affecting the welfare of these industries. For, aside 
from the financial consideration, which at times has reached 

74 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

large proportions, the loss of men, generally in the full strength 
of early manhood, frequently causes serious breaks in the ranks 
of experienced fishermen that may be difficult to fill, while 
more or less destitute widows and orphaned children remain to 
be provided for. The yearly record is a gloomy one at best, 
as evidenced by the fact that the annual average of drowned 
fishermen from Gloucester alone, during the quarter of a cen- 
tury ending in 1900, has been given as exceeding ninety-four, 
or a total of 2,354 men. Fortunately the loss this year, while 
exceeding that of 1901, is considerably below the average. 

The record of this port shows a loss of 65 men at sea this 
year, who left behind, so far as known, 20 widows and 44 
fatherless children.* Thirty-nine of these men went down in 
three schooners, the ''Alva," " lolanthe " and ''Eliza H. 
Parkhurst," the latter being on her home passage, deeply laden 
with a cargo of salt herring. She was a vessel of the new type, 
able and seaworthy, but was doubtless overloaded, and, being 
caught in a heavy winter gale soon after sailing from the north- 
west coast of Newfoundland, she was probably sunk so deeply 
by an accumulation of ice on her hull and rigging, added to the 
weight of her cargo, that she no longer had sufficient buoyancy 
to ride out the storm, and was overwhelmed by the waves that 
fell with resistless fury upon her. 

The practice of loading these sharp schooners with salt 
herring so deeply that they are almost deck to the water, and 
practically without any free board amidships, is highly danger- 
ous, especially as the homeward passage must be made in late 
fall and winter, when gales are fierce and frequent and the cold 
often extreme. 

The "lolanthe" was built in 1883. She was one of the 
shallow type of fishing vessels in vogue at that time, but now 
generally recognized as more or less unsafe. She had a crew 
of 14 men. The " Alva" was a comparatively modern vessel, 

* This list does not include the following : 2 men drowned in docks ; 2 suffo- 
cated on board their vessels in harbor ; 4 who died in harbor, 3 of them in hospital 
and 1 on shipboard ; also 1 who died at sea. While these men were employed in 
fishing at the time they met their deaths, it does not appear that they lost their 
lives because of any special dangers of the sea or fisheries. The widows and chil- 
dren enumerated included 5 of the former and 10 of the latter, resident in foreign 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 75 

built in 1892. She was engaged in the winter haddock fishery, 
and carried a crew of 17 men. 

The ao:orreo^ate losses in the food-fish fisheries of the State 
were 14 vessels, of 787 net tons, valued at $90,600. Of these, 
3 vessels went down at sea with all hands, as already men- 
tioned, 8 were stranded, 1 was sunk by collision, 1 schooner 
of only 9.63 tons sprung a leak and sunk a short distance out- 
side Gloucester harbor, and 1 sloop of 11.18 tons was burned 
in harbor. The men lost in consequence of the perils of the 
fisheries numbered 69 ; they left 25 widows and 52 fatherless 
children. Of the men lost, 39 went down with their vessels, 
16 were drowned by the capsizing of their dories, 5 went astray 
and perished, 5 were drowned by being washed overboard or 
by falling into the sea, and 1 was run down by a vessel and 

Several escapes from death, by men who were exposed to 
the perils of starvation or drowning while astray in dories, — 
2 of them for three days, — only emphasize the dangers of the 
deep-sea fisheries. 

The fisheries that will be considered here have been gener- 
ally successful, although less so, perhaps, in some branches 
than in former years, so far at least as the aggregate catch is 

concerned. At the same time there has been an active demand 


for products, and prices have generally ruled high, particularly 
in the fall, so that the earnings have been satisfactory. 

The year is remarkable for record catches and high-line 
stocks in several branches of the fisheries. These have been 
due in several instances to improvements in vessels, whereby 
they are not only better adapted to fishery, but are likewise 
more certain to reach market with catches of fresh fish in good 

The mackefrel fishery has been less successful than last year, 
so far as the aggregate catch is concerned. The season opened 
favorably, and all reports indicated a greater abundance of 
mackerel than usual on the southern fishing grounds, between 
Cape Hatteras and Long Island. The fish were mostly of 
large size, and schools were often taken containing 100 barrels 
or more. Extraordinary catches were made in April and May 
by seiners, and the drift-net vessels did well. During the 

76 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

spring months the weather was generally mild for the season, 
and favorable to fishery. Eecord fares of fresh mackerel were 
landed at New York and other ports. Those ranging from 70 
to 150 barrels were not uncommon. On April 29, the auxil- 
iary schooner "Constellation" was reported at New York 
with 700 barrels of fresh mackerel, this being the fourth fare 
of the season for this vessel, and also the record catch to that 
time. She was reported to have been only twenty-four hours 
or so out from New York when she arrived with this fare. 
On the same date two other schooners were reported at New 
York with 200 and 300 barrels of mackerel respectively. 

These catches were, however, eclipsed a few days later, for 
on May 3 the steamer * 'Alice M. Jacobs " was reported to have 
landed 800 barrels of fresh mackerel at Newport, E. I. This 
remains the record fare of fresh mackerel, and, what is still 
more remarkable, the claim is made that the entire catch was 
taken in one haul of the seine. 

Had ordinary summer weather prevailed during June, July 
and August, there is reason for assuming that the season's 
mackerel catch would have been much larger than it was. 
Contrary to usual experience, the weather throughout the sum- 
mer was most unfavorable to mackerel fishing, which can be 
prosecuted successfully only when moderate winds and smooth 
seas prevail. Instead of these there was an unusual preva- 
lence of strong easterly winds * and rough seas, also heavy 
rains, while there was a notable absence of mild southwest 
winds, so characteristic of summer on the mackerel grounds. 

It is true, occasional good catches were made, for the 
weather was not universally bad, and the fishermen were alert 
to improve every opportunity ; but good chances to fish were 
somewhat exceptional, and the catches made only indicated 
what might have been accomplished under normal conditions. 

It was also additionally troublesome to "keep run" of the 
fish, for they did not rise to the surface in high winds and 
rough seas as they might have done in finer weather, hence 
they could not be so easily observed. Then, too, it is not cus- 

* Easterly winds, even if moderate, are generally unfavorable to mackerel fish- 
ing. As a rule, the south-west winds were of brief duration, and usually developed 
a fierce rain storm in a few hours, when the wind again went to the east or north- 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 77 

tomary to keep a lookout at the mast head except when fishing 
can be prosecuted. 

As the summer advanced it was evident the schools of mack- 
erel had scattered, or that a majority of them had migrated 
to other grounds. This movement was caused by the presence 
of enormous numbers of dog-fish, or by some other influence 
unknown to the fishermen. Whatever the cause, it was dis- 
covered after a while that the bulk of the fish had left the 
grounds until then most commonly resorted to, that the fisher- 
men had **lost run" of them, and that it was necessary to 
search elsewhere for the elusive mackerel. The swift vessels, 
some of them driven by motive power as well as by sail, 
cruised in many directions ; all waters where mackerel were 
liable to occur were visited ; lookouts watched night and day 
with untiring vigilance for schools of fish, but good catches 
were rare, and the season ended without the reappearance of 
the masses of large mackerel that were found on the southern 
grounds in spring, except so far as they were occasionally met 
with in early summer on Georges Bank or other localities 
north of Cape Cod, or for a few days in September in the Gulf 
of Maine. 

Among the later fares of note the following may be men- 
tioned : May 26 the schooner ''Corsair" arrived at Boston 
with 550 barrels of mackerel, 250 of them, or about 30,000 
fish, being fresh. 

On June 26 the schooner "Edna .Wallace Hopper" was 
reported in the press as landing nearly 50,000 fresh mackerel 
at Boston. She also had 200 barrels of salt mackerel, which 
were landed at Gloucester. The total was approximately 700 
barrels. At the time it was roughly estimated she would 
stock more than $6,000 on this fare, which was caught in two 

The schooner *' Speculator," of Gloucester, was reported as 
arriving at that port July 8 with 400 barrels of mackerel, 250 
barrels of these being salted and the balance fresh. 

On July 16 the steamer .<* Alice M. Jacobs" was credited 
with landing 45,000 fresh mackerel and 4 swordfish, and it 
was claimed she would stock $4,300 on this fare. 

Again, on July 29, the Boston ** Globe " stated she landed 

?8 ' FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

at T wharf the previous day "30,000 fresh mackerel, which 
sold to the dealers for 10 cents each, from which she netted 
$3,000. She also had 70 barrels of salted mackerel, ... for 
which she will probably receive $10 per barrel." 

At the same time, according to the *' Globe," the schooner 
<* Nellie Dixon" landed 14,000 fresh mackerel, the *' Geneva 
Mertis" 14,000 fresh mackerel, and the ''Grayling" 10,000 
fresh mackerel. 

The Boston *'Post" of July 30, 1902, in its report of 
arrivals of mackerel schooners, mentioned the following : the 
'' Constellation," with 25,000 fresh and 125 barrels salt mack- 
erel ; ''Corsair," 17,000 fresh; "Mary L. Harty," 16,000 
fresh and 50 barrels salt, and " S. F. Maker," with 15,000 
fresh and 60 barrels salt fish. The schooner "Natalie B. 
Nickerson," of Boothbay, also had a fare of 30,000 fresh and 
80 barrels salt mackerel. The last-mentioned vessel, as well 
as the first on this list, are auxiliary schooners. 

The "Alice M. Jacobs" was credited with bringing a re- 
markable fare to the Boston market on September 23. " With 
the mackerel season about at an end," said the Boston " Globe," 
"the vessel seined in one day 800 barrels of large mackerel, 
176 barrels of which were salted and the remainder brought 
into market fresh. . . . Capt. Jacobs received 12 cents each 
for his fish, and the stock for the trip amounted to nearly 

Two or three days later the schooner "Nellie Dixon" 
brought to the same market a fare roughly estimated at 500 
barrels of mackerel, 200 barrels being fresh and the remainder 
salt. Higher prices were obtained than the "Jacobs" received, 
and she was reported to have stocked about as much as the 

Following are some of the most notable of the season's 
catches and stocks : — 

The steamer " Alice M. Jacobs,"* of Gloucester, according 
to Capt. Solomon Jacobs, her master and owner, earned a 
gross stock in the mackerel fishery of $41,870, the record 

* This vessel was new this year, and was not completed in time for her to arrive 
on the mackerel grounds until late in April, afte^ some of the most profitable 
fishing of the season was over. In view of this her record for about six months' 
work is remarkable. , 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 79 

stock in this industry ; her crew shared $862 each, except the 
five men Avho were on washes.* Eisfhteen men were shares- 

It is pertinent to state in this connection that on May 26 
this vessel palled the coal-laden four-masted schooner *' Frank 
A. Palmer" oif the shoals outside of Nantucket and brought 
her to port. Again, on September 14, she towed the disabled 
steamer *'Cape Cod" to Provincetown, and subsequently car- 
ried her passengers to Boston. In December, at Bay of 
Islands, Newfoundland, she likewise saved vessels from de- 
struction and towed them to safety ; several thousand dollars 
earned in this way are additional to her mackerel stock. 

The auxiliary schooner '* Constellation " is credited with a 
gross stock of $31,000 for the season ; her crew shared 1611.70 

The auxiliary schooner " Saladin " landed 800 barrels salt 
and 1,500 barrels fresh mackerel: gross stock, $22,500; net 
stock, $19,000. 

The schooner ** Bertha and Pearl," of Gloucester, is reported 
to have stocked $21,400, her crew sharing $506 each. 

The schooner "Nettie Franklin," of Chatham, is credited 
with a net stock of $15,000. 

The schooner " Kalph L. Hall" is credited with a stock of 

The schooner * ' Edna Wallace Hopper " is reported to have 
stocked $25,000 in the mackerel fishery and $15,000 in the 
herring trade, making a total for the year from the date she 
was launched of $40,000. 

The aggregate mackerel catch of New England, as reported 
to the Boston Fish Bureau, was 42,228 barrels of salt fish and 
68,781 barrels landed fresh. The bulk of this catch was taken 
by Massachusetts vessels. This makes a total of 111,009 
barrels, which is 23,049 barrels less than the aggregate catch 
given by the* same authority last year, when 68,479 barrels of 
salt fish and 65,579 barrels of the fresh product were landed. 

The growing tendency in ocean fisheries to market the catch 
fresh was never more strongly emphasized than in the mackerel 

* The "Cape Ann News" of Nov. 20, 1902, says: "Had Captain Jacobs left 
with the fleet a month sooner, he doubtless would have added $10,000 more to his 
large stock." There is probably good reason for this assumption. 

80 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

industry during the present year, when nearly 62 per cent, of 
the New England catch was thus sold. But this year, as last, 
it is probable much larger quantities of mackerel were sold 
fresh than were reported, and it may perhaps be conservative 
to estimate the total at about 80,000 barrels. Last year, when 
the sales of fresh mackerel exceeded by a small fraction 49 per 
cent, of the catch, as reported to the Boston Fish Bureau, a 
record was made, but the result this year indicates a larger 
proportional demand for fresh fish. While, therefore, salt 
mackerel may always be required to some extent, it is probable 
that the demand for the fresh product will be more pronounced 
in coming years, especially if the catch is limited. Should 
'there be a larger catch of mackerel, it is reasonable to assume 
that a greater percentage will be disposed of in a salted condi- 
tion than when scarcity prevails. At the same time there is 
little probability that salt mackerel will be required in the 
future in anything like the proportional quantity that it has 
been in the past. The present outlook indicates the wisdom 
of planning to meet the demands of the fresh-fish trade in this 
as in other branches of the food-fish fisheries, for it is evident 
that in this will be found the readiest means of securing quick 
returns and large profits. 

A remarkable feature of this year's mackerel industry was 
the success attending the hook and line fishery in southern 
Massachusetts at the close of the season. Mr. F. F. Dimick, 
secretary of the Boston Fish Bureau, refers to it as follows in 
a letter addressed to this commission : ' ' Hook and line fishing 
for mackerel in Vineyard Sound was unusually good this fall. 
The mackerel were of small size, but prices ruled high, and a 
large number of boats found profitable employment." 

An occurrence of this kind in the region referred to is suf- 
ficiently rare to make it noteworthy, aside from the satisfaction 
that may justly be felt with the success attained. 

The addition to the fleet of the steamer *' Alice M. Jacobs " 
and three auxiliary schooners, fitted with screws and naphtha 
engines, may be classed among the most notable events of the 
mackerel season of 1902. The schooners were the ** Constel- 
lation," *« Veda McKown" and «' Saladin." They were fitted 
to carry a full equipment of sail, and the auxiliary propelling 

Plate VI. 

Fig I. Auxiliary Schooner " Constellation " under Sail and Power. 

Photographed by H. W. Spooner. 

Fig 2. Mackerel Fishing Steanner "Alice M. Jacobs. 




power is used chiefly in calm weather or when bound to market 
with a fare of fish. Their engines are about 85 horse-power, 
and are intended to give them a speed of seven to eight knots 
or upwards. In a fresh, leading breeze the speed is often high, 
with sails set and engines moving, while the propeller helps 
materially when pushing for market with a scant wind. 

Some difficulties have been met with in getting the naphtha 
engines to stand the severe strains they must unavoidably be 
subjected to on large sea-going fishing vessels, and some delay 
has been experienced as a result of breaks and leaks, and 
arranging certain adjustments from time to time. Improve- 
ments are reported in the naphtha engines put on the new 
schooners this year, and much of the trouble experienced on 
those previously built has been remedied. Hon. William H. 
Jordan, collector of customs at Gloucester, says: '* There 
seems to be very little difficulty with the engines." This is 
decidedly encouraging, and, since there appears to be a difl'er- 
ence of opinion concerning the advantages of introducing 
power-driven vessels in the deep-sea fisheries from this State, 
we are glad to quote the following from Mr. Jordan, especially 
as he writes from the stand-point of long and valuable experi- 
ence as an owner and manaofer of fishino- vessels : — 

A fishiDg schooner with a gasoline engine can do practically all the 
work that a steamer can do, at very much less expense ; it requires 
one engineer only for the gasoline, while the steamer needs two 
engineers and two firemen ; you can readily see the expense of coal 
and water for the steamer is far in excess of the cost of gasoline. I 
think that this type of vessel is a great advantage over the sailing 
vessel for almost any branch. of off-shore fishing ; certainly it would 
be of very great help in the halibut business in the summer time, and 
it is acknowledged that it is much superior in the seining business to 
the vessel with only sails. 

One of these vessels costs about $5,000 more than a sailing 
schooner of the same size. The dimensions of those built this 
year were approximately like those of the *' Saladin," which 
were as follows: tonnage length (between perpendiculars), 
108 feet; beam, 25 feet 3 inches; depth, 11 feet 2 inches; 
tonnage, gross, 138 tons ; net, 89 tons. 

82 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The salt-cod fishery on the banks has not been so uniformly 
successful as might have been desired ; nevertheless, many fine 
fares have been landed, some of which have established a new 
record. Some of the vessels have made large stocks for the 
season. Among the notable fares and earnings the following 
may be mentioned : — 

The schooner ''John J. Flaherty," of Gloucester, landed 
650,000 pounds of salt cod as her season's catch, and stocked 
$17,000, in round numbers. On her first trip she lande'd 370,- 
000 pounds of fish, and on her arrival from her second trip, 
about November 20, her fare weighed ofi* 280,000 pounds.* 

The schooner ''Talisman," of Gloucester, is credited with 
making a stock of $24,290 in the Grand Bank cod fishery. 
She made three trips, and the high-line man of her crew 
shared $719 for the season's work of about seven and a half 

The schooner "Elector," of Gloucester, arrived home from 
the Grand Bank October 2, with 310,000 pounds of salt cod- 

The schooner " Hattie L. Trask," of Gloucester, landed 
90,000 pounds of cod about April 20 as a result of a five weeks^ 
trip to the banks. 

The schooner " Maxine Elliot," of Gloucester, landed, as 
the result of two trips, 505,000 pounds of salt fish and stocked 
$14,055. Her crew shared $376 each. 

The schooner "Lawrence A. Munroe " landed a total of 
445,000 pounds of bank fish and stocked $13,000. 

The schooner "Aloha," of Gloucester, arrived at that port 
November 18 with a fare of 332,000 pounds of salt codfish 
and 5,000 pounds of salt halibut. She stocked $11,508 on 
this second fare of the season. Her total season's catch was 
536,322 pounds, and aggregate stock $15,915. 

The schooner "Maggie and May," of Gloucester, landed 

* An interesting fact in connection with the first trip of the "J.J. Flaherty" is 
that the first half of her fare was caught with frozen squid as bait. The cod bit 
voraciously at these, which kept fresh much longer than new, fresh bait would 
have kept in ice. Thus time was saved that might have been expended in looking 
for fresh, unfrozen bait. But the most important thing is that this experience 
shows how squid caught in home waters may be kept frozen over winter and used 
advantageously by the bankers the next spring, thus, to that extent, obviating 
reliance on getting bait in foreign ports. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUIVIENT — No. 25. 83 

582,000 pounds of bank fish and stocked $15,903. Her crew 
shared $505 each for the season of six months. 

Mention may also be made of the catch of the schooner 
<* Harry L. Nickerson," of Boothbay, Me., which was only 
slightly less than that of the '' J. J, Flaherty." She is credited 
with landing 645,000 pounds of salt codfish for the season and 
stocking $17,000, her crew sharing $570 each. Her last fare 
of 335,000 pounds of fish and a net stock of $10,556, with an 
average share to each man of $402.48, established a record 
for one trip in this fishery. 

Some excellent fares were secured on Georges Bank, where 
the summer fishing has been exceptionally good. On Septem- 
ber 2 the schooner '' Canopus " * arrived, with a fare of 75,000 
pounds of salt fish, from a three weeks' trip to Georges, and 
it was stated that in five trips she had landed over 300,000 
pounds of cod, which it was thought exceeded all previous 
records in this fishery. 

The schooner *' Penobscot" landed 45,000 pounds of cod at 
the same time, and was credited with having had an aggregate 
of 375,000 pounds in six trips. 

The principal change in the distant bank fishery for cod is 
in the tendency to adopt dory handline fishing instead of fish- 
ing with trawl lines. The former method has proved profitable 
in recent years, and has the advantage of not being dependent 
on supplies of bait obtained at foreign ports. The rather ex- 
tensive adoption of this method of fishing from Gloucester is 
a recent notable innovation and seems a profitable one. 

The schooner '*A. E. AYhyland" sailed from Gloucester 
May 2, 1902, on a salt halibut trip to the Arctic Ocean, and 
returned to the home port on September 14. She landed 
171,000 pounds of fletched halibut, 83 barrels of halibut fins, 
20 barrels of halibut roes, and stocked $12,173.44. She had 
a crew of 18 men, each of whom shared $307.23. 

Large catches of fresh halibut are not so common on the 
Atlantic fishing grounds as they once were, and those obtained 
are generally secured north of the Grand Bank, off the eastern 
coast of Newfoundland or farther north, off- Labrador. 

* All the vessels mentioned here as fishing on Georges Bank belong at Glouces- 

84 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

On May 19 the schooner *' Admiral Dewey" arrived at 
Gloucester, and was reported as having 50,000 pounds of fresh 
halibut, caught off the east coast of Newfoundland. 

The schooner *'Oreo^on" arrived at Gloucester Auo^ust 12 
with a fare of fresh halibut reported as 75,000 pounds. These 
fish were caught off the Labrador coast, the most northerly 
fishing station, estimated to be about 400 miles south of Green- 
land. This is a long distance from which to bring fresh halibut 
to market on a sailins^ vessel. Two weeks later the schooner 
*' Yakima" landed a fare of fresh halibut at Boston, estimated 
at 80,000 pounds. These fish were reported to have been 
caught in north latitude 55 degrees, off the Labrador coast. 

The schooner ''Theodore Roosevelt," of Gloucester, landed 
a fare of fresh halibut about the middle of October, which 
yielded a stock of $2,475. 

The schooner "Massachusetts," of Gloucester, arrived home 
with a fare of fresh halibut a few days prior to the middle of 
November, her stock reaching a total of $3,250. Two other 
good fares were landed only a few days later. The schooner 
''Madonna" stocked from one of these fares $3,100. She 
was absent only three weeks, we are informed. 

The interest of this State in the halibut fishery is divided be- 
tween the Atlantic and the Pacific, and at present it looks as if 
the fresh halibut fishery on the Atlantic banks might be super- 
seded in the not distant future ; it certainly is confronted now 
with the keenest competition. 

The fresh halibut fishery carried on from this State in the 
Pacific, off the northwest coast of America, in many respects 
is one of the most remarkable fisheries in the world. The 
introduction of new and improved types of vessels, and the 
vigor and success which have characterized its prosecution, are 
creditable to Yankee intelligence and enterprise, and emphasize 
the continuation of the adventurous and forceful spirit which 
has ever made Massachusetts fishermen noteworthy. 

The Pacific halibut fishery was begun, on a commercial basis, 
in 1888. In the autumn of 1887 some adventurous fishermen 
sailed in three schooners from the ports of this State to engage 
in it. The efforts were well meant but unsuccessful. The 
high transportation charges between Puget Sound ports and 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 85 

the Atlantic coast, the scarcity and high price of ice on the 
west coast, unfamiliarity with the fishing grounds, and the ad- 
ditional fact that sailing schooners were unsuited to the industry, 
combined to defeat the first attempts to establish this fishery on 
a safe paying basis. It is true quantities of halibut were caught 
in 1888-89, but the net financial result was unsatisfactory. 
•For the time being there seemed little prospect of the survival 
of the halibut fishery ; indeed, it was temporarily discontinued, 
to a greater or less extent. 

Discussing the outlook for the industry on the basis of con- 
ditions in 1889, the writer ventured the following statement: 
** To insure the establishment of a successful halibut fishery on 
a permanent basis it . . . seems necessary . . . that steamers 
should be employed for fishing, and that transportation agen- 
cies should realize the importance of making favorable rates in 
order to build up the business. The enterprise should also 
have the advantage of starting with ample capital, backed by a 
knowledge of the business." * 

The adoption of these suggestions in their entirety has 
brought results far beyond what the boldest dared to dream of 
when the words above quoted were written. This industry is 
an interesting subject and might well claim large attention, but 
the limits of this report will not admit of more than a brief 
allusion to it. It must suffice to mention only a few salient 
facts, and to say that nowhere on earth, within comparatively 
eas}^ reach of a market, have there been found in recent years 
such marvellously prolific halibut grounds as those in the 
Pacific, frequented by the fishing steamers from this State. 
The record catches of other years on Atlantic banks, remark- 
able as they have been considered, dwindle almost into insig- 
nificance in comparison with the heretofore unparalleled cargoes 
of fresh halibut obtained in the Pacific. 

As an instance, in the season of 1901 the steel screw steamer 
'*New England," of Boston, caught a fare of 210,000 pounds 
of fresh halibut, and is reputed to have arrived at her port of 
discharge within a week from the day she steamed to sea. 

The accompanying illustration (Fig. 1, Plate VII.) shows her 

* Report on the Fisheries of the Pacific Coast of the United States, hy J. W. 
Collins, page 265. 

86 ' FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

with this remarkable catch on board, which was sufficient to 
sink a steamer 140 feet long nearly to her deck line. It is 
certainly phenomenal that a single crew should catch and care 
for more than oiie hundred tons of fresh halibut in only three 
or four days. 

While this fare may still be the record, for it reached the 
limit of carrying capacity, many others have been made that 
were nearly as large. On Nov. 6, 1902, the new steamer 
*' Kingfisher" arrived at Vancouver with a fare of 185,000 
pounds of halibut, which on the following day were rushing 
across the continent on a fast train. 

The prosecution of this Pacific halibut fishery on the steamers 
referred to compels the most strenuous efibrt humanity is capa- 
ble of. During weather when fishing can be carried on comfort 
and rest are disregarded to a degree not probably equalled in 
any other industry. So great is the physical strain that only 
the strongest men can endure it. It is true there may be rest 
and relaxation in heavy gales or storms, when a small dory 
could not live in the boiling turmoil of driving seas, for at 
such times shelter is usually sought in nearby harbors ; but it 
must be understood that, while the fierce, wild weather of winter 
may sometimes prevent fishing for weeks together, no oppor- 
tunity is left unimproved, and the conditions are severe when 
the steamers are not on the fishing ground and the dories 
setting and hauling their lines. And in this battle with the 
elements little heed is taken of thick weather ; blinding fog or 
driving snow may shut within the narrowest limits the frail 
boats and their crews, but the work goes on. 

As soon as a cargo of fish is landed at Vancouver, the 
steamer immediately proceeds to the point where she is to coal 
and take on other outfits. Fuel and stores are got on board 
with all practicable despatch. In the meantime, while coaling 
is in progress, the fishermen overhaul their gear and bait up 
their trawl lines, so that they will be ready for use when the 
fishing ground is reached. This work, however, may be con- 
tinued until the steamer is well on her way to the point of 

If the weather is suitable the lines are set as soon as the 
halibut ground is reached. Fishing is carried on unremittingly 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 87 

all through the day, and generally the catch is large enough to 
keep all hands busy through the night, dressing and icing the 
fish. Ordinarily the fishermen begin to bait their gear about 
two o'clock in the morning, if the catch is nearly enough cared 
for, so that other members of the crew can finish that work. 

There is no time for sleep, and no thought of it, unless the 
first day's catch is big enough to justify starting for market or 
the weather is too rough to fish ; but as soon as possible after 
dawn the fishing is resumed, and the efibrts of the first day 
and night are continued for the next twenty-four hours, and 
probably for the third day and night as well, before any time 
can be taken for sleep or rest. 

No sooner, however, is the last halibut on board, and the last 
dory stowed on deck, than the v^essel is ofi" on her course for 
the port where the fare is to be landed, and all steam is crowded 
on consistent with safety. If the last day's catch is large she 
may be nearly a hundred miles on her way before the fisher- 
men cease their labors in dressing and icing the fish, and it is 
possible for them to get the sleep and rest that are so much 
needed, after days and nights of continuous and exacting effort 
and peril. 

The steamers do not anchor on the fishing ground, but drop 
the dories and cruise around among them while the lines are 
being hauled, in the same manner as is customary on schooners 
when setting under sail. Thus the loaded dories are relieved 
of their cargoes, and the labor of rowing is dispensed with as 
much as possible. In thick weather the whistle on the steamer 
is blown at frequent intervals, and the fishermen are kept in- 
formed of the vessel's whereabouts. 

Twelve dories are carried on steamers like the " New Eng- 
land" and "Kingfisher;" the crew aggregates 37 men on the 
latter. The crew is composed of the captain, mate, pilot, 2 
engineers, 4 firemen, 4 deck hands and 24 fishermen. 

The fishermen go on shares, but all others are on monthly 
pay. Dorymates "throw together," as it is called, and the 
pay of each boat's crew is governed by the catch, an account 
of which is kept by the officers. The spirit of competition is 
a strong factor in the work, and no risk or labor is shirked in 
the effort to win the high-line share. The fishermen make 

88 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

good pay, not unfrequently sharing more than the captain 
receives as wages, hence the best men are obtainable, and 
inefficiency or drunkenness is not tolerated. 

The aim of those controlling this industry is to have the 
steamers make short trips, so that the fish may be in the best 
possible condition on arrival at port. This is necessary in 
order that the halibut may reach the Atlantic coast — Boston, 
for instance — in fine order. Therefore the time spent in fish- 
ing on the banks is not expected to exceed three days on any 
one trip, and sometimes fishing is carried on only one or two 
days before starting for market. Of course there may be 
exceptions to this, but the one dominant thought — the idea 
which ought to control in all branches of market fishery — is 
to get the fish to port and to the consumer while they are still 
new, fresh and savory. Thus, if a large catch is made on one 
day, and the next day is unfavorable for fishing, it is more 
profitable to land the fish taken, even if less than a full cargo, 
than to wait an uncertain time for the opportunity to catch 
more to complete the fare. 

When port is reached no time is lost in landing the cargo, 
which is transferred from the steamer's hold to the refrigerating 
cars with the utmost despatch. All hands engage in this work, 
with the possible exception of the engineers and firemen, who 
may have imperative duties in their own departments to attend 
to, and there is no let up in the rush until the last halibut is 
on board the train, the ice house is cleaned out and the deck 
washed down, when the new trip begins. A night may be 
spent in port, and maybe more, if the weather is unusually 
bad, but no time is wasted, nor can it be if the supply of fish 
is to be relied on. 

The steel screw steamer "Kingfisher," of Boston, to which 
allusion has been made (Fig. 2, Plate VII.) is one of the most 
important additions this year to the Massachusetts fishing fleet. 
She was designed for this fishery, and in form, material, con- 
struction and equipment may well be considered as the highest 
type of vessel yet produced in this country for employment in 
the deep-sea food-fish fisheries. In appearance she resembles 
a large, sea-going tug, and, as a matter of fact, she is fitted 
with towing bollards, so that she is always ready for towing, 

Plate VII. 

Fig. I. Fishing Steamer " New England," with Fare of Halibut on Board 

Fig. 2. Halibut Fishing Steanner ' Kingfisher. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUIVIENT — No. 25. 89 

if a derelict should be met with at sea, or any other condition 
should make it desirable for her to tow other craft. Primarily, 
however, she is a fishing steamer, and everything else is subor- 
dinated to the idea of making her thoroughly fitted for the 
halibut fishery. 

Her lines are easy and graceful, with moderate rise to floor, 
round stern, flush deck, pilot house high above the deck, and 
bow rising bold and high, so that it may be well above the 
water when she is deeply loaded. She has accommodations for 
40 men. The cabin is under deck aft, and the forecastle is 
forward. The fish room is between the boiler room and fore- 
castle, and has a capacity for 200,000 to 215,000 pounds of 
fresh halibut, packed in ice. She is equipped with triple ex- 
pansion engines ; cylinders 14, 22 and 36 inches, with 24-inch 
stroke. She has a Scotch boiler 10 feet 6 inches long and 13 
feet diameter, and can carry a steam pressure of 180 pounds to 
the square inch. Her maximum speed, under steam alone, is 
said to be in excess of 14 knots ; her ordinary sea speed, 12 
knots. She is schooner rigged, with pole masts, jib stay set- 
ting up to stem head, and carries two small boom and gaff" sails 
and jib. Her dimensions are as follow^s : length, over all, 
about 140 feet ; for tonnage, 130 feet ; beam, 24 feet ; depth 
of hold, 14 feet 6 inches ; gross tonnage, 263 tons ; net ton- 
nage, 141 tons. She was built by the Risden Iron Works at 
San Francisco, Cal., and launched in the summer of 1902. 
The illustration (Fig. 2, Plate VII.) shows her as she appeared 
on her trial trip near San Francisco. 

The deep-sea market fishery, for cod, haddock, etc., has 
been successful, and many large stocks have been made. This 
result evidences the demand for fresh sea fish, and indicates the 
satisfactory prices which have generally prevailed. But, in 
making comparison of the stocks earned in the market fishery 
with those obtained in the mackerel or bank fisheries, consider- 
ation should be given to the fact that, whereas the season for 
mackerel or bank fishing for salt cod seldom exceeds seven 
months, the market fishery continues throughout the year. As 
a matter of fact, vessels engaged in the salt cod fishery or in 
the mackerel fishery, during their seasons, usually pursue some 
other fishery in winter ; not uncommonly they participate in 

90 FISH AXD GAME. [Dec. 

the market fishery, but more frequentl}^ perhaps, in the frozen 
herring trade. Inasmuch, however, as the earnings of such 
vessels for an entire year are not commonly published, and 
are not easily obtainable in other ways, they cannot be readily 
given. Besides, in the case of vessels employed in the herring 
trade it is difficult to arrive at their earnings as compared with 
those in other branches of fishery, for the reason that the 
industry is not pursued on the same basis. 

The schooner '' Francis Whalen," of Boston, is reported to 
have stocked $22,000 in six months in the market fishery, 
which is most remarkable. The earnings of this vessel in the 
time mentioned furnish a fair basis of comparison with the 
stocks of other schooners engaged in the mackerel and salt cod 

The schooner '' Clara M. Littlefield," of Eockport, in ten and 
a half months has stocked $21,830. Her crew has shared 
$1,000 each, in round numbers. 

The schooner *' Benjamin F. Phillips," of Boston, made a 
gross stock between June 12 and November 21 — five months 
and nine days — of $19,067.02. Her crew shared $450 each. 

The schooner **Navahoe" stocked about $30,000 in eleven 
and one-half months. Her crew shared $800 each in round 

The schooner '' Alice M. Guthrie," of Boston, has been one 
of the most successful market vessels. In a year from the 
time she was launched in August, 1901, she is credited with 
landing about 1,350,000 pounds of fresh fish, on which her 
stock amounted to $34,000, her crew sharing $950 each. Dur- 
ing the year she made forty-five trips, mostly to the south 
channel fishing grounds, but the winter trips were generally to 
Georges Bank. 

Probably the most interesting innovation in the market 
fishery of the State during this year was the building of the 
schooner '' Helen B. Thomas," of Boston, from designs by Mr. 
Thomas B. McManus (Fig. 2) . This is a wooden sailing vessel 
of a distinctly new type, both as to shape of hull and rig, the 
latter havins: been called *' the McManus ris* for schooners." 
The notable points of the vessel are as follows : she has long 
overhangs forward and aft, similar to those on the well-known 




small yachts called knockabouts, and because of this the 
schooner has been called the ''knockabout fisherman type." 
Her ends are fine and well formed, the floor sharp, bow flaring, 
keel short and deep, and stern-post raking rather strongly. 
She has a fine sheer and flush deck, with the ordinary arrange- 
ment of hatches, cabin trunk and forecastle. Her masts are 
unusually close together and rather tall, giving a large mainsail 
and maingaff" topsail, while the foresail, foregafl" topsail and 
main staysail are comparatively small. The striking feature 
of her rig is the absence of a bowsprit, notwithstanding she 
carries a double head-rig, so called. Nothino- extends forward 

Fig. 2. — Sail plan of achooner "Helen B. Thomas. 

beyond the stem. The forestay, upon which the forestaysail is 
set, is nearly half way between the foremast and the stem, 
while the jib stay and the foretopmast stay come down to the 
stem head. A large jib and ordinary jib topsail are carried, 
but the forestaysail is small. 

The advantage of this rig is found in the fact that (1) there 
is no necessity to incur danger when shortening sail by men 
having to go out on a bowsprit ; (2) there is no w^ear and tear 
of sails on the head rigging or bowsprit in rough weather ; 
(3) there is no trouble with the head sails washing loose, as 
they sometimes do when furled to a bow^sprit ; and (4) there 
is no bowsprit in the way when coming into dock. 

92 riSH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Those who have sailed on the * ' Thomas " give a gratifying 
account of her fitness for the trade. Aside from being swift 
and quick in stays, etc., she is reputed to be very seaworthy 
and notably dry forward, while her overhangs necessarily 
increase her buoyancy as she settles in the water when fish are 
taken on board. Following are her principal dimensions : 
length, over all, 106 feet; on water line, 67 feet; beam, 21 
feet; depth of hold, 9 feet 8 inches; tonnage, 75 tons; main- 
mast (full length), 73 feet; foremast, 62 feet; mainboom, 59 
feet ; maingaff, 34 feet ; foreboom and gafi", each 20 feet. 

"We are informed that six schooners, substantially of the 
same type as that described, have been built recently for the 
red snapper fishery from Galveston, Tex. This is an interest- 
ing fact, because it shows the influence of Massachusetts upon 
the fisheries of other States. These red snapper vessels difier 
from the * ' Thomas " chiefly or wholly in having a little less 
overhang forward and a short bowsprit. 

The herring industry is improving, and, with increasing 
attention to cure, the demand for products is advancing. 
There is much to be desired yet, but, with the quoted prices 
for the best quality of pickled herring sold by our vessels 
nearly or quite double what it was last year, there is occasion 
for reasonable gratification with the change. The outlook for 
trade in herring was never better than at the close of this 
year, and many large cargoes of fat fish from the northwest 
coast of Newfoundland have arrived unusually early this fall. 
The fleet that has engaged in this trade at the close of the year 
is larger than common, and includes the finest fishing vessels 
from the State, one being the steamer '' Alice M. Jacobs," and 
several of them being auxiliary schooners. 

The progress made in the herring trade has been remarkable. 
It has been stated that Gloucester alone has received 55,502 
barrels of fish of this species, most of which came from the 
northwest coast of Newfoundland in a salted condition. The 
herring are chiefly salted in bulk on board the vessels, only a 
comparatively small amount being split and salted in barrels 
(or pickled cured) as soon as caught. The bulked herring, 
which can be sold cheaper than pickle-cured fish, are utilized 
almost wholly for smoking, and the expansion of the trade in 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 93 

fat smoked herring, during the past three years, has been an 
object lesson as to what may be accomplished when a product 
of fishery meets the requirements of the public. 

So far as this smoked herring trade goes there is occasion 
for much satisfaction with the progress made, but the success 
thus attained should be an incentive to give more attention to 
the development of the pickle-cured herring trade, which ofi*ers 
a much larger field for exploitation, although the competition 
may be keener and more difiiculties may be encountered in 
getting control of the markets. But the ultimate result is so 
important to the general success of our fisheries that no effort 
should be spared to work up a demand for the highest grade of 
American pickle-cured herring. This subject has, however, 
been so fully discussed in recent reports of this commission 
that its amplification here seems unnecessary. It is suflScient 
to say that never before in the history of the fishery industries 
of this State has it been more important to exercise the highest 
intelligence in creating a reputation for fishery products, and 
thereby enlarging the demand for them. In no other way can 
competition be successfully met, and the very existence of the 
State fisheries may depend upon it if it transpires that, as a re- 
sult of reciprocity treaties, foreign-caught fish are admitted 
free to our markets. In view of this possibility, it will be 
wiser and safer to be well informed regarding the best methods 
and best vessels used elsewhere, and nothing should be left 
undone that will help our fisheries to successfully meet the 
conditions that now confront them, and which may become 
still more difficult to contend with in the future. 

In the reports of the past two years particular stress has 
been laid upon the importance of exercising the utmost care in 
the preservation of fish products for food, and suggestions and 
recommendations as to methods, etc., have been made. The 
matter is of so much moment, however, that, until perfection 
has been attained in this particular, improvement in this direc- 
tion cannot be too frequently or too earnestly urged. This is 
sharply emphasized by the following declaration of Mr. Eugene 
G. Blackford, one of the largest fish dealers in New York, ex- 
president of the New York Fish Commission, and one of the 
most observant men in the fish trade of the country : — 

94 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

As an example of increased returns to the shippers from careful 
handling, I call attention to the fact that certain shipments of shad 
going to the New York market from North Carolina bring from 25 to 
40 per cent, more than other shad from the same locality. . . . 
What I wish to impress upon the shippers and fishermen is that for 
every dollar invested in labor and ice in packing the fish they will 
receive ten dollars in return. 

The importance of fish as an article of food, if proper care is 
exercised in preservation, has been dwelt upon by scientific 
men, but cannot be too frequently brought to public notice. 
Prof. H. A. Surface, of the Pennsylvania State College, has 
made the following statements regarding the value of fish as a 
food : — 

They are beyond doubt the best flesh food that mankind can eat, 
and as a consequence serve as food for all nations. Statistics show 
that those nations, like the Scotch and South Sea Islanders, who eat 
fish as their chief flesh food and avoid beef, are most exempt from 
tuberculosis and other diseases and parasites that are conveyed to 
man by infested beef. * 

Some public interest has been felt because of the determina- 
tion by the United States Fish Commission that the tile fish 
(^Lojpholatilus chaincdeontic&ps) occurs in great abundance in 
the region south of Gay Head and Montauk, where it has been 
taken on or near the edge of the continental plateau, in depths 
generally exceeding sixty fathoms. The catches made by the 
United States Fish Commission schooner " Grampus," with a 
limited amount of trawl line, indicate that this fish bites freely, 
and that large fares might be quickly obtained by using the 
quantity of gear commonly operated by fishing schooners. 

The tile fish was first known to fishermen and to science in 
1879. Three years later it was apparently exterminated by 
some natural cause in the region where it had been discovered, 
and millions of them were seen floating at the surface of the 
ocean, dead or dying. For some years thereafter it was not 
seen, although several expeditions were sent out to look for it. 
A few years ago, however, it reappeared again on the old 

* Circular issued by Prof. H. A. Surface. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 95 

grounds, in limited numbers, but recently it has been very 

The tile fish is comparable with the cod for size, ranging in 
weight from five to fifty pounds. As a food product it com- 
pares more nearly with the cod, perhaps, than with any other 
species. The writer has eaten it fresh, but failed to find it so 
desirable in flavor as many species of fish commonly found in 
our markets, although others like it. Opinion is not unani- 
mous regarding its food qualities. Tile fish were smoked when 
they were first taken in 1879, but those expert in judging of 
fish were divided in opinion then, some thinking they rivalled 
smoked halibut, while others deemed them inferior. They 
doubtless would be good cured as the finnan baddies are. It 
cannot be dry cured, like cod, but, of course, can be pickle 
cured, like herring or mackerel. It is probable, however, that 
this species will not be in large demand immediately, for the 
reason that the market is generally well supplied, if not over 
supplied, with many varieties of fish of the choicest kinds, 
which can be bought at reasonable prices. Nevertheless, if it is 
found that the tile fish can be caught in such large numbers 
that it can be sold, either fresh or cured, at a low price, there 
is a strong probability that a market may be found for it. If 
this does not happen immediately it may occur later, when in- 
creasing populations require a more general utilization of our 
fishery resources, and especially of those species whose abun- 
dance is sufficient to bring them easily within the reach of per- 
sons of limited means and still leave a margin of profit to the 
producer. Eecent years have witnessed many remarkable 
changes in the extensive utilization as food of certain species 
of fish heretofore little valued or not used at all, and for this 
reason it is difficult at this time to say how large a place the 
tile fish may occupy in the fish trade of the future, if it con- 
tinues abundant. 

The Eussians have a method of treating pickle-cured fish in 
warm weather that may deserve the consideration of our fish 
curers, especially those engaged in curing cod that are, for a 
greater or less time, salted in large casks or butts that are 
filled with brine after being first filled with fish. 

The curers of Astrakhan salt quantities of fish in lars'e casks 

96 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

which are filled with pickle ; but to insure an equable tempera- 
ture of the brine, and a consequent better cure of the fish, the 
casks are buried nearly to their tops in the earth, on the ground 
floor of the large packing houses. 

As is well known, the extreme heat of summer is liable to 
unfavorably affect pickle-cured cod, especially after being 
packed in boxes and shipped as dry or boneless fish. The fish, 
thus exposed to a warm climate, sometimes becomes covered 
to a greater or less degree with a red, vegetable, mold- like 
growth (^Clathrocystis roseopersicina) , and the appearance of 
this plant destroys the market value of the product. Some- 
times this redness of salt cod appears while they are in the 
butts or packed in piles or kenches in the curing houses. If, 
therefore, this can be prevented by the adoption of any such 
simple method as that employed by the Russians, the fish trade 
will be benefited. In any event the matter is of sufficient im- 
portance to warrant experiments by fish curers to test the 

In the ordinary process of trying out cod oil in the old- 
fashioned waj^, by putting the fish livers in barrels or larger 
casks to rot and try out by atmospheric influence, large quan- 
tities of refuse, known to the trade as " blubber," accumulates. 
This has been considered worthless by those interested in our 
fisheries and usually has been dumped overboard. In Europe 
it is profitabl}^ used, and quantities of a good article of brown 
oil and a specially valuable fertilizer are obtained from this 
product. This is not only possible, by the improved processes 
of these days, but the writer has personally investigated the 
matter in England, and believes it perfectly practicable to 
utilize this waste product so that additional profit may accrue 
to the cod fishery as a result. 

The importance to the fisheries of the utilization of waste 
products — this gathering of the gleanings — is far beyond 
what may be deemed probable by those unfamiliar with the 
history of these industries. The fish-glue industry is an in- 
stance in point, with a trade extending throughout the world, 
and a financial result not to be despised. 

In previous reports we have alluded to the effort made by 
this commission to promote trade in cod roe. When this 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 97 

effort was inaugurated cod roe Avas not worth enough to war- 
rant saving it, the net price not exceeding $3 per barrel to 
the dealer. This year Massachusetts roe sold in France has 
netted the dealers here, so we are credibly informed, from 
$10.50 to $14.25 per barrel. To what proportions this trade 
may grow, if wisdom controls it, is not an easy matter to 
determine. The following statements regarding the Norwe- 
gian roe trade will, however, suggest what may be possible, 
although at the present time the outlook for next year is not 
promising for a good demand in France, because of the scar- 
city of sardines the present year, and the consequent supply of 
roe left over : — 

In 1901, Bergen, Norway, exported 34,800|^ barrels of cod 
roe. Of this amount, 25,497^ barrels went to France and 
9,303 barrels to Spain. In addition to the above amount, 
Aalesund, Norway, is credited with having exported 3,000 
barrels in round numbers, and it has been estimated by com- 
petent authority that the total exports of cod roe from Norway 
in the year above mentioned amounted to 45,000 or 50,000 
barrels. This roe sold at prices varying from $13 to $18 
per barrel, according to grade and season. If we place the 
average as low as $14, the total value of the larger estimate 
of exported roe, which is probably conservative, would be 
$700,000. • 

These figures indicate that the cod roe trade holds out in- 
ducements that should not be neo^lected, and likewise suo-o^est 
the importance of utilizing everything that comes from the 
fisheries which will yield a profit through intelligent treatment. 

Inspection of Fish. 
By an act approved Feb. 27, 1902 (chapter 138, Acts of 
1902*), the powers and duties heretofore devolving upon the 
inspector general of fish were imposed upon this commission. 
It transpires, however, that, since the passage last year of 
the law now embodied in section 6, chapter 56 of the Ee vised 
Laws, there is little occasion for inspecting fish, for inspection 
is in no sense obligatory, the statute providing for it only 
**if, at the time of purchase, the buyer so requires, such fish 
shall be inspected." 

98 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

This provision is a practical abolition of the fish inspection 
laws of the State, if judgment can be formed on the result 
during the present year. Only three persons applied to the 
commission for appointments as inspectors of fish. These 
were George H. Perkins, Charles H. Pew and Joseph Rice,^ 
all of Gloucester. 

Only one of these, Mr. Perkins, has inspected any fish since 
the appointments were made, and he inspected a total of 2,054 
barrels, 62 half barrels, 18 quarter barrels and 34 ten-pound 
kits of mackerel. In no other instance, so far as we are 
informed, did a purchaser indicate a desire to have fish 
inspected. Mr. Eice states that, although he asked buyers if 
they wanted the mackerel inspected which they had bought, 
they always replied in the negative. 

As has been intimated, no species of fish other than mack- 
ere I has been inspected in this State during the period since the 
present law (chapter 138, Acts of 1902) became operative. 
The mackerel inspected were classified, according to quality 
and package, as follows: 1,684 barrels, 54 half barrels, 14 
quarter barrels and 34 ten-pound kits of No. 1 ; 370 barrels, 8 
half barrels and 4 quarter barrels of No. 2. 

The money received by this commission as fees for the fish 
inspected by George H. Perkins was $20.98. In accordance 
with law, this will be paid to the Treasurer and Eeceiver-Gen- 
eral of the Commonwealth on the first Monday of 1903. 

It is probably too soon after the passage of the law men- 
tioned (section 6, chapter 56) to discuss its eflfect with a full 
understanding of how it will work. It is evident, however, 
that middlemen and retail dealers, especially those purchasing 
fish to go outside the State, do not consider the State inspec- 
tion brand of special value to them. Whether the future will 
bring any change in this regard remains to be seen, and it may 
now be inadvisable to speculate as to whether the consumer of 
fish will ever demand a better guarantee of their quality than 
that now given. It is certain the State cannot give this to fish 
sent beyond its boundaries, but it seems within the possibilities 
for Congress to control the quality of food products that are 
objects of interstate commerce. If this assumption is correct, 
and federal control should ever become an accomplished fact, so 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCm^lENT — No. 25. 99 

that the inspectors' brand becomes a satisfactory guarantee of 
quality to the consumer, the advantage to all concerned, and 
especially to the fisheries interests, cannot be over-estimated. 
Nothing else can probably prove so advantageous in meeting 
foreign competition. 


Relation of Game to Public Welfare. — It is probable that 
the average person gives little thought to the effect of game 
upon the public welfare. Most people think of game only as 
something to be hunted and killed, to profit from by its sale 
(perhaps to derive the largest profit from its illegal sale), or 
as the principal attraction of a well-spread table. Many feel 
that they should have full liberty to hunt or kill whenever it 
suits their desire or convenience, little recking the result, and 
they resent restrictive regulations and generally consider it no 
crime to violate the game laws ; in fact, rather glory in the 
act, if they escape detection and the penalty the courts may 

Those who take such narrow views reo:ardinof o^ame are either 
pot hunters, whose vision is limited only by the amount of 
money they may obtain from hunting, without too scrupulous 
regard for the limitations of law, or persons desirous of the 
recreation and excitement that hunting generally gives, but 
who are either too indifferent to anything but the pleasure of 
the moment to heed anything else, so selfish that they think 
it smart to ''get in" during close season when law-respecting 
citizens are barred, or else heedless of consequences to the 
public welfare, or the preservation of sufficient game to make 
the hunting of it an object of either sport or profit. 

On the other hand, there are many persons, including the 
most distinguished in this country, who intelligently appreciate 
the relation of game to public welfare, and who have used their 
utmost exertions to secure the enactment and enforcement 
of protective laws. Those most prominent and indefatigable 
in this effort are of the class ordinarily termed sportsmen. 
While it may, perhaps, be claimed that many have been 
prompted chiefly by the desire to preserve sufiScient game 
within the borders of the State to make huntins^ attractive for 
themselves, there is no question that others, and probably the 

100 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

larger number, have taken the broadest view of the matter. 
In any event they have builded wisely, and many beside sports- 
men have profited in consequence of their efi'orts. 

It is true that the benefit derived from hunting as a health- 
ful and attractive recreation is beyond estimate, and if nothing 
else is considered but the improved physical condition of 
thousands* resulting therefrom, and the fact that, because of 
the vigor thus gained, they are better fitted to endure severe 
mental strains than otherwise might be the case, the public is 
sufficiently benefited thereby to compensate for any effort put 
forth or any expenditure by the State in its attempt to pre- 
serve satisfactory conditions. 

But, however beneficial hunting may be from the point of 
view already considered, this by no means includes all the 
advantages to be derived from the conservation of a game 
supply. For while no one will question the benefits to people 
of modest means to be able to hunt where game is reasonably 
abundant almost at their doors, and thus freely enjoy this 
exhilarating sport as well as those possessed of wealth and 
leisure, the fact remains that the farmer may profit still more 
than the sportsman because of the destruction of noxious in- 
sects by birds. Many farmers take a highly intelligent view 
of this matter. Not only do they favor the enforcement of the 
game laws generally, but they can indicate specifically how 
they are benefited by game birds, notably the quail, which is 
well known to be an active agent in destroying insects that 
are harmful to growing crops. Inasmuch as the game laws 
also include most stringent provisions for the protection of in- 
sectivorous birds of all kinds, it will be seen to what extent 
the farmer and the public generally are indebted to game for 
the preservation of species which do so much to make agricul- 
ture and horticulture possible within our borders.* 

* To cite a single instance of how an intelligent interest in this matter is spread- 
ing throughout the rural districts the following is quoted from a letter from Mr. 
Myles Standish, of Rock, to deputy Otis Thayer: "When we took up this game 
business and put up our posters, some around here thought we were going to have 
everything our way. But to-day those men are buying posters and putting them 
up themselves. Now this is why: One man told me that the quail kept the 
bugs from his potato tops, and said he did not have to use Paris green this year. 
If the farmers would take more interest in game, we would not have so many in 
sects. I love to get these men and let them see what game means to farmers." 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 101 

Nor is this all. As we have previously pointed out, the de- 
sire to hunt is so strongly implanted in many that it must be 
gratified, even at the sacrifice of time and money. If it can be 
indulged at or near home, within State limits, any money that 
otherwise might be spent in seeking game* elsewhere is saved 
to our citizens, and the State is benefited to that extent. Then, 
too, residents from other States may be attracted here l^v the 
presence of game, as in fact they are, and, aside from the 
benefit derived from any disbursements made by them during 
temporary visits, larger results may sometimes follow in the 
buildino^ of summer or autumn homes and the inaus^uration of 
conditions of inestimable importance to local residents in par- 
ticular and the State in general. The benefit thus derived by 
Massachusetts is too well known to require elaboration or veri- 
fication. And in view of the possibilities of game in this State, 
as evidenced by the increase of both birds and animals during 
the past three years, there is reason to anticipate it may have a 
helpful influence in the future in bringing prosperity to some 
of our towns which now seem to have no equally good prospect 
for advancement, as is embodied in the attractions held forth 
by their supplies of fish and game. 

Mr. F. W. Scott, fish and game warden of Montana, in 
writing of conditions in his State, and the influence exerted by 
game or fish, says: '* Millions of eastern capital have been 
invested here w^hose owners were first attracted by the hunting 
and fishing, and nothing should be overlooked that will induce 
others to come and do likewise." * 

Similar advantages have come to this State, and still more 
may come, if conditions obtain which enable the conservation 
and increase of nature's bounties to the degree that recent ex- 
perience has shown to be perfectly feasible. If it is not prac- 
ticable to have the larger species of game which occur in 
regions where vast areas still remain in almost undisturbed 
wildness, it is, nevertheless, not difficult to have here sufficient 
of smaller varieties of game to furnish ample sport for the 
hunter, and that of a high grade, while supplying delicacies for 
the table which, in the aoofreo^ate, amount to no small item in 
the food supply. 

* " Forest and Stream," Aug. 9, 1902. 

102 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Need of Protective Legislation, — Section 2, chapter 92 of 
the Revised Laws, containing the provisions of the non-sale law 
on ruffed grouse or partridge and woodcock, expires by limita- 
tion next July, so far as the prohibition of sale of these species 
is concerned. Nothing relating to the protection of fish and 
game that is likely to be brought to the attention of the Legis- 
lature at its session in 1903 is of equal importance to the re- 
enactment of this non-sale law.* 

The experience since its enactment in 1900 has shown con- 
clusively that with such a law on the statute books, and 
reasonable provision for the enforcement of it, it is entirely 
feasible to secure an increase of game birds in this State. This 
applies with special force to the partridge, the king of New 
England game birds, the preservation of which is especially 
important because it has never been found practicable to breed 
or raise it in confinement ; also because it is non-migratory ; 
and the birds of this species reared in the covers of this State 
are, to all intents and purposes, Massachusetts birds, in which 
we may justly have a peculiar interest. 

The woodcock, despite the fact that it is migratory, is believed 
to be increasing in some sections of the State, because of the 
protection afforded by the law referred to. The further prohi- 
bition of its sale will be in line with the effort to fully protect 
it in other States, and it is reasonable to hope that legislation 
for the better preservation of this valuable game species will be 
general throughout its range. 

While the non-sale law regarding the partridge and wood- 
cock did not limit the sale of quail in a similar manner, it is 
believed by many that the effect on the preservation of the 
quail was most beneficial. If this assumption is correct it is 
an additional reason why the law should be re-enacted. 

It is not, however, the purpose of this chapter to point out 
specifically what should or may be done to improve our pro- 
tective game laws, since that phase of the question is dealt 
with elsewhere. The object here is chiefly to consider the 

* Deputy Charles N. Hunt of Quincy, who spent considerable time in Berk- 
shire County during the open hunting season, says: " Sportsmen favor the anti- 
sale law. A leading sportsman in Lenox told me that if the law was taken off, in 
two years there would not be a feather to shoot at in Berkshire County." 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 103 

importance of having adequate protective measures, and the 
non-sale law has been mentioned in some detail because it fur- 
nishes the best possible illustration of the matter. If so much 
benefit can result from one law in a brief time, and certain 
species of wild birds can be brought from almost the point of 
extermination to comparative abundance in most sections of the 
State, as is the case with the partridge, the public is supplied 
with an object lesson of the efficacy of wise game laws, well 
enforced, such as is not only rare but instructive. It should at 
least inspire confidence not only to re-enact this measure but to 
have the Legislature make other provisions of law of nearly as 
great consequence, among which the further protection of the 
deer may be cited, especially as the law prohibiting the killing 
of deer expires in 1903 by limitation. 

Status of Game. — The information that comes to this com- 
mission from many sources is substantially unanimous in pro- 
claiming that game of nearly all kinds has been more abundant 
this year than for a long time. With almost no exception this 
is the testimony given by the deputies throughout the State, 
who not only have the opportunity to become familiar with 
local conditions but some of them travel extensively, visiting 
all parts of the State, and by observation and conversation 
with sportsmen gain a comprehensive general knowledge of 
game conditions throughout the Commonwealth. It may be 
stated, however, in this connection that the statements from 
deputies regarding game, used in this report, will apply chiefly 
or wholly to their own towns and contiguous territory unless 
otherwise specified. 

The increase of game birds and animals hereafter to be 
noticed in some detail is attributable in large part to the vigor- 
ous enforcement of law in recent years ; for it goes without 
saying that the best laws ever enacted are of little or no effi- 
cacy unless they are enforced in a manner that will compel 
respect for them. 

While the increase in the partridge and quail is remarkable, 
and really without parallel in the history of the State, it is 
also true that there has been a gratifying addition to the 
numbers of other species which are protected to a less de- 
gree than the partridge and the woodcock. There is a temp- 

104 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

tation to elaborate on this subject, but conciseness will not 
admit of it. 

The Boston *'Post" of Nov. 30, 1902, says : — 

Sportsmen who cannot spare the time to take a hunting trip to 
Maine or New Hampshire can find some excellent gunning of small 
game within twenty miles of Boston. Within the past three or four 
years partridge, quail and woodcock have been on the increase in the 
suburban towns, and hunters with good braces of game may be seen 
almost any day on the great thoroughfares leading into Boston. . . . 

Around Lynn there are some excellent woods where good braces 
of game can be found. The ruffed grouse, the acknowledged king 
of game birds, are numerous about this section. This bird is seen at 
its best in the rough, uneven covers where successful pursuit calls for 
the highest class of work from both dog and hunter. 

The cutting off of much of the pine and hemlock on the lands of 
the State has had a potent influence in the depletion of the grouse 
covers, which furnish him a refuge when hard pressed and a retreat 
during the severe cold of winter. 

Around many of the lakes within easy reach of Boston there is 
good quail shooting. The quail do most of their feeding on the open 
fields, and, when started there, offer easy shooting. 

The following brief extracts from reports of deputies apply 
to game in general, and may properly precede the more 
specific statements concerning the abundance of certain kinds 
of game, even though all are substantially alike, so far as 
declaring an increase is concerned : — 

Game is not very plentiful. — Edward F. Snow, Nantucket. 

There is a general increase in game, especially in pheasants and 
quail. — James Look, West Tisbury. 

Quail, partridge, gray squirrels and song birds are very plentiful. 
— B. F. Richards, Weymouth Heights. 

Quail and partridge were quite numerous this fall, as well as the 
gray squirrel and rabbit. — W. I. James, Hingham. 

Quail, partridge, gray squirrels and rabbits aTe plenty, and wild 
fowl are coming in large numbers. — Otis Thayer, Quincy. 

Game of all kinds is very plenty this fall. — George H. Hassam, 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 105 

Game birds are more plentiful here this year than ever before. — 
F. H. Hill, Attleborough. 

The insectivorous and song birds, especially the robin, have been 
plentiful. — Harry A. Dickerman, Taunton. 

An interesting happening of the early fall was the observation by 
your deputy, Mr. Samuel Parker, of this town, of at least one flock 
of wild pigeons. There is no doubt of the accuracy of this identi- 
fication, as Mr. Parker was familiar with these birds in the old days 
when they were plentiful, and as he saw this flock more than once. 
— George M. Poland, Wakefield. 

Game is rapidly increasing, — quail and rabbits very much so. — 
L. E. Reed, South Acton. 

Quail, partridge and rabbits are plentiful. Woodcock and gray 
squirrels are very scarce. — Louis C. Gordon, Groveland. 

Partridge, quail, gray squirrels and rabbits are very plentiful. 
Song birds are increasing very rapidly. — Wm. J. Toohey, North 

Insectivorous and song birds have increased wonderfully.— 
William W. Nixon, Gloucester. 

Game is more plentiful than it has been for years, especially par- 
tridge and quail, also gray squirrels and rabbits. Woodcock are 
scarce. — Herbert E. McIntire, Reading. 

Partridge are more plentiful, but quail and woodcock are seldom 
seen. Squirrels of all kinds and rabbits are flourishing. — A.J. 
Kennedy, Lancaster. 

Quail and gray squirrels are plenty. I have seen no ducks and 
but one flock of geese this fall. There are very few partridge. — 
Charles A. White, Ludlow. 

Game is quite plentiful, especially quail. — M. T. McCarthy,. 

Game is more plentiful than for a number of years. — Frank E.. 
Smith, Douglas. 

As to game, I am pleased to voice the sentiments of every sports- 
man whom I come in contact with, in saying that game is more abun- 

106 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

dant this year than for the past twenty years. The hunters who 
visit the covers this fall have been rewarded, and they are loud in 
their praise of the good work done by the commission in the enforce- 
ment of laws which, together with the anti-sale law, is responsible for 
the large amount of game birds. — John F. Luman, Palmer. 

Deputy A. L. Pratt of Belchertovvn, under the head of 
Remarks in his report for the week ending October 5, made 
the following statement : — 

I find that partridge, quail, gray squirrels and rabbits are more 
plentiful than I have ever known them. 

I find game quite plentiful and on the increase. — Edward Miller, 

The law prohibiting the sale of partridge has done the business up 
here, as they were plentiful this last fall. — E. C. Hall, Buckland. 

Game of all kinds is more plentiful than ever before. — A. Camp- 
bell, Oxford. 

Coons, foxes, rabbits and squirrels are also abundant, and, with 
the exception of foxes, are holding their own as to number. — L. E. 
RuBERG, Hoosac Tunnel. 

Writing on August 17, Deputy Nichols said: — 

A Mr. Tyron of Monterey reports seeing fifteen to twenty broods 
of partridge about that place. They also report quail very plenty 
throughout the southern part of Berkshire County. A number of 
quail have been seen about Greenfield and Clarksburg, the extreme 
western part of the State. This is something unusual. ... On my 
trip a week ago, with deputies Luman and Shea, on the plains near 
Willimansett I saw and heard a number of quail ; also a flock of wild 
ducks. Squirrels will be very plentiful in this section of the State 
this fall. 

. Sea and Shore Birds. — Taking the State and the season as 
a whole there has been at least an average abundance of sea 
and shore birds. The flights have not always been satisfactory 
in certain sections, and possibly this condition may have con- 
tinued in exceptional instances for the season or thereabouts. 
On the other hand, birds have been reported unusually abun- 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 107 

dant in some localities, notably so in Quincy Bay and contigu- 
ous waters, and the chances for good shooting were said to 
have never been better. 

The continuance of remarkably fine weather for the season 
through October and November has been to the advantage of 
shore hunters, at least to the extent that their sport has not 
been interfered with this autumn by heavy storms and gales 
to the degree that is common. This has been specially advan- 
tageous to those who depend chiefly on going out in boats to 
seek flocks of sea birds. 

While this section deals more especially with shore bird 
shooting as a sport, and the occurrence of the common varie- 
ties of birds ordinarily sought by hunters, mention may appro- 
priately be made of the fact that, on April 15, 1902, Mr. 
William A. Cary shot a fine specimen of the black brant 
(^Bernicla nigricans) at Chatham. This is said to be the 
second occurrence of this species in this State, for it is a 
Pacific bird and is a straggler of exceeding rarity on the 
Atlantic seaboard. 

The following references to sea and shore birds are extracted 
from the reports of the deputies, and, w^hile not covering the 
whole coast, aflTord information as to conditions in several 
localties : — 

Duck shootiDg has been good this fall; there are probably 5,000 
red head and blue bills here now. — John E. Rowland, Vineyard 

Wild fowl have been very plenty this fall. — Frank Serrilla, 

Beach shooting has been excellent this summer. — George W. 
Goldsmith, Beverly. 

The hunting of water fowl at Ipswich Bay has made fine sport for 
those that like that kind of shooting. The birds have been plentiful 
this season. — Wm. W. Nixon, Gloucester. 

Partridge, Woodcock and Quail. — Such a vast amount of 
material relating to the increased abundance of partridge and 
quail is available that much of it must be excluded from con- 
sideration here for the sake of brevity. In the multitude of 

108 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

testimony under this head, condensed though it may be here, 
there is incontrovertible evidence of the effect of the non-sale 
law on partridge and woodcock, even to the extent of probably 
causing an increase in quail, which has been one of the most 
remarkable incidents in the recent history of game in this 
State. When the non-sale law was enacted the pot hunter's 
vocation was largely circumscribed if not abolished. As a 
consequence, the quail, or ''bob white" as this species is 
familiarly called, shared in the good fortune more specifically 
intended for his bigger congeners, the partridge and wood- 
cock. For, while the quail could still be sold seven months 
of the year, the hunting of this species alone was scarcely 
sufficient to prove a paying attraction to the market hunter, 
debarred by law from selling partridge. As a result the 
hunter for revenue only has, as a rule, found it necessary to 
seek other employment that keeps him out of the covers, and 
" bob white " has undoubtedly benefited from comparative free- 
dom from the persistent attacks of the market purveyor, who, 
while formerly chiefly intent on bagging partridge, was not 
averse to adding to his game bag every one of the smaller birds 
that he could gather in. Comparative immunity from the 
attacks of those who did not hunt for sport but for the market, 
and took the last bird in a covey if possible, together with the 
rather favorable weather conditions of the past two winters, 
have combined to bring such an abundance and wide distribu- 
tion of quail in this State as has not been known before for 
many years, if ever. In enumerating the causes of this desir- 
able condition mention should not be omitted of the public- 
spirited work of many clubs or citizens, who have liberally 
contributed for the purpose of having quail imported into this 
State from other sections of the country. But, while freely 
conceding the value and importance of what has thus been 
done, it may justly be said that this is only a continuation of 
the effort along the same line that has been carried on for a 
number of years, without ever producing the conditions that 
happily have existed this year, and, to a slighter degree, in 
1901. This seems to suggest that other causes have con- 
tributed chiefly to the increase noted, as well as to the fact 
that "bob white's" whistle has been a common note this year 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 109 

in the Berkshire hills and fields, where heretofore the quail 
has been rare or entirely absent. It may never become an 
important factor there, but its appearance in that section of 
the State is noteworthy. 

The woodcock, though breeding here to a limited degree and 
reported more than usually plentiful in some sections, is not 
anything like generally abundant; indeed, it has been very 
scarce in most sections of the State. The effort to protect it 
here from the market hunter is a most commendable one, and 
should be continued. The fact that it appears within our 
borders chiefly as a migrant and that it is deprived of reason- 
able protection in some of the States where it winters, furnishes 
additional reasons why all that is practicable should be done 
here to save from extinction this interesting and valuable 
species. The example of this State and other game-protecting 
States cannot fail to influence action where it is most needed, 
and we cannot be insensible to the position Massachusetts 
takes in this matter, in view of what her action may mean to 
other commonwealths. 

The extracts from deputies' letters and reports which are 
quoted under this head show rather comprehensively the status 
of partridge, woodcock and quail in the eastern section of the 
State. It is pertinent to state, however, that in this region 
the quail, because of its relative abundance, bears a more im- 
portant relation to the game supply than it occupies in the 
central and western sections of the State. Indeed, in many 
towns on the coast and adjacent thereto the quail is the one 
species of land game bird, other than the shore, marsh or beach 
varieties, that is relied upon to furnish sport, for neither the 
partridge nor the woodcock occur in those places in sufficient 
numbers to be an important object for the pursuit of the hunter. 
So near to extermination had the partridge been brought in 
these localities, because of insufficient protection, that it has 
failed to gain satisfactorily in numbers in recent years, for the 
simple reason that there were few if any breeders left there to 
renew and increase the stock, — an instructive lesson of the 
danger incurred in allowing this species to be again exposed 
to such conditions as brought this result. 

Fortunately, however, the condition above referred to is 

110 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

limited, and many of the eastern covers afford excellent par- 
tridge shooting. Here the increase of this bird compares favor- 
ably with any part of the State, and notably demonstrates the 
remarkable local habits of the species. 

Deputy William C. Dunham of Nantucket, writing on 
October 11 concerning the game conditions on that island, 
says : — 

There is a very large quantity of quail on the island. You can 
see them running in the wheel ruts when you are driving out. They 
are very tame. We have more song birds this summer than we have 
had for a number of years. 

Quail are more plentiful than last year. Partridge do not gain at 
all; some conditions were not right for them on this island. They 
are frequently shot, and are very thin. — John E. Howland, Vine- 
yard Haven. 

Partridge are still on the increase and will continue to increase if 
the anti-sale law remains as it no^ is. Quail were more plentiful 
this season than they have been for years. — W. O. Souther, Jr., 

Quail are numerous, but few partridge have been seen this year. — 
D. P. Simmons, Cochesett. 

Game is quite plentiful this year, especially partridge and quail. — 
A. T. HoLLiNSHEAD, Braintrec. 

Partridge have been more plentiful this fall than they have been for 
a number of years ; quail are more abundant, while woodcock are very 
scarce. — W. H. Cook, Needham. 

Quail are apparently more plentiful this year than for several years 
past. — R. W. BuFFiNGTON, Swansea. 

Partridge are increasing quite fast. — Elmer D. Young, Swansea. 

Partridge do not seem to be increasing. — H. A. Bent, Franklin. 

Partridge and quail are plentiful in this vicinity this fall. Wood- 
cock are very scarce and wood ducks are decreasing rapidly. — Harry 
A. Dickerman, Taunton. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — :N^o. 25. Ill 

Quail have been very plenty in this and neighboring towns, and are 
on the increase in spite of considerable shooting, but partridge are 
scarce. — J. W. Bailey, Arlington. 

Partridge and quail are increasing. — Alfred Greenquist, Roslin- 

Partridge around here are very plenty. I have seen more quail 
around here this year than I have for ten years. Woodcock are very 
scarce around this section. — George Williams, Lynnfield. 

Deputy Thomas L. Burney, in his report for the week end- 
ing October 5, made the following statements : — 

Wednesday, October 1, was the opening day on game, and though 
it was very stormy a few men went out, but soon gave it up and 
came home wet through but with no birds. Thursday being pleasant, 
a large number were out. They report quail very small and not so 
plentiful in certain localities where last year they were very plentiful. 
The scarcity in those localities is due no doubt to the fact that the 
Lynn Fish and Game Association was unable to procure birds for 
stocking purposes this spring. Other places report quail very plenti- 
ful, more so than last year. Every one who has been in the woods 
after partridge say they have started more birds this season so far 
than they did all of last fall. I came through the woods from Lynn- 
field Thursday, the 2d, and started more partridge than I ever did in 
any one day in this part of the State. There have been no reports 
of large bags so far. The quail are small, and sportsmen will not or 
do not care to kill them until the last of the month. The leaves are 
still on in the woods, and but few partridge have been killed. All 
sportsmen whom I have v talked with agree that the increase of the 
partridge is due to the anti-sale law. 

The season of 1902 has been satisfactory as regards partridge and 
quail. In spite of their continuous pursuit during the open season 
our partridge maintain their numbers surprisingly well, and quail 
have noticeably increased. There seems to have been no flight of 
woodcock here this fall. A suggestion as to the care of our quail 
during the coming winter seems to be worth making. It is believed 
that the increase of quail in northern Massachusetts is due to the 
recent mild winters and slight snow fall. At any rate, the deep 
snows of a severe winter do more to exterminate quail than all the 
rest of the destructive forces to which they are exposed. Now if the 
coming winter should luring heavy snow, a little grain left where 


the flocks can find it will enable many quail to live through the winter 
that would otherwise die of starvation in the snow; and as every 
flock that winters is pretty sure to result in two or three new flocks 
in the spring, sportsmen will get large returns for a little grain. — 
George M. Poland, Wakefield. 

Partridge are gaining in numbers and quail are quite plentiful. — 
Ethan Both well, Northborough. 

Quail are more plentiful in this section than a ^^ear ago. Partridge 
about the same. — Hiram A. Young, Beverly. 

Deputy Fred. S. Knowlton of Wenham, writing on Septem- 
ber 14 regarding quail, says : — 

They are very plenty ; in fact, there are more quail than I have 
ever seen before. 

In his annual report he says : — 

Game, as a rule, is on the increase. The past summer there have 
been three or four broods of quail on our farm. . . . Partridge are 
very plentiful. 

Quail, partridge and woodcock are on the increase. — H. Thiemann, 


Partridge are quite numerous at West Gloucester, Magnolia and 
Manchester. Quail are plentiful, but hard to get, owing to the rough 
country and plenty of brush. — Wm. W. Nixon, Gloucester. 

Partridge are very plentiful, and there have been some good 
woodcock and quail shooting in this vicinity this season. — E. T. 
Wildes, Georgetown. 

Partridge and quail were quite plentiful, and the fall shooting has 
been good. — Fred J. Brown, Woburn. 

Quail are more plentiful than they have been for several years. — 
E. H. Shattuck, Andover. 

Game birds are very plentiful, especially quail. — A. J. Eausch, 

I find a plentiful amount of game in the partridge and woodcock 
line. — Edward Mailloux, Haverhill. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 113 

Partridge are more plentiful. Quail and woodcock are seldom seen. 
— A. J. Kennedy, Lancaster. 

The quail about here are very plenty. Partridge are more numer- 
ous than for four or five years, while woodcock are reported very 
scarce. — W. N. Prentiss, Milford. 

The Smith brothers caught 13 partridges, 12 quail and 1 rabbit on 
November 4. — John L. Martin, Milford. 

I find more partridge than I have seen for some time before. — 
George A. Dudley, Hudson. 

Not for many years have game birds been so plentiful in the 
central section of the State. This is substantially the unani- 
mous testimony of experienced men, both hunters and deputies, 
many of whom declare emphatically that they never before 
have seen quail so abundant and never expected to see so many 
partridge as were in the covers this autumn. Thus, wdiile the 
conditions may not equal those in Massachusetts in 1634, when 
William Wood declared in his '' New England Prospects " that 
partridge and heathcocks were so numerous that " he that is a 
husband, and wall be stirring betime, may kill half a dozen in 
a morning," still, more satisfactory results have been obtained 
than could have possibly been anticipated three years ago. 

The " National Sportsman " for November quotes the follow- 
ing from a Spencer writer : — 

I have been out hunting quite a number of times, and. the smallest 
number of partridge I have flushed was 17, which was in one after- 
noon. All the other days I have found from 20 to 30, and it is a 
fact that we have more partridge in Worcester County than we had 
last year, regardless of what others may say. I have hunted par- 
tridge for twenty years in Worcester County and I ought to know. In 
regard to quail, there never were so many in this county as there are 

This is fully vouched for in the following extracts from let- 
ters and reports of deputies of this commission : — 

I have been out hunting several times with men who doubted that 
partridge were on the increase, and we have flushed from 12 to 30 in 
an afternoon. — A. D. Pijtnam, Spencer. 

114 FISH AND GAME. [Dec, 

Partridge are very pleaty. Quail in abundance. — H. A. Mower, 

I am pleased to report the increase of game, especially quail and 
partridge. — F. J. Proctor, Fitchburg. 

Partridge and quail are more plentiful this year, but woodcock are 
rather scarce. — Daniel A. Warren, West Upton. 

Deputy George Pogue of Grafton, writing on October 8, 

says : — 

I never heard of quail so plenty, and there is a good supply of 
partridge. I also hear good reports of pheasants. 

In his annual report he says : — 

Partridge needs all of December, as two out of three partridge 
killed in December are hen birds, and those are the birds that need 

Game has been quite plentiful, especially partridge and quail, and 
good bags have been made of both varieties of birds. — Edward R. 
Clark, Clinton. 

I find partridge in abundance in all sections and quail plentiful. 
... It is a frequent thing to see a hunter come into town with 
from 12 to 15 birds, and I saw one man return with 18 partridge 
and 4 rabbits after a run of seven hours. — Dennis Shea, Ware. 

Partridge are at least holding their own, and quail are on the in- 
crease. — Fred S. Casavant, Gardner. 

I think there are more quail and partridge to be found in this 
vicinity than for a number of years. — W. S. Wheeler, Springfield. 

Game is increasing in this district, especially partridge. — Wm. G. 
NiCHOLL, Northampton. 

The following selected statements will give a fairly compre- 
hensive idea of the abundance of game birds in the western 
section of the State : — 

The Pittsfield '' Eagle" of Sept. 13, 1902, published the fol- 
lowino;, which foreshadowed the o^ame conditions in that section 
at the opening of the hunting season : — 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 115 

Numerous covej's of partridges have been seen in the covers in 
the outskirts of the city during the past few days, and it is supposed 
that the birds are coming down from the mountains and highlands, 
where they went during the nesting season to avoid the swampy 
covers on the lowlands which, owing to the heavy rain of the early 
summer, were many of them unsuitable to the raising of young. 
During the past two years, when shooting partridges for the market 
has been prohibited, the number of old birds has increased to an 
extent unprecedented in years, and sportsmen can now go out with 
the assurance of getting good bags. 

The anticipations of the hunters, as indicated by the above 
quotation, were fully realized. 

The November number of the "National Sportsman" quotes 
a Pittsfield correspondent as follows : — 

The season opens on birds very good. Some of the boys have 
made good bags. J. H. Wood and son caught 12 the first day. One 
party at New Ashford captured 17. . . . Mr. Wood states that he 
has had better bird shooting this fall than he has had in years. He 
also reports woodcock very plenty. 

It also has the following : — 

A business man of Springfield went out to Greenwich recently 
hunting and returned to Springfield last night. I heard him tell that 
he kept count of the partridge that he scared up during the day, and 
that he flushed up 40 birds in all. He said that he never saw so 
many woodcock and quail as there are this fall. 

There is temptation to quote more extensively concerning 
game in the Berkshire covers, for the hill sides and swamps 
not only afford excellent shelter for birds, but conditions near 
our western border, where Massachusetts meets New York, 
are specially important from the standpoint of the protection 
and increase of game. 

The following statements from deputies are, however, of 
interest : — 

Partridge and gray squirrels have been very plentiful this year. — 
M. J. Cr ANSON, Buckland. 

116 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

On October 8 Deputy A. M. Nichols wrote as follows : — 

I heard to-day that a man in Shelburne Falls got 7 quail and 2 
woodcock last week. These are the first quail that have been caught 
in Shelburne Falls in a number of years. 

In a letter dated October 21 he says : — 

I met President Russell of the Grreenfield Rod and Gun Club the 
other evening coming into Greenfield. He and a friend that day got 
12 birds. There were never so many birds in the western part of the 
State as there are this season. 

He adds the following in his annual report : — ' 

Quail have been seen all through this section this season, and this 
is something unusual. It has been the best partridge season we have 
had in years. Woodcock have not been as plentiful as in years past, 
on account of the very wet season. 

There will be a large stock of partridge left over. Woodcock are 
scarce. There was a large nesting, but they were away before the 
law was off. — W. J. Cross, Becket. 

Partridge have had a hard year, on account of the wet weather, 
and the flocks are small but quite abundant, and there seems to be 
as good a showing of birds as for several years. Quail are getting 
into North Berkshire more and more each year, and were quite abun- 
dant in some localities this fall. — L. E. Ruberg, Hoosac Tunnel. 

Deputy D wight M. Couch of Pittsfield, in his report dated 
October 5, says : — 

Game in this section is quite plenty, partridge and woodcock in 

Pheasants. — Although pheasants may not yet be classed as 
game birds of this State, in the sense that they can be legally 
hunted and killed, their prospective status as such entitles 
them to special notice in this report, not only because the 
State has taken a large interest in the propagation of the Mon- 
golian pheasant, but also because the effort made has met with 
such marked success recently that this beautiful game species 
gives promise of occupying in the future a very prominent 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 117 

position among the birds of the Commonwealth that attract the 
hunter's skill and furnish him with an additional choice article 
of food. 

The reports received this year show conclusively that the 
pheasant is doing well in all sections of the State, and the 
very encouraging statements sent to us last year are dupli- 
cated or excelled. There is reason to believe it is breeding 
successfully in those localities where it has been placed ; also 
that it has lived through the winters as well, apparently, as 
our native game birds. As a rule, it rears large broods, 10 
to 18 chicks, and the young birds have every appearance of 
streno^th and hardiness. There seem to be few losses in the 
wild state, outside of those caused by enemies, and, although 
some birds may be killed by foxes, hawks, owls, etc., and also 
by hunters who have a disposition to ignore the law, the 
species seems to have acquired a foothold. Therefore, aside 
from the fact that there is less wild land here and more hunters 
in a given area, there is no apparent reason why the Mongolian 
pheasant should not do almost as well here as in Oregon, 
where it is concededly the foremost game bird of the State. 

The following brief notices of it embody sufficient facts to 
indicate its status in various localities : — 

Deputy William C. Dunham of Nantucket, writing on Octo- 
ber 11 concerning the game conditions on that island, says : — 

There are 3 old pheasants and a brood of young pheasants, 4 in 
number, on the west side of the island, in what we call the Gardner 

The pheasants are reported doing well on the Cape. — S. B. Rich, 

I am pleased to be able to report the wonderful progress the Mon- 
golian pheasant is making in this section of the State. Numerous 
reports of the number of these birds which were being seen daily in 
the towns of Topsfield and Wenham came to me, and I started to 
investigate some of them. On Saturday, November 15, in company 
with Deputy Knowlton, of Wenham, I started for Topsfield. We 
crossed Wenham swamp on our way as a short cut, but before we 
got to Topsfield I was satisfied that the reports were not exaggerated. 
We started a number of the birds, 15 or 16 of which we saw, my 

118 FISH AXD GAME. [Dec. 

dog pointing a bunch of 5 at one time. A number got up wild in 
the brush which we could not see. I have started them also in Dan- 
vers, Middleton and Rockport. They are reported plentiful in 
Magnolia and Manchester. Mr. Daniel Goodwin of Newburyport 
reports seven or eight broods from those liberated in that vicinity. — 
TH03IAS L. BuRNEY, Lyuu. 

The pheasants seem to be doing well ; in the spring of the year 
the call of the bird is frequently heard, and in July I located two 
broods of young birds, one in which I counted 9, all able to fly 
strongly, though not much larger than quail. — J. W. Bailey, Arling- 

Pheasants have been seen often the last few days, . . . and are 
breeding fast, one flock having 5 females in it. — Fred S. Knowlton, 

The Mongolian pheasants that were liberated by your commission 
are doing well and are seen quite frequently. — Herbert E. Mc- 
Intire, Reading. 

Pheasants seem to be doing well and increasing. — F. G. Le- 
FAVOUR, Beverly. 

Pheasants have done well in this section of the State. — Hermann 
Thiemann, Manchester. 

Pheasants are seen almost every day. — Wm. W. Nixon, Glouces- 

Pheasants are all right and increasing fast; 10 have been seen in 
one flock. — L. C. Gordon, Groveland. 

I have seen numbers of pheasants around Boxford and Andover. — 
A. J. Rausch, Lawrence. 

I have heard of pheasants attempting to hatch their young in the 
woods west of the city, only to be disturbed and their nests destroyed 
by dogs, taken out for the purpose of "training," as claimed by 
owners. A law should be passed prohibiting owners of dogs from 
roaming the woods during the closed season, and thus destroying 
nests as well as young birds. — Fred J. Brown, Woburn. 

Pheasants have been seen about here several times. — William J. 
Toohey, North Andover. 

IIIA a^^ld 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 119 

The pheasants I put out I think are all right. I have seen quite 

a number when I have been hunting. I found one lot of ten birds 

within half a mile of the centre of the town, and have seen from 
3 to 5 in different places. — Gp:orge Pogue, Grafton. 

There was a nice brood of pheasants hatched here this summer and 
most all lived. — M. T. McCarthy, Leicester. 

Pheasants which were liberated two years ago are seen in broods 
in various sections I have visited, from the Cape to the most western 
part of the State. — John F. Luman, Palmer. 

Pheasants are seen here occasionally. — Fred S. Casavant, Gard- 

I have seen quite a number of pheasants in this vicinity this fall. — 
Wm. G. Nicholl, Northampton. 

Pheasants are being seen in every section. — A. M. Nichols, 
North Adams. 

The following statements from citizens indicate not only the 
presence of pheasants but the interest shown in them : — 

Mr. George H. Sweetnam, of Bedford, writing on Novem- 
ber 24 in reference to another matter, made the following 
statement : — 

A beautiful pheasant flew by the rear of my house the other morn- 
ing at great speed, alighting in the brush but a short distance away. 
Long may they fly ! 

Mr. E. M. Brastow, of Wrentham, writing on October 13, 
says : — 

As I have been very busy I cannot tell you of my own knowledge 
of the pheasants which you sent here the 25th of September, 1901, 
but I have it from a reliable person that there is one flock of 5, 
there may be more, but he certainly counted 5. I think you will 
remember of my writing you last year about them and saying one of 
them with a flock of quail fed with the hens at a farm house. That 
bird, I am afraid, is dead. Last spring we had several extensive 
forest fires, one of them on this farm, and on the morning of the fire 
the pheasant was seen, but not since. So I think it perished. 

Deer. — There is cumulative evidence that the deer is be- 
coming more common in this State than was probably deemed 

120 FISH AXD GAME. [Dec. 

possible only a few jesiYS ago. And it is a remarkable fact 
that, even now, many are disposed to believe that the wild 
deer reported to have been seen from time to time in various 
localities must "be animals which have escaped from parks or 
reservations. In a State populated as Massachusetts is, it is 
not, perhaps, remarkable that the occurrence of wdld deer here 
and there, often in close proximity to large towns, and indeed 
almost within sight of the gilded dome on Beacon Hill, is 
something difficult to either believe or understand. There is, 
however, indisputable evidence of this, and, although this ani- 
mal is not yet deemed sufficiently numerous to justify the 
hunting of it, there is a strong probability that, with continued 
protection for a brief time longer, the hunting of it for a few 
days each fall may be permitted without the risk of extermi- 
nating a species which should be kept in the State covers as 
long as practicable. Without protection extermination will 
follow with certainty and expedition. 

Complaint has been made by several persons of damage 
done to fruit trees and growing crops, and inquiries have been 
received by the commission asking if the State would pay for 
the alleged loss. 

There seems to be a division of opinion, among those pre- 
sumably conversant with the habits of the deer, regarding the 
destruction caused by this animal in Massachusetts. Thus, 
while the claim has been made that the deer is not likely to 
destroy fruit or eat cabbage, etc., it has been urged on the 
other hand by a citizen of Vermont, who lives "in a deer 
country" and asserts he knows what he is ''talking about," 
that "deer eat . . . about everything that grows in a farmer's 
field and garden, and will stay by such fodder until it is all 
eaten up." * 

However this may be, we are not aw^are that provision has 
ever been made by any State to pay for alleged damages of 
this nature by deer, and information has come to us that some 
of the public-spirited farmers of this State have emphatically 
declared they were opposed to anything that would permit the 
killing of these animals, and preferred instead to submit to any 
small loss that came to them. It is too much to expect that 

* " Forest and Stream," March 1, 1902. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMEXT — No. 25. 121 

all should take a similar view under trying circumstances, but 
the fact that some prefer small loss to killing the animals indi- 
cates the esteem in which the deer are held by a few, at least, 
who may have most cause for complaint. 

A mass of data is available showing the occurrence of deer 
in various sections of the State, from Cape Cod to the Berk- 
shire hills. It mast suffice, however, to quote a few extracts 
from the press and concise statements from the deputies and 

The Greenfield "Gazette and Courier" of Oct. 11, 1902, 
says : — 

There never was a year during the memory of the present genera- 
tioD when deer were so frequently seen in western Massachusetts 
and the adjacent part of Vermont as this fall. A herd of 4 was 
noticed in this vicinity recently, and last week they were seen in the 
woods near Factory Hollow. 

The North Adams "Transcript" of July 15, 1902, among 
its Williamstown items has the following : — 

Engineer Blackall and Fireman Leonard saw 3 deer on the railroad 
track a short distance east of the depot Saturday. The men were 
rounding the curve east of the depot on an engine, when they came 
upon the animals grazing beside the track. A blow of the whistle 
frightened the deer, and they bounded across the highway and up the 
side of East mountain. 

The same paper, on July 21, 1902, said: — 

Two deer were seen this morning in Greylock, a short distance from 
the home of W. W. Richmond. They were moving quietly along and 
appeared not to be frightened. 

Among the Greenfield items in the Springfield " Union " of 
Aug. 5, 1902, it was stated: — 

Henry Bates saw a big deer in the meadows near E. N. Larrabee's 
yesterday morning. The animal showed no fear and took plenty of 
time in walking out of the way. 

The Pittsfield " Journal " of Aug. 14, 1902, stated : — 

A large deer strolled into the yard in front of the residence of CoL 
A. L. Hopkins in Williamstown Sunday and fed there while Colonel 

122 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Hopkius stood on the piazza. The deer was a large buck and was 
watched with admiration until he took fright and hastened away. 

' ' Edward Deland saw 3 deer near his house in Montere}" 
Sunday morning," says the Pittsfield *' Eagle" of Aug. 16, 

The North Adams "Transcript" of March 24, 1902, notes : — 

Game Warden Nichols while goiDg through the woods Avest of the 
city Sunday surprised a large buck deer, which he attempted to drive 
into the mountain for its own protection from dogs. He found the 
animal so tame that it was with diflSculty headed away from civiliza- 
tion. The animal was one of the handsomest that has been seen in 
this vicinity. 

The next day the ''Transcript" published the following 
amono^ its Williamstown news : — 

George Larabee saw a herd of 14 deer on the Richmond lot just 
above White Oaks Tuesday while he was returning from the mountain 
where he had been cutting wood. The deer were grazing in the lot 
and were entirely unconscious of his approach until he stepped upon 
a twig, when they scattered. 

Mr. A. D. Putnam in his report for the week ending July 
13 says : — 

Deer have been seen very often in Spencer and Brookfield within 
the last week. 

Mr. John E. Marley, of Dracut, in a letter dated November 
5, makes the following statements concerning deer : — 

Deer are increasing here. I have seen 8 so far this season, 1 
yesterday morning swimming across Maskupic Lake. It seemed 
quite tame and came within forty yards of me. 

W. L. Smith, of Concord, reports that 2 deer have been seen 
in that town. They seemed quite tame and no one had any 
idea of molesting them. 

The following references to the occurrence of deer are ex- 
tracted from the annual reports of the deputies : — 

Several deer have been sighted not far from here. — D. R. Sim- 
mons, Cochesett. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 123 

Have seen several deer, but they seem to be undisturbed as they 
are very tame. — A. T. Moors, Briggsville. 

Deer have been seen every week for the past two months (prior to 
November 18) ; 3 were seen last Friday morning in G-roveland near 
the Georgetown line. — L. C. Gordon, Groveland. 

Deer are frequently seen. One man saw 4 in the road together 
one morning. Several does have been seen with fawns. One had a 
pair. — E. T. Wildes, Georgetown. 

Six deer have been seen about the town at different times this year. 
— Wm. J. TooHEY, North Andover. 

Two deer were reported seen at West Gloucester this summer. — 
William W. Nixon, Gloucester. 

Deer have frequently been seen this year, 1 or 2 at a time, and in 
one instance this fall a gentleman in driving twenty miles saw 5. — 
L. E. Reed, South Acton. 

Tw^o deer have been seen in the northwestern part of the town. — 
H. E. McIntire, Reading. 

There is a fine deer right here under my very eyes. . . . She has 
been here all summer. — John L. Martin, Milford. 

Deer are seen quite often, a buck being seen in the Hopedale Park 
lands on Sunday, November 9. — W. N. Prentiss, Milford. 

Deer are seen very often. — A. J. Kennedy, Lancaster. 

Deer are seen often. — Frank E. Smith, Douglas. 

Deer are beginning to be seen almost in every section. Herds of 
4 and 5 have been seen together, and it is not an uncommon thing to 
learn that a deer has been seen almost every day in one part or 
another. — John F. Luman, Palmer. 

A number of deer have been seen in this vicinity. — Daniel A. 
Warren, West Upton. 

Deer are increasing and are seen almost daily. — R. F. Smith, 

I have seen 24 live deer and 2 dead ones. — Dennis Shea, Ware. 

124 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Deer are seen frequently, and if the dogs would leave them alone 
they would increase rapidl}^ — Fred S. Casavant, Gardner. 

I have seen 3 deer in my orchard at one time this fall. — Charles 
A. White, Ludlow. 

Deer are frequently seen and are evidently on the increase. — Wm. 
G. NiCHOLL, Northampton. 

Deer are increasing rapidly. One farmer within three miles of my 
house saw 7 in one day. — E. C. Hall, Bucklaud. 

Deer are getting very plentiful, being seen quite often. — M. J. 
Cranson, Buckland. 

Deer are on the increase and are rather tame. — W. J. Cross, 

Deer are abundant and are not troubled by dogs as much as for- 
merly, being very tame and feeding around the farm houses without 
fear. — L. E. Ruberg, Hoosac Tunnel. 

Deer are increasing very rapidly, and the sportsmen are very much 
in favor of protecting them another five years. — A. M. Nichols, 
North Adams. 

There have been several cases reported of deer having been 
accidentally killed, and probably several have been run to 
death by dogs. One fell from a bridge in the vicinity of the 
Junction, near Pittsfield, and broke its leg about March 18. 
Authority was given to kill the animal. 

The following item appeared in the North Adams «* Tran- 
script " of Aug. 25, 1902 : — 

As the passenger train which reaches this city from Pittsfield at 
8.20 A.M. was coming down the valley this morning a deer appeared 
on the track about a mile south of Cheshire harbor. It ran on the 
track ahead of the engine for some distance, and then bounded off 
and ran into a wire fence and then fell. A south-bound freight train 
passed the place a short time afterward, and the train was stopped. 
The crew found that the deer's neck was broken, but it was still 

The animal was placed aboard the train and taken to Cheshire, 
where it was left at the freight house, and Game Warden A. M. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 125 

Nichols of this city was notified. He went to Cheshire, and after 
ascertaining the condition of the deer he ordered it killed. It was a 
doe, about two years old, and was a fine specimen. 

Warden Nichols has notified the state game commissioners, who 
will instruct him concerning the disposition of the carcass. 

At Woods Hole a deer with broken legs was found on the 
railroad track, where it had jumped or fallen from a high em- 
bankment. It was killed by authority of the commission. 

A deer jumped into a deep sandhole at Georgetown, prob- 
ably at night, and had to be killed. 

A deer which had evidently been driven into the water by 
dogs at Scituate was rescued by Mr. A. W. Phillips ; subse- 
quently it was liberated in the woods by the deputies of the 

A deer was rescued from drowning in Barnstable Bay late 
in November by Capt. F. W. Dexter of the naphtha launch 
*' Quartette," of Lynn, which at the time lay off Barnstable 
Point light engaged in herring fishing. The animal was kept 
for nearly a week, until the vessel returned home, when 
Captain Dexter reported having it on board to the commis- 
sion, and Deputy Burney was instructed to take charge of its 
liberation. This was a most remarkable case. The deer had 
evidently been driven into the water by either dogs or men, 
and was swimming straight out to sea when seen. Captain 
Dexter deserves commendation for his humane treatment of 
the animal, which had to be rubbed to restore its exhausted 
energies after being taken on board the *' Quartette ; " and also 
for his courtesy in promptly reporting it after his arrival. 

It is regrettable that this deer, the preservation of which 
reflected so much credit on Captain Dexter, should have been 
killed by John T. Collins, of Maplewood, on December 11, only 
a few days after the animal was liberated by Deputy Burney, 
who not only brought Collins into court to answer for his 
violation of law, but quickly recognized the animal by a scar 
he had noticed when he took it from the " Quartette." 

The. Belgian Hare. — The Belgian hare may apparently be 
now safely classed with the game animals of the State, 
although it is too early yet to speak with certainty of the 
results attending the efibrts of the commission to stock the 

126 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

State covers with this large species of rabbit, alike important 
as a game animal or a food product. 

Commissioner Delano has reason to believe that the Belo:ian 
hares liberated in the vicinity of Marion are breeding satis- 
factorily. On August 17 he saw a young hare, probably 
about six weeks old, which had been captured by his cat, but 
was not injured beyond a slight scratch. He succeeded in 
securing the animal and liberating it at some distance in a 

Mr. Myles Standish, of Rock, in a letter to Deputy Thayer, 
says: '* There are lots of quail, and Belgian hares I have 
seen." He says two of the hares were killed by hounds, but 
evidently those that were not thus destroyed did well. 

The following references to the Belgian hare by deputies of 
the commission are of interest in this connection : — 

I liberated four pairs of Belgian hares. Three pairs have been 
seen at various times since then. — Robert E. Belcher, Braintree. 

Belgian hares that were liberated by the commission some two 
years ago have not been seen since. There are very few if any on 
the Cape. — Wm. W. Nixon, Gloucester. 

I have had good reports from hares liberated on the Cape last 
year. — S. B. Rich, Proviucetown. 

There appears to be ample evidence thus early that the 
Belgian hare, notwithstanding adverse predictions regarding 
it, may prove to be a very desirable addition to the game 
fauna of the State, if it succeeds in maintaining itself in spite 
of foxes, hounds and other species that may prey upon it. 
The following extracts from a long article in the Worcester 
Sunday ^'Telegram" of March 2, 1902, call attention to the 
game qualities of the Belgian hare, — presumably one of those 
liberated by the commission, or one of the progeny of those 
put out : — 

It was the wont about Worcester, until Tuesday, to poke fun at 
the efforts of the Fish and Game Commissioners to stock the covers 
of the State with Belgians. Stories were told of how he was a cow- 
ard at heart ; how he would squat in front of the hounds, or take to 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 127 

earth ; how he had absolutely do right in the category of game ani- 
mals, big or little, and how he was generally a low-down, good-for- 
nothing, worthless creature at best. 

But since a Belgian hare has fallen to gun after a run of close to 
two hours ahead of hounds, and at that after he had been pricked with 
shot so that the fur was furrowed from his back, things look different 
when sportsmen begin to reconstruct their estimate of the Belgian. 
If he is no good in the poultry yard as a domestic animal, sportsmen 
are won over to the belief the Belgian in a wild state is about the 
proper sort of chap to have around. . . . 

As far as is known, the Belgian hare killed four miles from "Worces- 
ter in Tophet swamp last week is one of the first wild Belgian hares 
ever shot in this country. The eyes of experimenters and students 
have been upon the big rabbit for some years, and until now the 
experiment of breeding Belgians for stocking purposes at large has 
never been proved actually a success. To be sure, but one hare has 
been killed this year, as far as known, but the lone case proves at 
least that the hares will live in the roughness of Massachusetts 
swamps, and, above all, that they are game, after they have lived in 
the wild state for a year, and that the flesh is superb for food. 

This incident naturally attracted the attention of hunters 
outside of Worcester, but probably less would have been 
thought of it except for the fact that it has been duplicated, 
in fact excelled, elsewhere. 

Deputy Thomas L. Burney, in writing to the commission 
under date of October 25, says : — 

Mr. Converse reports the killing of a full-grown Belgian hare in 
Lunenburg yesterday. The dogs ran him three or four hours of the 
afternoon before, and he says he went to ground, and was started 
next morninof and killed soon after being started. 


This hunt at Lunenburg was undoubtedly the most remark- 
able thing of its kind that has occurred in this State ; in com- 
parison with it the chase of the common cotton-tail rabbit seems 
insignificant. It is claimed that some of the best dogs obtain- 
able were in the first day's chase, but all failed to capture the 
big rabbit, which proved not only a good runner, but is reputed 
to have a facility in side-jumping and doubling on its track 
that puts the best rabbit dogs at a disadvantage. It is worth 
noting that on the second day of the hunt at Lunenburg the 

128 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Belgian hare was shot, which accounts for the prompt ending 
of the adventure. 

Although the day may be distant when the Belgian hare will 
be sufficiently numerous in this State to become anything like 
an important commercial factor, it may, nevertheless, not be 
inopportune to invite attention to its value as a fur-producing 
animal, although the prices paid for skins are not generally 

There is authority for stating that citizens of Ghent, Belgium, 
have accumulated large fortunes by the exportation of rabbit 
skins to this country, where they are largely utilized. ''The 
pelt,'^ it is claimed, " when properly dyed in imitation of seal- 
skin, is much more valuable than the flesh of the rabbit." 

Squirrels and Babbits. — The condition of squirrels and 
rabbits in certain sections of the State, so far as their abun- 
dance as game is concerned, is shown in the following extracts 
from reports of the deputies : — 

There are quite a number of gray squirrels, but have not seen very 
many rabbits. — A. T. Hollinshead, Braintree. 

Rabbits are abundant here. Gray squirrels are plentiful and very 
large. — H. A. Dickerman, Taunton. 

Babbits are plentiful. — A. Crowell, Needham. 

Rabbits are not as plentiful as in former j^ears, but I do not know 
why. — Fred S. Knowlton, W^enham. 

Rabbits and gray squirrels are quite plentiful. — Wm. W. Nixon, 

Rabbits and squirrels are plenty. — George Pogue, Grafton. 

Rabbits are not very plentiful. — H. A. Bent, Franklin. 

I have seen more gray squirrels this fall than for many years. 
Rabbits are to be found in every hedgerow and brier patch. — W.N. 
Prentiss, Milford. 

Squirrels of all kinds and rabbits are flourishing. — A. J. Kennedy, 

Gray squirrels are peeping around from many branches, as is 
evidenced by seeing a man come in from a six hours' hunt with 24 

Plate IX, 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. . 129 

bushy tailed squirrels dangling along by his side. — Dennis Shea, 

There are only a very few white rabbits found in this section. — 
M. J. Cranson, Buckland. 

There are more gray squirrels seen and taken this year than ever 
before. — A. M. Nichols, North Adams. 

Breeding Game Birds and Animals. 

Winchester. — The breeding of game animals was carried 
on at this experimental station as usual, there being no 
change or incident in this part of the work which deserves 
special mention. It was different, however, with game birds, 
in the breeding and rearing of which novel features have ap- 
peared, some of which may be considered advantageous, while 
others were startlingly alarming, and for a time threatened 
dire results. These will be discussed under their appropriate 
heads in the following paragraphs. 

Pheasants. — For several reasons the promise of a successful 
season with pheasants had never been so good, and anticipation 
of large results in breeding and rearing were correspondingly 

The discontinuance of blasting in the nearby quarry, which 
in recent years has proved so fatal to the incubation of pheas- 
ants, was an event that prompted hope and courage. Beside 
this the breeding stock was in first-rate condition in the spring, 
the pheasants of both sexes being hardy and vigorous to an 
unusual degree. This was probably due to the fact that from 
early in February they had been fed on a specially prepared 
food, wnth the object of increasing the fertility of the eggs if 
possible. While no perceptible improvement in this direction 
was secured, there was a marked increase in the vitality of the 

The young pheasants came out very strong and remarkably 
healthy. This increased vigor of the chicks, and the exemp- 
tion from loss formerly caused by blasting in the adjacent 
quarry, which had heretofore made the incubators almost use- 
less, were suflBcient reasons to promote expectation of more 
than ordinary success, an anticipation which would doubt- 

130- FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

less have been fully realized except for untoward conditions, 
as unexpected as they were difficult to deal with. 

The pheasants began laying on March 25, which was fully 
two weeks earlier than usual. The first lot of eggs placed in 
incubation were set under bantam hens during the opening 
week of April. 

But the inauguration of pheasant breeding at this exception- 
ally early date caused the commission to be confronted with 
a problem which it had not previously met, and one, for the 
time being, that seemed rather difficult to solve. So far as 
previous experience had furnished a basis for estimating, the 
bantams would succeed in hatching their broods at a time when 
it would be, under ordinary expected conditions, impossible 
to procure a supply of maggots, so vitally necessary for the 
pheasant chicks, which cannot be successfully raised without 
this food. How to get these was the question, and it must be 
confessed that there was doubt as to whether it could be 
answered. Fortunately an unexpected but welcome incident 
furnished the means of overcoming the difficulty, and at the 
same time offered a suggestion which may prove useful to> 
others as well as to the commission. 

In former reports the fact has been frequently stated that 
maggots, after they were fully grown and before they pass 
into the pupa stage, can be held for a long time in a condition 
of suspended development by keeping them in a temperature 
not above 40° F. The cold, while it does not kill the mag- 
gots, is sufficient to arrest their growth, — a matter of much 
moment at certain seasons of the year, when large quantities 
of live food are required. About the first of November, 1901,. 
there remained in the refrigerator about a quart of maggots 
in this torpid condition-, and in cleaning up in the fall these 
were thrown into a hole in the garden about six inches deep 
and covered with earth. Early in the spring it became neces- 
sary to construct a hotbed for raising early lettuce for the birds,. 
and, in digging loam with which to cover the manure of the 
hotbed, these maggots, which had been buried the previous- 
fall, were uncovered and thrown out. There were no indica- 
tions of decay or injury among them ; they were as bright and 
fresh as when they were put into the ground. At the same 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 131 

time they showed no sign of life until exposed to the noonday 
sun, when there was ample evidence of returning vitality. 
The maggots were then carefully strewn over the manure of 
the hotbed and covered with about three inches of powdered 
earth. Fourteen days later, when the sash covering the hot- 
bed was raised for ventilation, the space beneath it was seen to 
be full of flies. They swarmed out in all directions, lit on the 
south sides of trees and buildings, and, notwithstanding several 
rather severe frosts that occurred subsequently, they survived. 
They swarmed on meat that was put out on warm days and 
deposited their eggs, the result being that by the time the 
pheasant chicks were hatched there was a bountiful supply of 
maggots for them. 

Aside from the possible advantage to bird breeders who may 
have to rely upon insect larva to feed young chicks, this ex- 
periment, if it may properly be so termed, should have much 
of interest to the embryologist. At any rate it seems to indi- 
cate to the ordinary layman the cause of the sudden appearance 
of swarms of insects in early spring, after a few days of warm 
weather. In such cases it is probable the larva have been held 
in a state of suspended animation and development since the 
previous fall, and only the quickening power of a warm sun 
is required to bring the metamorphosis and vigorous life so 
frequently observable in the winged myriads of spring. 

The pheasant breeding season opened exceptionally early, as 
already related, and it began well. There was a large supply 
of eggs and the incubation seemed to prosper. At no time 
have the prospects looked so encouraging from the stand-point 
of chicks hatched and the strength and vigor of the young 
birds at the beginning of their existence. Had there been no 
extraordinary conditions to contend with, it may not be too 
much to say that the results might have been remarkable ; but 
the introduction of the virulent infectious disease known as 
roup, through bringing into the station birds from the Sports- 
man's Show (hereafter to be discussed in detail) , caused much 
trouble and disaster to the young pheasants, among which it 
spread so extensively that comparatively few were exempt from 
it, although, fortunately, it did not attack the adult birds. 

The commission had no knowled£:e that the foreign birds 

132 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

were suffering from roup when, late one afternoon, shortly 
after the close of the Sportsman's Show, they were received at 
Winchester, and immediately let loose in the several divisions 
of the brooder house. When the birds were examined next 
morning the Hungarian partridge were found to be hopelessly 
diseased. This was a severe blow, for, at the best, the seed of 
disease had been sown, and, whatever became of the foreign 
birds, there was apparently no escape from its ravages in the 
infected quarters provided for the young pheasants. The blow 
was all the more staggering because the roup had never pre- 
viously appeared on the grounds at Winchester, and the com- 
mission was not prepared to deal with it. It is, however, well 
known to poultry breeders, and its infectious characteristics 
have been recognized. As a preliminary step interviews were 
had with those familiar with the disease, and from them was 
gathered all information possible of obtainment concerning the 
necessary care and treatment of birds suffering from roup. 
There was, unfortunately, a remarkable diversity of opinion 
and advice. No two prescribed the same remedies. All were 
tried faithfully until, at last, the conclusion was reluctantly 
reached that in this matter, as in most cases where drugs are 
relied upon to effect cures, people often honestly deceive 

All of the chicks did not have the roup, and of those afflicted 
with it all did not die. Of eight coops of young pheasants set 
apart for experimentation and observation the chicks in seven 
were treated with various remedies. The birds in the eighth 
coop received no treatment, except that both chicks and coop 
were sprinkled with diluted sulpho-naphthol. 

The result of these carefully conducted experiments showed 
conclusively that no effective remedy for roup has yet been 
discovered. The conclusion reached was that, aside from 
proper sanitary treatment, the birds do better if left alone, for 
a larger percentage survived in the eighth coop than in any 

At no time were the birds received from the Sportsman's 
Show near the breeding pheasants, nor did any of the latter 
have any indications of being attacked with disease, as has 
already been intimated. All of the new birds were kept in the 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 133 

brooder house only a brief time, sufficient for the preparation 
of coops on the hill for their accommodation, when they were 
removed as far as possible from the pheasants. 

The ground w^iere the roup occurred has been disinfected by 
putting air-slacked lime on it and spading it in about one foot 
deep ; it is hoped no further manifestation of this disease will 

Notwithstanding the severe losses occasioned by the roup, 
amounting in the aggregate to 275 or 300 chicks, there is sat- 
isfaction in being able to say that a much larger number of 
pheasants were raised at Winchester than ever before. Two 
hundred and thirty-two were distributed, and about 100 of the 
weaker ones and those recovering from the roup were reserved 
for wintering and spring distribution. Some of these have 
succumbed to the severe weather in early December, so that 
only 60 young birds remain at the time this is written. It is 
entirely possible there may be a slight additional loss, but the 
hope is cherished that no further evil effect of the roup will be 

The first brood, which proved the strongest and best of the 
year, was reserved in large part to increase and improve the 
breeding stock. 

Ruffed Grouse, Woodcock and Quail. — No eggs of the ruffed 
grouse were obtained this year. On March 6 partridge were 
received at Winchester shortly after the close of the Sports- 
man's Show, where they had been on exhibition, under the 
authorization and supervision of the commission. Four of these 
were males. Two of the latter and 1 of the females died. 
It was hoped the remaining female would pair with one of the 
males, and that it might thus be possible to record some inter- 
esting results of partridge breeding in captivity. The birds 
were kept as exclusive as the circumstances permitted, and 
everything practicable was done to make them feel at ease in 
their environment. All this availed nothing, however, for 
their native wildness was proof against any attempt to domes- 
ticate them to any degree whatever. They gave no indication 
of breeding ; therefore they were liberated about the first of 
September, there being no object in keeping them longer. 

Twelve quail Avere received from the Sportsman's Show, 

134 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

through the courtesy of the management. Only one of the lot 
survived. It is probable that they might have all lived and 
thrived if they had not come in such close contact w^ith the 
diseased foreign birds and suffered because of this contiguity. 

Experiments with Foreign Game Birds. — For some time 
the commission has looked forward with interest and hopeful- 
ness to the time when it might have the opportunity to 
experiment at Winchester with the problem of rearing foreign 
game birds. It was, therefore, glad to avail itself of the 
opportunity presented, through the courtesy of the manage- 
ment of the Sportsman's Show, to see what could be done with 
certain species which were sent to Winchester soon after the 
close of the exhibition. This consignment included 9 French 
partridge, 7 Hungarian partridge and 2 Armenian partridge 
(all of the Perdix genus), beside American species of game 
birds elsewhere referred to. 

All hopes of success that had been cherished regarding 
experiments with these birds were doomed to bitter disap- 
pointment, none the less keen because the conditions were 
such that practically nothing was learned, so that we are still 
really as far from knowing what may be accoluplished with 
these species as before. 

As already stated, the Hungarian partridge were badly dis- 
eased when they were received, and the malady which affected 
them was unavoidably transmitted to the other foreign birds 
that came with them. As a result only 3 of the French birds 
and 1 of the Armenian partridge survived. Those that died 
were dissected, and it was thus determined that only 1 of the 
lot was a female. 

Whether those now living will endure the winter climate of 
New England will be determined. If they live that much will 
be settled, and it is still hoped they may mate next summer. 

The Belgian Hare, — The Belgian hares have, as usual, been 
perfectly healthy, although they have been somewhat less pro- 
lific than last year. As yet neither study nor observation has 
indicated with certainty how long breeding rabbits of this 
species should be retained for propagation, having in mind the 
obtainment of the best results. There are indications, how- 
ever, which suggest that if they are kept longer than four 
years their fertility is liable to be impaired. 

11)02.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 135 

The experiment was tried late in the summer of giving them 
their freedom for one or two weeks, and allowing them to run 
quite unrestricted about the large enclosure. The results were 
decidedly satisfactory. 

Observation of the habits of the Belgian hare suggests the 
importance of either marketing these animals that are raised 
for food when they are about four months old, or separating 
the sexes, if that is practicable. If they are not kept separate 
they will begin to breed at that age. 

The Belgian hare differs materially in its breeding habit from 
the American hare or the cotton-tail rabbit ; for while the two 
latter do not breed in winter, the former bears young both 
winter and summer, regardless of the inclemencies of the 
weather. Inasmuch, however, as the parent Belgian hare digs 
her burrow deep into the ground, and lines her nest warmly 
for her young, the latter have a better chance for life in winter 
than otherwise might be the case. 

The experience of the commission has proved the necessity 
of allowing the young to run free in a large enclosure as soon 
as they are w^eaned, without regard to weather. This increases 
their hardiness and is the surest way to maintain their health 

Sutton. — The conditions attending the rearing of pheasants 
at Sutton were, happily, very different from those at Winches- 
ter. They were, however, not unattended with difficulties, 
nor is it to be expected that work of this kind will be. The 
experience gained will no doubt prove helpful in the future in 
securing immunity from all preventable losses. 

Report of the Sicjperintendent. — The results attained in 
breeding and rearing pheasants at Sutton, and many interest- 
ing facts and observations connected with the work, are de- 
tailed in the following report of the superintendent of the 
station : — 

State Fish Hatchery, Wilkinsonville P. O., Sutton, Mass., 

Nov. 27, 1902. 
To the Commissioners on Fisheries and Game. 

Gentlemen : — The brood stock of pheasants, 9 cocks and 27 hens, 
was reduced early in the season by the loss of 4 hens, and nearly all 
of the 923 eggs collected were laid by the 23 hens remaining, making 
the average of eggs per hen about 50 per cent, higher than last year. 

136 FISH AXD GAME. [Dec. 

The increase was made by the two-year-old birds, they laying in 
some pens over 50 eggs each. As noted last year, the yield of some 
pens was so far below the average as to indicate the birds in them 
were undesirable for breeders ; consequently, when the stock was- 
bunched for wintering the poor layers were discarded. The three- 
year-old birds showed a decreasing productiveness and were also- 

It so happened that one of the new cocks obtained of H. G. Foster,, 
of Ashby, was put into the pen that contained the best layers, and 
as the chicks from this lot proved stronger than any of the rest, the 
new brood stock was largely reserved from the product of this pen. 
From an early lot of 17 chicks, 15 were reared to maturity and are 
now in the pens. 

The large increase in the number of eggs was not accompanied by 
any improvement in their vitality. The weakness that caused such 
a heavy loss of eggs last year was felt more severely this year, and 
earlier in the season, the first lot being the poorest when a year ago 
it was the best. Toward the end of the season there was a steady 
improvement, and the last lots hatched fairly well. From 923 eggs 
set, 299 chicks were hatched. Most of the eggs that failed to hatch 
were fertile, and very many contained live chicks when due to hatch, 
but in most cases the chicks were too feeble to live when helped from 
the shell, though some were saved in that way. 

All obsei-vations indicate a lack of vitality in the brood stock which 
was transmitted to the embryos, and the conclusion that was reached 
last year in regard to avoiding it, namely, to increase the vigor of 
the breeders, should be adhered to. The obtainment of some new 
cocks this year proved beneficial, but the principal benefit, of course, 
is to be looked for next season. 

This year's experience indicates unmistakably that it is increasingly 
important to build improved pens. The breeding pens we now have, 
while adapted to the purpose they were intended for, are quite unsuit- 
able for wintering birds, being bleak and icy in cold weather and 
slushy and foul in the thawing weather. A pen suitable for winter- 
ing pheasants should be several times the area of those we now have 
for breeding pens. The wintering pens can be built on the adjoining 
hillside, which slopes to the southeast and is thickly covered with 
scrubby brush. They would then furnish warm, sunny and dry quar- 
ters, where the birds would have ample room for exercise, and like- 
wise incentive to scratch in the brush and litter, with an assured 
beneficial effect. A small pen, extemporized of boards and old 
poultry netting, was located on this hillside ground and used for con- 

X a^^ld 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 137 

fining the birds received for breeders, and they have reached a size 
:and condition never attained by any pheasants in the old pens. 

Although many of the chicks were weak when first hatched, they 
rapidly developed strength, and the loss by death during the younger 
stages was slight, with the exception that, during a period of raw, 
wet weather, more than 40 died. One hundred chicks in all suc- 
cumbed before they were a month old, and 81 were lost at ages 
ranging from a month upward. The number successfully reared and 
distributed was 118. 

The loss of young chicks was not unexpected or discouraging, for 
it was less than usual with pheasants ; but the mortahty of the older 
chicks seemed unnecessarily heavy ; it was greater than the previous 
year, and was due to different causes. 

Extreme care was taken in penning the birds so that they would 
not suffer from confinement, and ver}^ few died in the pens ; but in 
avoiding overcrowding, many of the later lots were kept outside and 
exposed to their enemies much too long. Twenty were lost from 
one lot, and enough disappeared from other lots to bring the total 
loss to over 60. Various accidents, including drowning, which took 
10 young birds, brought the total to 81. 

The heaviest unaccountable loss last year occurred among the very 
young birds, and was perhaps rightly attributed to crows. By a 
persistent warfare on them the crows were kept at a distance this 
year, with a resultant immunity from destruction of young pheasants. 
There is evidence that cats, foxes, owls and hawks are responsible 
for the destruction of the birds too large and active for crows to carry 
off that disappeared this year, although little proof of this could be 

I renew my recommendation, made last year, that suitable pens be 
provided for confining the birds when quite young, so as to avoid the 
loss above referred to. This seems increasingly necessary, for the 
causes which produce loss are multiplying quite as fast as the in- 
crease of birds. The cost of pens sufficient to confine all the pheas- 
ants raised this year would not have been over one-half of the value 
of the birds lost. The pens recommended should be low, movable, 
inexpensive affairs, of sufficient stability to hold the birds until the 
season for distribution, but not for wintering. 

The chicks should still be permitted to run free for several weeks 
after birth, for it is not necessary to confine them until they begin to 
stray from the hens. 

The difficulty heretofore experienced in getting setters to incubate 
the pheasant eggs was obviated by the acquisition of a sufficient 

138 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

flock of hens ; besides avoiding the waste of time in securing setters, 
as heretofore, the hens we used have proved more tractable on the 
nests and with the chicks. 

An important observation, which may aid materially in determining 
what kind of hens are best to use, was the great difference noted in 
the results obtained in hatching. Old hens, or those of light weight 
or feeble condition, invariably failed. The highest success was se- 
cured with young and vigorous hens, notably some white Wyandotte 
pullets. The bantams did not succeed as well as the large hens in 
hatching, but did far better in rearing their chicks. 

The hens have paid for themselves and nearly all of their food 
from the time of acquisition, and for another year they can be ex- 
pected to pay for a large part of the pheasant food in addition » 
Although they seemed unusually disposed to breed, the number avail- 
able for setting was barely sufficient to meet requirements, and in a 
season of normal hatching would have been insufficient. 

The cost of rearing the pheasants has been limited virtually to the 
cost of their food, or less than $60, which includes the food for the 
bantams and all the hens. No improvements on the pheasant pens 
were made that caused any expense, and only $3.30 was expended 
on the hen yards. 

The results show a decided advance over last year, from the same 
number of breeders. An increased output was secured, and the 
birds were liberated in better condition. The good results with the 
young chicks seem due in a large measure to the food, which was 
substantially the same as that used last year, — maggots, and custard 
thickened with suitable substances. It produced a rapid, healthy 
growth of the chicks, and is certain to be fully as effective with much 
larger flocks ; for, with the unrestricted range here, there will be no 
evil effect of crowding that will tend to produce a different result. 

There is ample reason for expecting a satisfactory increase of 
pheasants from the present brood stock, for all that stands in the 
way is the recent difficulty in hatching and the loss of birds in the 
more advanced stages of growth, obstacles that are owing to remov- 
able causes and apparently not difficult to overcome. 

Respectfully, Arthur Merrill. 

Experiments Elsewhere. — At the close of the Sportsman's 
Show in early March, Messrs. Paul Butler, of Lowell, and 
Charles W. Dimick, of Cambridge, evinced a desire to under- 
take, under the auspices of the commission, some experiments 
in the acclimatization of various species of foreign game birds 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 139 

that had been on exhibition, and also to see what could be 
accomplished in breeding the partridge or ruffed grouse in 
semi-domesticity . 

The foreign birds used in these experiments embraced repre- 
sentatives of the same species received at Winchester, while 
the ruffed grouse were part of the lot that had been on exhi- 
bition at the Sportsman's Show. 

These gentlemen, who are deputies of this commission, are 
both deeply interested in everything that tends to develop a 
greater knowledge of game species, or which may lead to the 
introduction or increase of desirable forms. In addition to this 
they had special facilities for conducting experiments, without 
expense to the State, and were willing to incur considerable 
personal outlay in the effort to secure desired results, or at 
least to determine what could be accomplished. 

Mr. Butler has a large estate near Lowell, and on this a con- 
siderable area was devoted to ruffed grouse. This lot, which 
contained bushes, trees and other features such as are com- 
monly found in covers frequented by the partridge, was enclosed 
and also covered Avith netting to prevent the escape of the 
birds. The plan was to leave the birds as undisturbed as pos- 
sible, subject to no other intrusion than that incident to feed- 
ing them. This, it was hoped, would result in the pairing 
of the partridge, and their natural increase in confinement. 
If this could be achieved, attempts to advance the experi- 
ments in other directions could be made, so that step by step 
the limit of accomplishment could be determined, at least 

Just what result might have been secured except for an 
untoward event may, perhaps, not be positively stated at this 
time, although there is reason to believe that one brood of 
ruffed grouse, if no more, might have been raised. One of 
the workmen on Mr. Butler's estate, we are informed, while 
making some repairs to a bridge over a small stream, found a 
nest of partridge eggs under the bridge. To what extent the 
nest or eggs were disturbed we are not informed, but, however 
limited this may have been, the mother bird forsook her nest ; 
consequently what promised to become a success proved a dis- 
appointment. There was, nevertheless, sufficient encourage- 

140 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

ment in this to justify a continuance of effort to breed partridge 
under the conditions indicated. 

Mr. Dimick has nothing to report of a satisfactory nature, 
although he is hopeful that another jesir may bring better 
results . 

Nothing was accomplished with the foreign birds, we are in- 
formed, so far as breeding them is concerned, and the question 
of breeding these species in confinement, after they have been 
brought across the Atlantic, seems to be an unsolved problem 
at this time. If it can be done successfully these gentlemen, 
with the facilities at their command, should be able to accom- 
plish the task, which is a work of no small moment when we 
have in mind what it may mean to the eifort now being made* 
to stock our covers with desirable species of game birds. But 
in this as in many other things success is attainable, maybe, 
only after repeated attempts and repeated failures, and knowl- 
edge can be gained only by experience. 

Distribution of Game Birds and Animals. — During the 
year 350 pheasants have been liberated in various sections of 
the State, in compliance with the requests of applicants. In 
the appendix will be found a list of the applicants to whom 
pheasants were sent and the points where the birds were liber- 
ated. The number of pheasants distributed this year is slightly 
less than was sent out in 1901, due to the reservation of a 
number for wintering. As has been shown, the number raised 
exceeds that of any other year. 

The Belgian hares distributed numbered 193. The points of 
distribution and the persons to whom the hares were sent are 
shown in the appendix. 

The applications for these birds and animals have been far 
beyond any previous record, and far too numerous to comply 
with all of them, especially in view of the fact that many which 
remained on file from last year deserved consideration. The 
interest shown in the distribution of pheasants and hares is a 
most gratifying evidence of a growing public desire to have the 
State covers properly stocked, — a desire that the commission 
is anxious to gratify to as full an extent as possible. It is doing 
more now in that direction than ever before, and, as hereto- 
fore, will exert itself to the utmost to comply with all de- 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 141 

mands, which may be possible if circumstances should prove 

The birds and animals have been distributed by the deputies 
often in connection with the distribution of fish, so that the 
work could be accomplished with greater economy. 

Concerning Introduction of New Species. — Reference is 
made to the chapter on breeding game birds at Winchester and 
*' Experiments elsewhere " for information concerning attempts 
that have been made to acclimatize foreign species of birds. 
These were imported in considerable numbers by the manage- 
ment of the Sportsman's Show, and to that extent the experi- 
ments have been favored. 

An effort was made by the management to procure speci- 
mens of the Capercailzie {Tetras urogalliis) and the black game 
(2. tetrix) from northern Europe, but without result, notwith- 
standing European agents were under instructions to procure 
specimens of these species for many months before the opening 
of the show. This seems to indicate a notable difficulty in 
securing either of these birds for this country. 

An effort was made by the commission early in the year to 
secure a consignment of mountain quail (^Oreortyx pictus 
plumiferiis Gould) from Oregon. Arrangements were con- 
cluded with Mr. F. L. Reis, of Albany, Ore., to ship one 
dozen specimens of this species, it being understood that he 
had the birds in captivity and that they were semi-domesti- 
cated. The shipment was accordingly made, but, because the 
birds w^ere not properly boxed for so long a journey, and also 
because they were probably wild birds, which had been trapped 
only a brief time before they were shipped, all were dead when 
received and most of them had died before reachino- Chicao-o. 

There is every probability that birds of this species, w^iich 
have been kept some time in confinement and thereby become 
somewhat accustomed to the presence of man, can be safely 
- shipped across the continent by one expert in such matters ; 
but care and expertness can count for little unless permission 
can be obtained for the exportation of the birds out of the State 
where they are procurable. On the other hand, the granting 
of a permit to the inexperienced in such matters can serve no 
useful purpose. And rtght here it may be stated that the most 

142 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

expert hunter or trapper — one who may be perfectly familiar 
with the haunts and habits of the mountain quail — may be, 
and probably will be, totally deficient in knowledge required 
to successfully send live wild birds on a long journey. 

While the result of this attempt to acquire the mountain 
quail for breeding purposes is deeply regretted, the obtainment 
of living birds of this species is not conceded to be impossible, 
and better fortune may attend future attempts. 

Exhibit at Sportsman's Show, etc. 

Authorization by the Governor. — Previous to the present 
year this commission has never undertaken to make any ex- 
hibit illustrative of its work and functions. Nor had it pre- 
viously possessed the material for doing this. The importance 
of participating in a Sportsman's Show held in Boston, to the 
limited extent made possible by the small collection gathered 
in recent years, was urged upon the commission, and was too 
apparent to be successfully refuted. 

There was, hoAvever, no specific provision for this in the 
appropriation granted by the Legislature and also no proper 
leo'alization. Authorization was therefore souo'ht of His Ex- 
cellency the Governor, who, appreciating the desirability of 
having the work of the Fish and Game Commission repre- 
sented at the show, where the commissions of other States 
would probably exhibit, promptly granted the authority sought. 

Scope and Character of the Exhibit. — The limitations of this 
first attempt at participation in an exhibition were necessarily 
much restricted, since, for many reasons, it was desirable that 
the effort should be only a modest one, which should involve 
the minimum of expenditure. It was therefore decided that the 
exhibit should be restricted to such material as might be chiefly 
interesting to sportsmen, fish culturists and naturalists. 

The primary object was to show, by living and mounted 
specimens, lithographs or photographs, the fish, birds and ani- 
mals propagated by the commission for stocking State waters 
and covers ; also, the plants for carrying on this work, such 
as fish hatcheries, brood and rearing ponds, pheasant coops, 
incubators, boxes for breeding and rearing Belgian hares, etc. 
In addition, there were specimens of fish and game birds that 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMEXT — Xo. 25. 143 

are protected by State laws or that it may be desirable to 
introduce ; also fish-eating birds and a few illustrations of the 
sea and coast fisheries. 

Besides all this, the commission assumed the responsibility 
of the exhibit of living partridge or ruffed grouse, although 
the expense of collecting the birds and caring for them was 
borne by the management of the exhibition. 

The live fish exhibit was composed of about 300 specimens 
in four large tanks. One of these aquariums contained four- 
year-old brook and rainbow^ trout ; another two-year-old brook 
trout and three-year-old l)rown trout ; the third had three-year- 
old landlocked salmon, and in the fourth there were 200 brook 
and rainbow trout yearlings. 

To supplement these living specimens there were preserved 
collections in bottles of trout and salmon fry, trout fingerlings 
(including monstrosities), pike perch fry, trout and salmon 
eggs in various stages of development, landlocked smelt eggs ; 
and framed colored lithographs of the following species offish : 
brook trout, rainbow trout, brown trout, lake trout, Atlantic 
salmon, striped bass, pike perch, white fish, small-mouthed 
black bass, white bass, rock bass, calico bass, white perch, 
yellow perch, shad and carp. 

The fish cultural w^ork of the commission was further illus- 
trated by large photographs (15 by 20 inches) of the following 
subjects : fish hatchery, Adams, Mass. ; fish hatchery, Hadley, 
Mass.; fish ponds, Hadley; tub system, Hadley; fish hatch- 
ery, Sutton, Mass.; fishpond, Sutton; tub system, Sutton; 
superintendent's residence, Sutton, and the fish hatchery at 
Winchester, Mass. 

Twelve living Mongolian pheasants were exhibited. These 
w^ere installed in an enclosure on the southeast side of the 
buildingj inside of wire netting, with an abundance of small 
evergreen trees so arranged that the birds were partially shel- 
tered and less shy than they otherwise would have been*. 
They did well. 

To further demonstrate the work of the commission in the 
propagation of game birds and animals there were exhibited 
the following mounted specimens : a pair (cock and hen) of 
Mongolian pheasants, an English cock pheasant, and a cock 

liJ: FISH AXD GAME. [Dec. 

partridge. Also large photographs (15 by 20 inches) of Mon- 
golian pheasants, the pheasant coops at Winchester, pheasant 
coops and rabbitry at Winchester, rabbit pen and box, Win- 
chester, and pheasantry at Sutton. 

The following mounted specimens were shown in addition 
to the above: gannet or solan goose (Sida bassanea) ; male 
mallard duck (Anas hoschas) ; prairie chicken ; pair (male and 
female) of black cock {Tetrao tetrix), and the head of a buck 
deer killed in Massachusetts.* 

The exhibit further included small photographs of partridge 
nests, with the mother bird sitting on the eggs in one of them ; 
also photographs of the following subjects framed together in 
a group : (1) Lifting a pound net at Cape Cod; (2) Landing 
the catch; (3) Landing clams at T wharf; (4) Winter at 
T wharf. 

A model of a stick lobster pot completed the collection. 

By an arrangement with the Massachusetts Fish and Game 
Protective Association the erection of a booth resembling a 
rude log cabin was conjointl}^ undertaken by the commission 
and the association, each to pay half the expense of construc- 
tion and to share equally in the use of the structure for instal- 
lation of exhibits. The interior was divided into two parts 
by a crosswise partition running through the middle. This 
'*camp" was built of slabs with the bark on, as ^a rule, and 
had the projecting eaves characteristic of such structures. On 
top was a long sign, bearing on one end the title of the com- 
mission and on the other that of the association. 

This provision for installation, and especially the arrange- 
ment for a division of the expense, enabled the commission to 
make a creditable display with a remarkably small expenditure. 

Aside from the living fish and birds, the entire collection 
enumerated above was installed in the commission's section of 
the "camp." Each object was provided with a printed de- 
scriptive label. 

During the progress of the exhibition, which opened on 
February 22, Commissioner Delano looked after the exhibit 
of the commission, giving his personal attention to the care of 

* This animal was illegally killed in the fall of 1900, and a fine of §100 was 
paid for the violation of law. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 145 

the living fish and birds as well as to the other objects dis- 

For a modest first attempt, the exhibit of the commission 
received much favorable comment ; enough to justify the effort 
put forth to illustrate to the public wliat the State is doing to 
conserve and increase the wild life in our interior waters and 

The exhibit of wild partridge had specially interesting fea- 
tures. This was the first occasion, so far as we are informed, 
when it has been found practicable to keep on public exhibi- 
tion, in a building through which a surging crowd was con- 
tinuously passing, living specimens of this bird. Indeed, it 
had been deemed impossible of accomplishment by many. 
That it was successfully done is due to the zeal, patience and 
good judgment of Mr. Dimick, as well as to the assistance 
given him by the commission in procuring the birds, etc. The 
attempt would unquestionably have been a failure if the birds 
had been exhibited immediately after they were captured, for 
their well-known shyness and intense aversion to the presence 
of man would have caused their self-destruction in the effort 
to escape. Foreseeing this, Mr. Dimick provided for the 
obtainment of the birds weeks in advance of the opening of 
the show. As fast as secured they were taken to quarters 
specially prepared for them. Gradually they were accustomed 
to the presence of man ; then to gentle handling. Anything 
that could startle them or cause them to lose any of the con- 
fidence they had gained was carefully avoided. 

The following description of the method of treatment, pub- 
lished in «' Forest and Stream" of March 8, 1902, gives many 
details which are interestino- in this connection : — 


Now the problem was begun. Mr. Dimick and his son, a hoy of 
eighteen, who loves birds and animals as well as his father, made a 
great study of the subject. They put the birds in an enclosure 
padded with cloth of a dun or dead- leaf color. The windows, large 
and capable of great ventilation, were covered with mosquito netting 
that the birds could fly against and not cling to or injure themselves. 
The floor was of earth, and covered with leaves and moss^ Green 
boughs were supphed in plenty, with plenty of hiding places. But 
the greatest difficulty was yet to overcome. They had already lost a 

146 FISH AXD GAME. [Dec. 

number of birds, evidently through starvation induced by fright. 
"What was to be done? The poor partridges would only crowd into a 
corner, and refused to eat. Mr. Dimick reasoned that they were 
actually made sick by fright. If a man were sick from fear some- 
thing must be done to quiet his fear and tempt his appetite, and it 
must be a natural, most tempting and stimulating food. What must 
he obtained for the frightened partridges? They studied further 
when almost everything had failed. At last they thought of ant eggs 
or larvc^. These they could obtain from ant hills and decayed wood. 
They were tried. The partridges eyed them. Soon one "grabbed 
for them." The others followed. From that forward the birds 
began to mend, began to eat; and the thing was done ! Bat their 
wildness was improved but a little bit. Here was another knotty 
problem : How could the wildness, a part of the nature of the ruffed 
grouse, be overcome? Mr. Dimick made up his mind that it was 
best to enter the enclosure where the birds were with as little motion 
as possible. At first he would be several minutes in moving a few 
feet toward the birds, — moving very slowly, with hands down and 
without motion of his head. If the birds showed extreme fear he 
stopped, remaining motionless till they were more quiet. For a long- 
time he would not raise his arm, or even move his hand, if he thought 
it increased the alarm of the partridges huddled together under the 
brush in an extreme corner of the enclosure. Gradually they seemed 
to lose their fear. Now he enters their enclosure and they do not 
manifest the least alarm. 

The opening night of the Sportsman's Show they were greatly 
frightened. They were in a new enclosure, with hundreds of eyes 
staring at them ; moving people in all sorts of dress. Mr. Dimick 
noticed that it seemed to calm their fears somewhat when he or his 
son came along with others. The next morning early he came into 
the Mechanics' Building, and the first place he visited was the par- 
tridge compartment. There they were, huddled in the corner the 
same as the night before. They had not moved from the posi- 
tion first taken. He entered the compartment, crawling flat on 
the floor, so as not to frighten them more by his standing height. 
Very carefully he approached the crouching birds. He worked his 
hands under one, at the same time making a soothing whistle or 
chirp which he and his son had learned that the grouse make to one 
another. The birds seemed to begin to lose their fears. Cautiously 
he pushed one bird forward toward the other end of the enclosure ; 
the others followed. Others were moved still further ahead, and 
within a half hour Mr. Dimick had the whole brood of 23 partridges 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMKXT — Xo. 25. 147 

moving about the enclosure. Since that time they seem to enjoy run- 
ning about in and out of the little hiding places made for their com- 
fort. They show little or no fear, jump or skip over the little logs 
of wood and artificial stones with all the beautiful dexterity and 
grace of motion that the hunter loves so well. 

As a matter of fact the partridge seemed to display no more 
(if so much) fear than the pheasants which had been reared in 
domesticity. Consequently this particular phase of the Sports- 
man's Show was as successful as it was novel. 

The opportunity to observ^e the habits of the partridge thus 
held in confinement led to the determination of some interest- 
ing facts w^hich before were unknown or in doubt. We will 
not attempt to discuss these in detail, but will only mention the 
fact that previous to this exhibit a division of opinion seemed 
to exist as to whether the partridge drank water or not. The 
negative opinion was the prevailing one, apparently, even 
among the keenest observers who were familiar with the species. 
By actual observation it was fully and finally determined that 
the partridge drinks as readily as domestic fowl. 

Request to particij^ate in Agricultural Fair. — Mr. Henry A. 
Mower, of Worcester, desired the commission to make a live-fish 
exhibit at the Worcester Agricultural Fair, September 1 and 2. 
It was not, however, deemed practicable to undertake this for 
various reasons, prominent among which was the large amount 
of work to be done in other directions that demanded the per- 
sonal attention of the commissioners. 


Financial Resources. — No specific appropriation was made 
for the enforcement of law. Xor could it well be made, for the 
reason that in the same day a deputy may actively engage in 
enforcing the law and in the distribution of fish, birds or ani- 
mals. He may also engage in other necessar}^ work for the 
commission, from time to time, although the chief duty of the 
deputies, and the one which occupies a very large part of their 
time, is the protection of fish and game, through the enforce- 
ment of laws enacted for that purpose. 

The amount estimated for this work during the present year 

148 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

was $10,200, and about this sum will be expended, although, 
for the reasons named, it is not practicable to specify the out- 
lays with exactness. 

Force employed. — As heretofore, the force employed has 
consisted of (1) salaried deputies serving throughout the year 
and devoting their entire time to the work of the commission ; 
(2) special deputies receiving pay for short and varying terms 
of service, as demanded by the exigencies of the work or made 
possible by the funds available, who at other times were unsal- 
aried officials ; (3) special deputies who receive very little pay 
from the State, deriving their income chiefly from clubs or 
because of employment as town or county officials ; (4) special 
deputies paid small annual salaries for care of (a) State pond 
and (b) fishway ; (5) deputies paid wholly by clubs, so far as 
they receive pay for enforcing fish and game laws, but unsala- 
ried by the State; and (6) unpaid deputies, serving without 
pay from any source, but entitled by law to half of any fines 
resulting from convictions. 

At the beginning of the year there were 6 permanent depu- 
ties and 2 special deputies on the rolls, 1 of the latter being 
in charge of the Lawrence fishway and the other having the 
care and supervision of Mill Pond at Yarmouth, reserved by 
the State for fish-breeding purposes. In the spring 3 additional 
regular deputies were added to the list. At various times 13 
special deputies were appointed for diflTerent periods, but, with 
few exceptions, only for the open-game season or from a few 
weeks before that until its close. The volunteer deputies who 
were not on salary at any time numbered 145. 

In all cases much care was exercised in the appointment of 
these officials, and as a rule there was reason for satisfaction. 
Information came to the commission, however, which warranted 
the revocation of the appointments of 3 deputies of the unpaid 
class. This action was unhesitatingly taken in pursuance of 
the policy of the commission never to continue in official posi- 
tion one whose moral character or respect for law is shown to 
be deficient. 

System adopted.^ — The system adopted for the enforcement 

* It is a matter of interest that the system adopted hy this State for the enforce- 
ment of fish and game laws has apparently attracted attention in other sections of 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 149 

of the fish and game laws was substantially the same this year 
as during the two previous years, varied chiefly to the extent 
made possible by [a) additional experience gained l)y the paid 
deputies; (b) by a moderate increase in the salaried force; 
(c) by a wider application of the principle of co-operation 
between salaried and unpaid deputies or local officials ; (d) 
because of the wider recognition by citizens of the importance 
of reporting violations of law of which they are cognizant ; (e) 
because of the employment of a power-driven boat for enforc- 
ing laws along the coast; and (/) because of the availability 
of sufficient funds to keep the salaried men actively on the 
move to the highest degree practicable. 

The distribution of printed information relating to the fish 
and game laws has been largely carried on, this being deemed 
one of the most efficient means of securing compliance with the 
statutes. More than 11,000 documents of various kinds have 
been distributed, 5,000 of these containing the complete fish 
and game laws and others being abstracts or special laws.* 

The demand for this class of information is remarkable, and 
plainly indicates the necessity for increasing the output. 

Beside the documents referred to copies of "Laws relating 
to Inland Fisheries of Massachusetts, 1623-1886 " have been 
distributed by the commission, chiefly for town libraries or 
other places where they may be easily available for reference. 

With its usual courtesy and desire to furnish information of 
public interest, the press has given wide publicity to abstracts 
of the fish and game laws, or to special laws, and has invited 
attention to regulations relating to pond fishing, the opening 
or closing of the fishing or game seasons, and has pointed out 
what cannot be legally done by sportsmen. In this and other 
ways the press has rendered invaluable aid in difiusing infor- 
mation, and thus securing a better respect for the fish and game 
laws. To this extent much good has undoubtedly been accom- 

this country, as evidenced by the fact that this commission has been appealed to 
for statements and facts bearing on the matter. This is significant of the spread 
of public interest in the proper protection of fish and game, and especially of the 
wide recognition of the necessity for well-directed and efficient enforcement of the 

* A very useful work has been done by the Rod and Gtm Club of Boston in 
printing and posting numbers of abstracts of fish and game laws in the Italian 
language . 

150 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

plished, for many who otherwise might have transgressed the 
laws unwittingly have unquestionably been kept from doing so 
by being thus informed of the penalty. 

Almost without exception those who have violated the 
fish and game laws have done so with full knowledge of the 
penalty. Doubtless most of them have been old offenders, or 
those who are disregardful of law unless compelled to be other- 
wise through fear of arrest and conviction. Anything else is 
an exception. It is probable there always will be transgres- 
sions of the fish and game laws, as there are violations of other 
laws, and it is certain that it will not do to relax effort to com- 
pel a respect for them, while it is still the serious purpose of 
the State to protect fish and game. For, although it may 
safely be claimed that never before have the fish and game laws 
been so vigorously and successfully enforced in this State, and 
never has there been such a general observance of these statutes, 
the large number of arrests and convictions secured by the com- 
mission is sufficient evidence of the necessity still existing for 
other action than moral suasion. At the same time it will not 
be denied that reasonable consideration has been exercised in 
some cases, where the offenders have been young boys,* or 
other conditions justified the action taken. 

Ttie illegal capture and sale of lobsters, and Sunday hunting, 

* The following extract from the North Adams "Transcript" of Jan. 20, 1902, 
gives details of an instance of this kind : " As Game Warden Nichols was passing 
through Braytonville yesterday afternoon his attention was attracted to a numher 
of small boys one of whom had a rifle. They were apparently on the trail. He 
watched them for a few minutes and soon saw that the object of their chase was 
one of the Mongolian pheasants he had liberated last fall. It seems that a pair 
of the birds have settled near that section of the city and have been seen several 
times this winter between Braytonville and Greylock. The game warden ex- 
plained to the boys some of the mysteries of the game laws, and advised them 
hereafter to let strange birds and beasts continue on their way unmolested." 

In his annual report Deputy Thomas L. Burney, of Lynn, makes the following 
statement of the discretionary methods he adopted: "In the enforcement of the 
fish and game laws, where I could secure the desired result without an arrest I 
did so; believing that a novice was entitled to some consideration, I found that 
instruction in several instances brought better results than an arrest." 

Deputy E. C. Hall, of Buckland, reports the following, which is a notable instance 
in point where an unpaid official has shown unselfishness while trying to secure 
observance of the law : " I found two yoiing fellows July 4 who worked in a shop in 
Berkshire County. They each had about 40 to 50 short trout, which they showed 
me with pride. We are near the line here and these young fellows said, with ap_ 
parent truth, that they thought they were still in Berkshire County. I let them 
go on promise of more care in the future. This Berkshire law is a nuisance." 


1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 151 

have been, perhaps, the two most common violations of law w^e 
have had to deal with, although there have l>een various other 
forms of transgression, such as illegal fishing, killing song and 
insectivorous birds, ferreting, selling partridge, snaring, etc. 

No part of the law-enforcing work is so trying and unsatis- 
factory as that for the protection of the lobster. Not only are 
many difficulties met with in the attempt to patrol a coast line, 
hundreds of miles in length, with four or ^ve men at the 
most, except for a short period, but there is an unwise public 
indifierence to the protection of the lobster, amounting at times 
to positive opposition, wdiile the results of court trials are too 
frequently far from encouraging. Nevertheless, everything 
practicable in the enforcement of the lobster laws has been 
done. Many cases have been taken before the courts, convic- 
tions have been secured in a number of instances, and hun- 
dreds of illegal lobsters have been seized and thrown into the 
sea. Keen pursuit has caused many others to be thrown over- 
board, and this has had an effect never before equalled. The 
power-driven boat employed covered the coast as thoroughly 
as practicable from the south shore to Cape Ann, but the season 
of service for this was too short to accomplish as much as 
otherwise might have been possible. At the same time, it must 
be conceded that this naphtha dory, to which reference is made 
in the chapter on the lobster fishery, was the most effective 
means yet utilized by the commission for enforcing the lobster 
laws. ^ 

Mr. A. B. Cleverly, of Hull, Mass., writing under date of 
September 11, says : — 

I was pleased to see the boat you have on for the protection of the 
lobsters. It has saved thousands of lobsters for the fishermen. 
Hope she will be here next year by the first of April, if possible. 
She has driven a great many short-lobster men out of business. 

The abundance of game birds and animals this year proved 
a great temptation to many to violate the ' ' close season " Sun- 
day law. It is probably not convenient to many to get time 
to hunt in the open season, at least without some sacrifice of 
pay, consequently they take the risk of hunting on Sunday, 
although perfectly aware of the law^ and the penalty for violating 



it. The expectation, of course, is to escape capture, but the 
tabulated statement of arrests and convictions in the appendix 
will show that to some this was a false hope ; for many men 
have been apprehended for Sunday hunting. It has not been 
uncommon for as many as six to ten persons to be arrested on 
a single Sunday ; six were taken by two deputies on a Sunday 
at one place. 

This vigorous work had its effect, and before the close of 
the hunting season this particular violation was so far repressed 
that the universal testimony was to the effect that there was 
less Sunday hunting than was ever known before. 

It is probable that there was no more shooting of song and 
insectivorous birds this year than common, but there were 
many more arrests and convictions than heretofore, due chiefly 
to a better organization of the deputies and increased facilities 
for gathering information. This particular transgression is 
participated in almost wholly by foreigners, among whom 
Italians are so conspicuous that they are popularly supposed to 
be the only offenders. The greater part of this illegal shoot- 
ing is done within twenty miles of Boston, although more or 
less violations occur elsewhere, near large towns or where 
parties of foreigners are laboring on railroads or other public 
works. The arrests made had a very salutary effect, and there 
is reason to believe this will be felt in the future. 

More has been done to suppress the evil of ferreting than 
for a lono; time. In some of these cases, too, o;ood detective 
skill was evinced in working up sufficient evidence to convict, 
without the deputies having witnessed the act of using ferrets. 

There can be no question of the moral effect of convictions 
thus secured, which have shown to parties disposed to use 
ferrets that they are by no means safe from the grip of the law, 
because they may not be caught in the act of transgression by 
the agents of the commission. 

From time to time rumor and suspicion asserted that parties 
were engaged in the illegal sale of partridge. In the absence 
of a search law, and not being able to secure a search warrant, 
the detection of offences of this kind was exceedingly difficult, 
for in all cases of such violation the parties have undoubtedly 
been old offenders, skilled in the various tricks usually resorted 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 153 

to by such people to evade the penalty the law imposes for 
transgressions of this character. Carefully following out 
every clew or complaint, it has generally been found that 
either the latter was based on ill-founded ruuior or sus- 
picion, or that no evidence of any kind was obtainable. As a 
result, however, of the exercise of a high order of detective 
skill, combined with patience and determination, two cases of 
oflering partridge for sale were brought into court. In each 
of these cases the evidence was so conclusive that defence was 
abandoned, the culprit pleading guilty. In one case the court 
imposed the maximum sentence, $20 for each bird, or $100 
for the 5 offered for sale. In the other case 13 partridge were 
ofiered for sale. The party arrested was fined $20 for 1 bird 
and the case was continued for sentence on the other 12, with 
an admonition from the court that the full sentence would be 
imposed if the person was again found guilty of violating a fish 
or game law. 

Although snaring had been pretty well stamped out during 
the past two years a few old hands at this illegal practice ven- 
tured to engage in it this year, probably tempted by the 
unusual number of partridge and a possible opportunity for 
the disposal of them. Several of these ofienders were caught 
red-handed under circumstances which reflected high credit on 
those making the arrests, who, in each case, exhibited zeal, 
patience and a disposition to endure uncomplainingly much 
exposure and hardship. It requires all of these to impel one 
to lie still and watch, for davs or nio;hts at a time, for a snarer 
to come to his traps, and this, too, when the weather is 
inclement enous^h to test the endurance of the stronoest consti- 
tution. For some reasons it is regrettable that lack of time 
and space makes it impracticable to give details of any of these 

As heretofore, the work of the salaried deputies has been 
directed from the office, so that the organization would be 
more effective, and, at the same time, a better system of co- 
operation between the paid and unpaid deputies could be 
established. While this vastly increases the labor in the 
office, the results secured are ample recompense for the effort, 
for in no other way can effectiveness be secured. 

154 FISH AND GAME. [Dec, 

The reguliir organized force has been kept remarkably active, 
continuously going from place to place to enforce the law or 
to perform other duties, such as the distribution of fish, birds 
and animals. Some of these deputies have visited anywhere 
from fifty to a hundred and twenty towns, and one claims to 
have travelled more than 9,000 miles during the year. When 
consideration is given to this and to the additional fact that 
there have been many occasions when the same deputies have 
had several cases in court in one week, or even in one day, the 
activity and efficiency of this little force will be plainly appar-^ 
ent. Nor should mention be omitted of the economy with 
which a great amount of work has been accomplished. 

The unpaid deputies constitute what may be termed an irreg- 
ular force. While it is necessarily less aggressive than the 
regular organization of salaried officials, for the men generally 
must give their attention chiefly to the vocations they are pur- 
suing, nevertheless the moral influence of this force is most 
helpful, while the heartiness with which these unsalaried of- 
ficials have co-operated with the paid men has been very gratify- 
ing. It is from this force that the special deputies are appointed, 
and thus men receive a preliminary training that may sub^ 
sequently make them experts in this w^ork. Mention should 
be made in this connection that one of these gentlemen, who is 
a member of the bar, has taken an active part in the prosecu- 
tion of cases in the courts this year without being paid for 
his services by the State, an evidence of a commendable de- 
sire to assist in the effort to secure a greater respect for and 
observance of the fish and game laws. Inasmuch as this as- 
sistance has been given voluntarily, and without the least 
suggestion from the commission, all the more satisfaction is 
felt with the public spirit that prompted it. In another in- 
stance a sportsman, who is likewise a lawyer, freely offered his 
services in the prosecution of an important case. 

Result. — The result of the effort to enforce the laws appears, 
primarily, in the increase of fish and game in the Common- 
wealth ; it is also shown in the tabulated returns of the arrests 
and convictions published in the appendix. This shows that 
157 arrests were made and 138 persons were convicted; the 
fines reached an aggregate of $1,772. Other details, which 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 155 

may be of interest to those who recognize in the enforcement 
of law a potent means for preserving from extermination inland 
fish and game, will be found in the table. 

The following brief extracts from the press and letters or 
reports of deputies, which are only a few out of many, will also 
contribute to a better understanding of the result. 

The Ware River **News" of July 31, 1902, published the 
following : — 

The Fish aud Game Commissiou have doue a great work in this 
State, and it is possible now to hunt and fish in season with an as- 
sured degree of good luck. All forms of illegal taking have been 
reduced to a minimum through the vigilant efforts of the commission 
and its efficient deputies all over the State, and there has been a great 
change for the better in this vicinity the past year or two. 

A correspondent of the '* Evening Herald " of North Adams, 
in a brief item published in the issue of Oct. 28, 1902, 

says : — 

With such a wide-awake game warden as we have in this section, 
supplemented by an unusually competent police force, I'd as soon 
try to break into a bank as to try and hunt Sundays anywhere in this 
direction. A man would have better chances at the bank. 

The following excerpts are from a long article in the Boston 
''Globe" of Oc't. 2, 1902: — 

Conditions for sportsmen in Massachusetts are improving all the 
lime. Partridge and quail are increasing rapidly, a marked improve- 
ment in brush shooting being noted by sportsmen since the enactment 
of laws prohibiting the sale of certain game birds in the market. 

This market law has given the partridges an opportunity to mul- 
tiply which they never before enjoyed, though keen scrutiny is 
necessary each fall to prevent the sale of these splendid game birds 
under the guise of Canada grouse, or prairie chickens. 

The pot hunter, who employed snares and guns to supply his 
patrons with game birds, was the one hard hit by the recent game 
laws, and so unrelenting has been the warfare Avaged against him by 
the wardens that his occupation may be said to be gone. 

An insight of the good accomplished by protection may be had 
by a stroll in the Middlesex Fells. This bit of wild park land, 
several thousand acres in extent, is not more than 10 miles from 

156 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the city, but it is a veritable home of the ruffed grouse. They flush 
on every hand when visitors take to the woods for a stroll in the 
Fells, and on sunny days they come out to the roadways to dust 
themselves in the sand just as barn-yard fowl are wont to do. 

Deputy A. L. Pratt of Belchertown, under the head of 
'^Kemarks" in his report for the week ending October 5, 
made the following statement : — 

I also find that a large majority of people are heartily in sympathy 
with the work of the Fish and Game Commissioners, and seem willing 
to assist in any way in the enforcement of the fish and game laws. 

Deputy A. D. Putnam, in a letter written October 10, 
states that he had conversation with a number of farmers in 
the vicinity of Templeton concerning the enforcement of the 
game laws, and that they were all specially urgent that the 
law against Sunday hunting should be enforced with the utmost 

The feeling concerning the enforcement of the Sunday hunt- 
ing law, referred to hy Mr. Putnam, was emphasized at a 
meeting of the Massachusetts State Grange last December, 
when, according to the Pittsfield "Evening Journal" of Dec. 
24, 1901, they recommended the '* rigid enforcement of the 
Sunday law in reference to fishing and hunting." But this has 
been still more forcibly referred to editorially in the North 
Adams '' Evening Herald " of Oct. 16, 1902 : — 

The Fish and Game Commissioners are doing exactly right by en- 
forcing the law against Sunday gunning. The hackneyed cry that 
Sunday is the only time that a poor man has to go shooting applies 
just as well to the ordinary person who is not quite so poor. In this 
workaday age none but the idle rich, who are of no consequence, 
have much time to go gunning during week days, but so far as time. 
is concerned, it is about as valuable to one as to another. 

In a certain way there is no more harm in going shooting than 
fishing Sunday, and both are against the law. But the person who 
goes fishing does not disturb his neighbors, or any one else. On the 
other hand, the gunner fills the wood with his gun reports, and is an- 
noying to those who do not believe that Sunday should be observed 
in that way. 

Then the game itself deserves one day a week free from molesta- 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 157 

tion. There is little enough of it when chased by gunners six days 
in the week. If the day when every one is at leisure be given to 
shooting it will not be long before there is no game to shoot. 

Mr. Lyman E. Euberg of the town of Florida, under the 
head of ' ' Kemarks " in his report for the week ending Novem- 
ber 2, says : — 

North Adams people must have come to the conclusion that Sun- 
day is a good day to stay at home as I have never seen a quieter 
Sunday there. 

Mr. Kuberg was one of a party of four deputies who on 
Sunday, November 2, went through the sections ordinarily 
frequented by hunters in Williamstown, South Williamstown, 
Hancock, Blackinton and Clarksburg without hearing any 

Deputy William Leipple of Greenfield, w^riting on Novem- 
ber 3, in reference to his work on the previous day, while look- 
ing for violations of the Sunday hunting law in Montague and 
vicinity, makes the following statement : — 

I drove through the woods all day Sunday, and heard no shooting, 
and I think that the Sunday law breakers have stopped their Sunday 
shooting in this vicinity. 

The followino' extract from the Worcester *'TeleOTam" of 
Sept. 16, 1902, indicates what may sometimes be accomplished 
by the judicious exercise of tact and common sense : — 

Before beginning, Mr. Robinson made a speech, in which he 
called attention to the fact that a complaint had been made to the 
State Fishery Commission that the submarine mines exploded last 
week had killed many thousands of fish, and that Deputy Fish Com- 
missioners D. F. Shea of Ware and John F. Luman of Thorndike 
had warned them not to violate the law regarding the use of dyna- 
mite in the water. Consequently, instead of using submarine mines, 
the bombs were exploded from the tops of the miniature warships. 
The fireworks were greatly enjoyed, and everybody expressed entire 
satisfaction with the evening's entertainment. 

The item last quoted refers to the use of fireworks on Lake 
Quinsigamond, as an attraction for people gathering at the 

158 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

park ; there being no purpose whatever to injure or destroy 
fish. As a matter of fact only a few fish were killed, so far as 
could be determined, and the park management very gladly 
consented not to continue to explode bombs in the water when 
their attention w^as invited to probable results. 

The following extracts from reports of deputies, mostly of 
the unsalaried class, will furnish additional facts bearing on the 
results of the enforcement of law : — 

There have been no violations of the fish and game laws that have 
come to my notice this year. — Edward F. Snow, Nantucket. 

There is not so much Sunday gunning down here as there was. — 
W. M. Gammons, Marion. 

There has been very little shooting out of season. — B. F. Rich- 
ards, Weymouth Heights. 

I have not heard of any violation of the game laws. — F. R. Smith, 

The boat put in commission in July has aided in a number of 
arrests, and hundreds of small lobsters have been returned to the 
water when the violators of the lobster law saw the boat approaching. 
I am told by reliable parties that the profits of some of the violators 
have been small, and others have been put out of business. I have 
every reason to believe that if a boat of good speed were put in com- 
mission earlier in the season good work could be accomplished. — 
Otis Thayer, Quincy. 

Fishermen now begin to think that the Fish and Game Commission 
has done great work in behalf of the fishing industries. — Frank 
Serrilla, Boston. ' 

Sunday hunting seems to have stopped. — A. Greenquist, Roslin- 

I have visited during the past season all the localities in which 
snaring and shooting out of season used to be practised, but have 
seen very few indications of anything illegal. — W. E. Quigole, 

It seems to me that the law should be so amended as to impose a 
fine for each and every bird illegally killed, as under the present law 
the courts rarely impose a fine of more than $10, even though, as in 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 159 

a recent case in this vicinity, a man is found with ten birds in his 
possession. It seems absurd to impose the same fine for one or ten 
birds. — J. W. Bailey, Arlington. 

The game laws are being lived up to very well now in this sec- 
tion. — George H. H ass am, Needham. 

There has been a marked decrease in Sunday shooting in my 
immediate neighborhood. — Parker H. Kemble, Sudbury. 

Fishermen and hunters in this vicinity have respected the game 
laws better this year than years past. — Ethan Bothwell, North- 

Have travelled all to-day (November 30) in the woods and have 
heard neither dogs nor guns, and Sunday hunting in this vicinity 
seems to be a thing of the past. Have been all along the Rhode 
Island border for seven or eight miles, and there never was a time, so 
long as I can remember, when shooting could not be heard in every 
direction Sundays this side of the Rhode Island line. It looks as 
though they had made up their minds to respect the Sunday law 
more than they did a year or two ago. — Herbert A. Bent, Franklin. 

Sunday hunting has not been indulged in as much as in former 
years. — Daniel D. Rose, Hudson. 

To return to Sunday hunting; the morning of August 31 a few 
started in for keeps, but in just three Sunday mornings it was all 
over. All was very quiet up to the first Sunday in October. I was 
out of town. . . . The following Sunday it rained. . . . The third 
Sunday, October 19, Deputies Putnam, Prentiss and I bagged a 
couple of Sunday hunters, and they settled the following morning to 
the tune of $10 and $30. I have been out every Sunday since, but 
have heard only a very few guns, and they were so far away they 
could scarcely be heard. — John L. Martin, Milford. 

Gunners have more regard for the game laws than they did have a 
few years ago. — H. E. McIntire, Reading. 

We are bothered very little by law breakers. — A. J. Kennedy, 

Sunday shooting has gone out of style this season. — George W. 
Goldsmith, Beverly. 

160 FISH AND GAME. [Dec 

I have found but few snares around this part of the State. — A. J. 
Rausch, Lawrence. 

I found one man with a ferret in his possession and made him kill 
it and promise not to use one again. There has been very little if 
any Sunday hunting. — A. Campbell, Oxford. 

After three men were fined, October 19, for Sunday hunting 
in Milford, Deputy Pogue of that town says : — 

I have not heard a report of a gun on Sunday in this section, and 
I have not seen any one who has. I have been out every Sunday 

To-day (Sunday, November 30) I have been out through the 
Brookfields and South Spencer, but did not see any hunters or hear 
any guns. — A. D. Putnam, Spencer. 

It is a pleasure to note the change that has taken place in this 
vicinity within the past few years. A large majority of our citizens 
fully realize that the fish and game laws must be enforced. I have 
not heard one-half dozen reports of firearms on the Sabbath, whereas, 
a few years ago, it was bang, bang, nearly all day, within sound of 
the church bells. — James H. Gafney, Petersham. 

There is very little Sunday hunting done here. — Daniel A. 
Warren, West Upton. 

The Sunday shooting in Ludlow grows less every season. — 
Charles A. White, Ludlow. 

Sunday hunters are beginning to realize that Sunday is close 
season. — F. J. Proctor, Fitchburg. 

There have been but very few violations in my immediate section. 
I have, in the discharge of my oflScial duty, visited 120 cities and 
towns in Massachusetts during the past year. There has been but 
very little snaring of birds in this section except by persons who own 
their own land. The public, as a general rule, have appreciated the 
good work now going on, and all express a desire that it may con- 
tinue ; they predict in less than five years Massachusetts will stand 
at the head so far as excellent hunting and fishing are concerned. 
All have a good word for the commission in their endeavor to do 
the most with the funds available. 

I am sure if the commissioners could have heard the many compli- 
mentary remarks from hunters of birds and game which have come to- 


1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 2b. 161 

me about the good work towards the preservation of game, which has 
resulted in the covers being filled with all kinds of game, they would 
feel more than pleased to know that their interesting work is com- 
mencing to show itself and in a manner which leaves no room for 
doubt. Every hunter with whom I came in conversation within the 
past two days has expressed himself as beiug more than surprised at 
the wonderful amount of birds in the covers this season. October 
first did not prove to be an ideal day, as it was wet and rainy, but 
what few ventured out returned with good bags of game, — grouse, 
quail and squirrel. The covers were found very leafy and good 
shooting was not easy. It was not an uncommon thing to flush four 
and five birds at a time. One hunter says he counted five grouse on 
an old apple tree and they were in no hurry to leave. He managed 
to get three out of the bunch. Quail are so thick that it is an easy 
task to strike a bunch at intervals along the highways. I can say 
with pleasure that the law forbidding the sale of birds has this year 
commenced to show itself in no unmistakable manner, and as a result 
there will be abundant sport for the next two months which has not 
been equalled in ten years. — John F. Lumax, Palmer. 

The people around here are mostly in favor of the enforcement of 
the fish and game laws, and especially Sunday hunting. There has 
been but very little violation in these parts. — A. L. Pratt, Bel- 

There has been some violation of the fish and game laws this year, 
but not so much as last year. — Edward Miller, Northampton. 

Everything has been very satisfactory in this vicinity this season. — 
William Leipple, Greenfield. 

I have not found or heard of any Sunday hunting this season. — 
M. J. Cranson, Buckland. 

There is a constantly growing respect for the game laws in this 
vicinity, and the honest sportsmen and citizens in general seem to be 
more and more anxious to see the game laws enforced. — Lyman E. 
RuBERG, Hoosac Tunnel. 

I think that the people are living up to the fish and game laws bet- 
ter and better each year. — A. M. Nichols, North Adams. 

The report this week (November 30) finishes the open season, and, 
everything considered, the laws have been very well observed in this 
section. — Dwight M. Couch, Pittsfield. 

162 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Deductions from the Work. — The work accomplished by 
this commission in the enforcement of fish and game laws ad- 
mits of the following deductions : — 

1. While it is highly important to the continuance of certain 
wild species that wise laws for their protection should be en- 
acted, observation emphasizes the fact that such laws, unless 
thev are vioorously and fairly enforced, are a menace rather 
than a benefit, so far as the public is concerned ; they simply 
cumber the statute books and are a byword and reproach to the 

2. Efiectiveness of service, which is of paramount impor- 
tance, can be secured only by (a) reasonable provision for the 
work in the waj^ of appropriation ; (h) by having a well-con- 
sidered organization, in which proved merit alone shall be 
considered as a proper basis for retention in oflSce or advance- 
ment; (c) by having the force entirely under the direction, 
and subordinate to, the commission, so that no question of 
divided responsibility can arise, and also to insure well-directed 
eff'ort that shall be prompt and co-operative as occasion de- 
mands, as well as intelligent and effective. 

3. Certain fish and game laws cannot be enforced without 
a power-driven boat. Such a boat should be built from a 
special design, to insure adaptabilit}^, and should be provided 
with accommodations suitable at least for the temporary stay 
on board of her crew. 

4. The reofular force should be increased to the extent of 
one man, if no more, so that a man can be selected as a deputy, 
with knowledge of machinery sufiScient to enable him to man- 
age a naphtha engine, and with experience in running boats 
along the coast. 

The proper enforcement of fish and game laws is not only 
creditable to the State l)ut is of large public benefit, which will 
become more apparent with the passage of years. Any 
money expended m this eflbrt will probably be indirectly 
repaid to the State many times over. 

New Legislation. 
We recommend the followino' chano;:es in the fish and o^ame 
laws : — 

Section 19, chapter 91, Eevised Laws, should be amended 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 163 

by the addition of the foUowing clause after the word *« en- 
forced:" ''The commissioners may restock a pond with fish 
and extend the provisions of this section for an additional 
period of three years whenever they receive a petition as herein 
provided," so that the act as revised may read as follows : — 

Section 19. The commissioners, upon the petition of the mayor 
and aldermen of a city or of the selectmen of a town within which a 
great pond or a portion thereof is situated, or of thirty or more 
inhabitants thereof, shall cause the waters of such pond to be stocked 
with such food fish as they judge to be best suited to such waters. 
They shall thereupon prescribe, for a period not exceeding three 
years, such reasonable regulations relative to the fishing in such ponds 
and their tributaries, with such penalties, not exceeding twenty dol- 
lars for one offence, as they deem to be for the public interest, and 
shall cause such regulations to be enforced. The commissioners may 
restock a pond with fish and extend the provisions of this section for 
an additional period of three years whenever they receive a petition 
as herein provided. Five hundred dollars shall be annually appro- 
priated by the commonw^ealth to carry out the provisions of this 

Section 93, chapter 91, Revised Laws, should he amended 
by adding after the last word the following words : " No per- 
son shall exercise the rio-hts herein o-ranted the commissioners 
unless acting under their authority," so that the section shall 
read as follows : — 

Section 93. The commissioners on fisheries and game may oc- 
cupy and use any small estuaries or creeks within the commonwealth, 
not exceeding six, for the scientific investigation of the habits, prop- 
agation and distribution of lobsters, if such occupation and use 
does not impair the private rights of any person or materially obstruct 
any navigable waters. Notice of such occupation shall be conspicu- 
ously posted and maintained b}^ said commissioners at the nearest 
points to said estuaries and creeks, and shall be recorded in the reg- 
istry of deeds in the county in which they are situated. No person 
shall exercise the rights herein granted the commissioners unless act- 
ing under their authority. 

Section 88, chapter 91, Revised Laws, should be amended 
by inserting after the word '' and " the words '' the holding in 
confinement of any lobster, or," so that the section will read as 
follows : — 

164 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Section 88. Whoever sells or offers for sale or has in his pos- 
session an uncooked lobster less than ten and one-half inches in 
length, or a cooked lobster less than ten and one-quarter inches in 
length, measuring from the extremity of the bone iDrotruding from 
the head to the end of the bone of the middle flipper of the tail of 
the lobster, extended on its back its natural length, shall forfeit not 
more than five dollars for every such lobster, one-half to the use of 
the city or town in which the offence is committed and one-half to 
the commonwealth ; and in all prosecutions under the provisions of 
this section any mutilation of a lobster, cooked or uncooked, which 
affects its measurement shall be prima facie evidence that the lobster 
is less than the required length and the holding in confinement of 
any lobster, or the possession of any lobster, cooked or uncooked, 
which is not of the required length shall be prima facie evidence to 

Section 89, chapter 91, Revised Laws, should be amended 
by adding after '* possession " the words *' or has in posses- 
sion uncooked lobster meat," and by adding after the word 
''body'" the words ''or of any uncooked lobster meat," so 
that the section will read as follows : — 

Section 89. Whoever, before a lobster is cooked, mutilates it by 
severing the tail from the body, or has such tail in possession, or has 
in possession uncooked lobster meat, shall be punished by a fine of 
five dollars for each offence ; and in all prosecutions under the pro- 
visions of this section the possession, by any person, of the tail of 
any uncooked lobster so severed from the body or of any uncooked 
lobster meat shall be prima facie evidence to convict. 

Section 7, chapter 92, Revised Law^s, should be amended 
by adding after the word ' ' dollars " the words ' ' for each bird 
taken or killed or each nest disturbed or destroyed contrary 
to the provisions of this section," so that the section will read 
as follows : — 

Section 7. Whoever takes or kills a wild or undomesticated bird 
not nam.ed in sections two, three, four and five, except English spar- 
rows, crow blackbirds, crows, jays, birds of prey, wild geese and 
fresh water and sea fowl not named in said sections, or wilfully de- 
stroys, disturbs or takes a nest or eggs of any wild or undomesticated 
birds, except such as are not protected by the provisions of this sec- 
tion, shall be punished by a fine of ten dollars for each bird taken or 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 165 

killed or each nest disturbed or destroyed contrary to the provisions 
of this section ; but a person over twenty-one years of age, who has 
a certificate from the commissioners on fisheries and game or from 
the president of the Boston Society of Natural History that he is en- 
gaged in the scientific study of ornithology or is collecting in the 
interest of a scientific institution, may at any season take or kill or 
take the nests and eggs of an undomesticated bird, except woodcock, 
ruffed grouse and quail ; but the provisions of this section shall not 
authorize a person to enter upon private grounds without the consent 
of the owner thereof for the purpose of taking nests or eggs or 
killing birds. Said commissioners or the president of said society 
may at any time revoke such certificate. 

Section 8, chapter 92, Revised Laws, should be amended 
by adding after the words " preceding section " the words *' or 
of section five of this chapter," so that the- section will read as 
follows : — 

Section 8. Whoever has in possession the body or feathers of a 
bird, the takiug or killing of which is prohibited by the provisions of 
the preceding section or of section five of this chapter, whether taken 
in this commonwealth or elsewhere, or wears such feathers for the 
purpose of dress or ornament, shall be punished by a fine of ten dol- 
lars ; but the provisions of this section shall not prohibit the taking 
or killing of such birds by the holders of certificates provided for in 
the preceding section, nor shall they apply to natural history associa- 
tions or to the proprietors of museums, or other collections for scien- 
tific purposes, or to non-residents of the commonwealth passing 
through it or temporarily dwelling therein. 

Section 133 of chapter 91, Revised Laws, should be amended 
by inserting after the word "compound" the words ''or 
whoever kills or destroys fish by the use of dynamite or 
other high explosive or explodes dynamite or powder in fish- 
ing waters," so that the section, as revised, shall read as 
follows : — 

Section 133. Whoever puts or throws into any waters for the 
purpose of taking or destroying fish therein any poisonous substance, 
simple, mixed or compound, or whoever kills or destroys fish by the 
use of dynamite or other high explosive or explodes dynamite or 
powder in fishing waters, shall forfeit ten dollars for each offence. 

166 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Section 5, chapter 56, Revised Laws, should be repealed. 

Authorization should be given the Fish and Game Com- 
mission to submit reports covering the year ending De- 
cember 31. 

The commission desires authorization to call a convention of 
State and Provincial commissioners to consider the desirability 
of uniform legislation regarding the lobster and other matters, 
or to attend a convention if called elsewhere. 


This commission has received from the United States Fish 
Commission consignments of eggs of brook trout, rainbow 
trout and landlocked salmon ; also shad fry. In addition we 
have received statements of the fish cultural work of the federal 
government in this State, statistics offish landed at Boston and 
Gloucester and various other publications of the United States 
Fish Commission. We have likewise received a fresh speci- 
men of the tile fish. 

The post-office authorities and various railroads have permit- 
ted the display of posters containing abstracts of fish and game 
laws. The railroads traversing the State, notably those con- 
trolled by the Boston & Maine and the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford companies, have, as formerly, carried, free, ship- 
ments of fish, birds and animals intended for distribution or 

Mr. A. F. Rich has presented the commission with photo- 
graphs of the fishing steamers "New England" and '* King- 
fisher." Capt. Solomon Jacobs has given us blue prints of 
the plans of the fishing steamer *' Alice M. Jacobs." 

Mr. R. M. Benner has given the commission blue prints of 
the builders' plans of a naphtha fishing dory. 

Mr. Thomas B. McManus has furnished us with a plan of 
the schooner "Helen B. Thomas," showing the new rig for 
fishing vessels. 

Mr. H. W. Spooner has sent the commission, through 
Deputy Nixon, two photographs of the auxiliary schooner 
"Constellation." One of these shows the vessel under full 
sail and power and one under power alone. 

Mr. Tony S. Veader has presented to the commission a liv- 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. r^, 167 

ing lobster with the tail bitten or cut off close to the carapace 
and the wound healed. 

Mr. Charles N. Hunt has presented to the commission a 
mounted specimen of a young gannet or solan goose and a 
male mallard duck. 

Mr. Thomas L. Burney has given the commission the 
mounted head of a pike. 

Acknowledgments are made elsewhere for specimens of 
foreign o^ame birds received from the manao-ement of the 
Sportsman's Show. 

The commission has been privileged to extend courtesies in 
the following instances : — 

To the United States Fish Commission, permitting the col- 
lection of egg-bearing lobsters ; the operation of a pound net 
for scientific purposes, etc. 

The commission has been able to continue assisting Mr. W. 
E. Castle of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, at Cam- 
brid£:e, in securins: and holdino^ in confinement certain material 
necessary for the conduct of special scientific researches. 

Letters of introduction to prominent citizens of Grimsby, 
Eng., have been furnished by the chairman to Mr. M. I. 
Shimoda of Japan, who was about to visit England for the 
purpose of studying its fisheries, and especially the trawl 

Deputy Thomas S. Holmes has been authorized to collect 
lampreys to be used for scientific purposes by the following 
persons : Prof. J. Percy Moore, University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pa., and Prof. E. L. Mark, director. Zoological 
Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Permits have been issued to the following parties to collect 
birds and eggs for scientific purposes : J. Bion Eichards, Fall 
Eiver; Owen Durfee, Fall Kiver ; A. C. Bent, Taunton ; Eob- 
ert O. Morris, Springfield ; Frederic H. Kennard, Boston ; 
George H. Mackay, Nantucket; Homer L. Bigelow, Boston; 
Dr. J. W. Bailey, Boston; Dr. C. F. Hodge, Worcester; 
Albert E. Jewett, Clinton; Bradford A. Scudder, Taunton. 

Permits to take sand eels for bait have been issued to the 
following: Andrew E. Hunt, Frank E. Hunt, Albion P. 
Hilton, Charles F. Lattime, William H. Pierce, James H. 

168 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 1902. 

Thurlow, Richard Pierce, Charles W. Eustis, Newburyport ; 
Samuel Kilborn, John D. Kilborn, Samuel Bayley, Charles A. 
Bayley, Charles H. Small, Albert E. Post, John W. Post, 
Albert H. Leet, Clarence Leet, Stephen Caswell, Thomas 
Roberts, Robert L. Gove, Samuel A. Hicks, Edward Pool, 
Samuel S. Bayley, Edward E. Wells, Daniel D. Wells, 
Charles P. Rust, Peter Rhodes, John T. Harris, J. Lewis 
Grant, Ipswich ; James A. Carter, Thomas F. Coleman, 





List of Commissioners. 

United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Washington, D. C. 

George M. Bowers, Commissioner. 
Irving H. Dunlap, Chief Clerk. 

Hugh M. Smith, Assistant in charge of Division of Inquiry respect- 
ing Food Fishes. 
Jno W. Titcomb, Assistant in charge of Division of Fish Culture. 
B, W. Evermann, Assistant in charge of Division of Statistics. 

Superintendents of United States Fisheries Stations. 
Charles G. Atkins, Craig Brook, East Orland, Me. 
E. E. Race, Green Lake, Me. 
Edgar N. Carter, St. Johnsbury, Vt. 
Waldo F. Hubbard, Nashua, N. H. 
C. G. Corliss, Gloucester, Mass. 
E. F. Locke, Woods Hole, Mass. 
L. G. Harron (in charge), Bryan's Point, Md. 
John E. Brown (in charge). Central Station, Washington, D. C, 
George A. Seagle, Wytheville, Va. 
Alexander Jones, Erwin, Tenn. 
S. G. Worth, Edenton, N. C. 
J. J. Stranahan, Cold Spring, Bulloch ville, Ga. 
Livingstone Stone, Cape Vincent, N. Y. 
S. W. Downing, Put-in-Bay, Ohio. 
Frank N. Clark, Northville, Mich. 
S. P. Wires, Duluth, Minn. 
R. S. Johnson, Manchester, Iowa. 
Dr. S. P. Bartlett, Quincy, 111. 
H. D. Dean, Neosho, Mo. 
John L. Leary, San Marcos, Tex. 
DeWitt C. Booth, Spearfish, So. Dak. 
E. A. Tulian, Lead ville, Col. 
James A. Henshall, Bozeman, Mont. 
H. H. Buck, Baker Lake, Wash. 
J. Nelson Wizner, Clackamas, Ore. 
Giles H. Lambson, Baird and Battle Creek, Cal. 
R. K. Robinson, White Sulphur, West Va. 

172 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 


H. H. Rottaken, President, . Little Rock. 

W. B. Worthen, Secretary and Treasurer, .... Little Rock/ 


H. W. Keller, President, Santa Monica. 

W. W. Van Arsdale, . . San Francisco. 

W. E. Gerber, Sacramento. 


Oame and Fish. 

Charles W. Harris, . Denver. 

A. A. Gordon, Secretary, Denver. 

T. J. Holland, Superintendent of Hatcheries, . . . Denver. 


George T. Mathewson, President, Thompsonville. 

Robert G. Pike, Middletown. 

E. Hart Geer, Secretary, Hadlyme. 


E. G. Shortlidge, . .^ . Wilmington. 

J. Thomas Lowe, Little Creek. 


John Y. Detwyler, President, New Smyrna. 

John G. Ruge, Secretary, Appalachicola. 

A. T. Dallis, Superintendent of Fisheries, .... LaGrange. 


Nathaniel H. Cohen, President, Urbana. 

S. P. Bartlett, Secretary and Superintendent, . . . Quincy. 
A. Lenke, Treasurer, Chicago. 

Z. T. Sweeney, Columbus. 


Fish and Oame. 

George A. Lincoln, Cedar Rapids. 

L. and A. S. Peterson, Assistants. 




J. W. Haughey, Welling. 


Fish and Game. 

L. T. Carleton, Chairman, VVinthrop. 

Henry O. Stanley, Dixfield. 

Edgar E. Ring, Orono. 

Sea and Shore Fisheries. 
A. R. Nickerson, * Boothbay Harbor. 


Jesse VV. Downey, . . New Market. 

Clarence L. Vincent, Snow Hill. 

Joseph W. Collins, Chairman, . . . . . Boston. 

Edward A. Brackett, Secretary, Winchester. 

John W. Delano, Superintendent of Hatcheries, . . Marion. 
Office, State House, Boston, Mass. 


George M. Brown, President, . 
F. B. Dickerson, Vice-President, 
C. D. Joslyn, .... 
Seymour Bower, Superintendent, 
J. H. Johnson, Treasurer, 
George D. Mussey, Secretary, 







Oame and Fish Commissioners. {Office at Capitol.') 

Uri L. Lamprey, President, St. Paul. 

W. P. Hill, Vice-President, Fairmont. 

D W. Meeker, Secretary, , . Moorhead. 

H. G. Smith, Treasurer, . . . . . , . Winona. 

S. F. Fullerton, Executive Agent, St. Paul. 


Frank P. Yenawine, President, 
John N. Shepler, Vice-President, 
Richard Porter, Secretary, 
John H. Zollinger, . 

St. Joseph. 




George J. Chapman, 
Phillip Kopplin, Jr., 
M. E. O'Brian, 

St. Louis. 
St. Louis. 
St. Louis. 

Game and Fish Commission. 

Ezra P. Savage, Commissioner, Lincoln. 

George B. Simpkins, Chief Deputy, .... Lincoln. 

W. J. O'Brien, Superintendent of Hatcheries, . . South Bend. 

New Hampshiee. 

Nathaniel Wentworth, Chairman, 

Merrill Shurtleff, . 

C. B. Clarke, .... 

Hudson Centre. 



New Jersey. 

Howard P. Frothingham, President and Treasurer, . Pompton Lakes. 

William A. Halsey, Newark. 

Benjamin P. Morris, Long Branch. 

Richard T. Miller, Camden. 

George Riley, Protector, Newark. 

New York. 
Forest, Fish and Game. 

Timothy L. Woodruff, . Brooklyn. 

DeWitt C. Middleton, Watertown. 

Charles H. Babcock, Rochester. 

John D. Whish, Secretary, Albany. 


J L. Rodgers, President, Columbus. 

Paul North, Cleveland. 

Dr. D. W. Greene . Dayton. 

Thomas B. Paxton, . Cincinnati. 

Edwin M Kennedy, McConnelsville. 

J. C. Porterfield, Chief Warden, Columbus. 

George C. Blankner Columbus. 


Governor, T. T. Geer, 

Secretary of State, F. I. Dunbar, . 
State Treasurer, C. S. Moore, .... 
L. P. W. Quimby, Game and Forestry Warden, 
H. G.VanDusen, Master Warden, . 










Fisheries Commission. 

S. B. Stillwell, President, Scranton. 

W. E. Meehan, Secretaiy, Philadelphia. 

H. C. Demuth, Treasurer, Lancaster. 

James A. Dale, Corresponding Secretary, .... York. 

John Hamberger, Erie. 

James W. Correll, Easton. 

Game Commission. 
William M. Kennedy, President, 
C. K Sober, 
James H. Worden, 
William H. Myers, 
Charles B. Penrose, 
J. O. H. Denney, . 
Joseph Kalbfus, Secretary 








Rhode Island. 

J. i\l. K. Southwick, President, . 
Henry T. Root, Treasurer, . 
Charles W. Willard', .... 
A. D. Mead, Brown University, P.W.D., 
William P. Morton, Secretary, . 
Adelbert D. Roberts, .... 
William H. Boardman, 






W^oon socket. 

Central Falls. 


John Sharp, 

E. A. Davis, . 
H. G. Thomas, 

Frank Fletcher, Chairman, 
Seth F. Miller, Secretary, . 
John A, Curtis, . 
George B. Keezell, 
Pembroke Pettit, 



Salt Lake City. 

. Bethel. 
. Stow. 

Jenkins Bridge. 






Governor, Henry G. McBridge, Olympia. 

State Treasurer, C. W. Maynard, Olympia. 

T. R. Kershaw, Commissioner, Whatcom. 

11^ FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 


Governor, Robert M. LaFollette, ex officio, . . . Madison. 

Edwin E. Brj'ant, President, Madison. 

William J. Starr, Eau Claire. 

Calvert Spensely, Treasurer, Mineral Point. 

James J Hogan, ... La Crosse. 

Henry D. Smith, Appleton 

Currie G. Bell, Bayfield. 

Edward A. Birge, ex officio. Professor of Zoology, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Secretar}', ..... Madison. 
James Xevin, Superintendent, Madison. 


D. C Nowlin, State Game Warden, . . . . . Big Piney. 




Distribution of Food Fish. 

Brook Trout. 

Fry distributed from the Sutton Hatchery during the Months of April and 

May, 1902. 


Name of Wate 

rs. Town. 


Geo. C. Randies, 

Northbridge Brook, 

. Sutton, . 


Albert W. Going, 

Purgatory Brook, 

. Sutton, . 


Warren B. Maxwell, . 

Merriam Brook, . 

. Grafton, . 


Frank E. Vinton, 

Crosby Brook, . 

. Grafton, . 


Theodore F. Smith, . 

Hudson Brook, . 

. Grafton, . 


F. K. Snyder, 

Chase Brook, 

. Grafton, . 


C. N, Putnam, 

Misco Brook, 

. Grafton, . 


Geo. L. Gill, 

Northbridge Brook, 

. Northbridge, 


C. V. Dudley, 

Prentice Brook, . 

, Northbridge, 


Edwin Vickors, 

Turtle Brook, 

. Marlborough, 


W. D.Lepper, 

Lovett Brook, 

. Marlborough, 


W. D. Lepper, 

Round Hill Brook, 

. Marlborough, 


Chas. W. Leach, 

Rocky Hill Brook, 

. Marlborough, 


Fred Smith, 

Stowe Brook, 

. Marlborough, 


E. W. Lindley, 

Fort Meadow Brook, 

. Marlborough, 


H. P. Andrews, 

Sandy Brook, 

. Stow, 


H. P. Andrews, 

Hog Brook, . 

. Hudson, . 


E. D. Marchesseault, 

Howe and Drake Broo 

ks, . . Spencer, . 


E. D. Marchesseault, 

Robinson and Smith B 

rooks, . Spencer, . 


E. D, Marchesseault, 

Wilson and Goodnow 

Brooks, , Spencer, . 


C. W. Goodwin, 

Tunney Brook, . 

. West Brookfield, . 


C. W. Goodwin, 

Beeman Brook, . 

. West Brookfield, . 


C. W. Goodwin, 

Bemis Brook, . 

. Sturbridge, 


C. W. Goodwin, 

Winnimissett Brook, 

. New Braintree, 



Sucker Brook, 

. New Braintree, 


C W. Goodwin, 

Bemis Brook, 

. Fiskdale, . 


Chester B.Williams, 

Snake and Bullard Br 

ooks, . Wayland, 


Wm. A. Soper, . 

Slab Brook, . 

. Westtield, 


R. K. Andrews, 

Cold Spring Brook, 

. Westfield, 


H.F. Snow, 

Timber Swamp Brook 

. Westfield, 


C. A. Pierce, 

Hollister Brook, . 

. Westfield, 


L. H. Bowers, 

Oak Orchard Brook, 

. Westfield, 



White Brook, 

. Westfield, 


Alfred Read, 

Winchell Brook, . 

. Westfield, 


Geo. R. Bowers, 

Powder Mill Brook, 

. Westfield, 


H. R. Stiles, 

Ponders Hollow Brool 

J, . . Westfield, 


O. O. Oliver, 

Jacks Brook, 

. Westtield, 


W. S. Marsh, 

Tekoa Brook, 

. Westfield, 


O. F. Fuller, 

Hop and Fox Brooks, 

. Blackstone, 


J. D. Mason, 

Church Hill Brook, 

. Templeton, 


J. D. Mason, 

Carters Brook, 

. Templeton, 


E. P. Tyler, 

Blackmer Brook, 

. Dana, 


Henry Brandes, 

Upham and Potash Br 

ooks, . Dudley, . 


Henry Brandes, 

Muse and Freeman Br 

ooks, . Webster, . 


W. H. Emerson, 

Potter and Trim Howe 

11 Brooks, Douglas, . 


Chas. L, Allen, 

Weasel Brook, . 

. Worcester, 


H.J. Bell, . 

Mammouth Brook, 

. Leominster, 


H.J.Bell, . 

Monoosnock Brook, 

. Leominster, 


H. J. Bell, . 

Spec Pond Brook, 

. Lancaster, 


H. J. Bell, . 

Wekepeke Brook, 

. Lancaster, 


H.J.Bell, . 

Massapoag Brook, 

. Lunenburg, 


H.J.Bell, . 

Heywards Brook, 

. Lunenburg, 






Fry distributed from the 

Eadley Hatchery during the Months of April 
and May, 1902. 


Name of Waters. 



S. E. Bliss, .... 

Leaping Well Brook, . 

South Hadley, 


Thomas F. Buckley, . 

Goepel Brook, .... 

South Hadley, 



Elmer Brook, .... 

South Hadley, 


E.E. Pomeroy, . 

Stony Brook 

South Hadley, 


A. D. Cooke, . . 

Castleboro Brook, 

South Hadley, 


F. E. White, 

McGrath Brook, .... 

South Hadley, 


M. F. Lyons, 

Willimansett Brook, . 



W. H. Roberts, . 

Poor Brook, .... 



Wm. 0. Kemfield, . 

Cooley Brook 



Jos. R. Beaudoin, 

Fuller Brook 



Chas.C. Russell, 

Mountain Brook, 



Chas. C. Russell, 

Andrews Brook, .... 



Chas. C. Russell, 

Pratt Brook 



Chas. C. Russell, 

Bardwell Brook, .... 



Chas. C. Russell, 

Phillips Brook, .... 



H. R. Davidson, . 

Amethyst Brook, 

Pelham, . 


R. W. Aldrich, . 

Wedge Brook, .... 

Pelham, . 


G. P. Bartlett, . 

Buffum Brook, .... 

Pelham, . 


J. R. Andrews, . 

Cooke Brook 

Pelham, . 


Dwight L. Crafts, 

Roaring Brook 

Whately. . 


B. W. Mayo, .... 

Long Meadow Brook, 



G-eo. AT. Darby, . 

Poland Brook, .... 

Conway, . 


A. M. Lyman, 

Washhouse Brook, . 



A. M. Lyman, 

Noisy Brook, .... 




Warwick Brook, 



W. A. Smith, . 

Highland Brook, 

Goshen, . 


"W. W. Smith, . 

Rogers Brook, .... 

Goshen, . 


F. S. Dresser, . 

Packard Brook, .... 

Goehen, , 


E. L. Culver, 

Hampshire Brook, 

Goshen, . 


C. E. Bass 

Smith Brook, .... 



Homer C. Taylor, 

Stony Brook 

Granby, . 


L. W. Tavlor, . 

Muddv Brook, .... 

Granby, , 


Chas. L. Hoag, . 

Slipe Brook 

Granby, . 


F. H. Graves, 

Little Brook, .... 

Granby, . 


C.C. Newell, . . 

Sugar Brook, .... 

Granby, . 


John Prokop, 

Landville Brook, 



Adolph Sweeney, 

Turkey Hill Brook. . 



Chas. Gould, 

Roberts Meadow Brook, west 




Chas. H. Sawyer, 

Roberts Meadow Brook, east 




Louis Gaylor, 

Roberts Meadow Brook, . 



Albert Longdon, 

Mosquito Hollow Brook, . 



E.P. Feiker, 

Broad Brook, .... 

Hatfield, . 


Sam'l Spencer, . 

Running Gutter Brook, 

Hatfield, . 


J. G. Thayer, . 

Running Gutter Brook, west 


Hatfield, . 


Edward Miller, . 

Parsons Brook 

Easthampton, . 


Howard French, 

Parsons Brook, west branch, . 



W. A. Sheldon, . 

Parsons Brook, east, branch. 




Fry distributed from the Winchester Hatchery during the Months of April 

and May, 1902. 


Winns Brook, .... 

Belmont, . 


W. D. Higgins, . 

Winns Brook, 

Belmont, . 


W. S. Allen, 

Mitchells Brook, 



Abbott Mitchell, . 

Browns Brook, 



R. Wetherbee, . 

No name. 

Bedford, . 


Geo. H. Sweetnam, . 

Elm Brook, . 

Bedford, . 


W. Whittemore, . 

Vine Brook, 



E L Hbiwes, 

Whites Brook, 

Billerica, . 


L. L. Pierce, 

Whittemore Brook, 

Billerica, . 


F. A. Merriman, . 

Mcintosh Brook, 

Billerica, . 


C. H. Buss, .... 

Beaver Hole Brook, 






Winchester Hatchery — Concluded. 


Name of Waters. 



L. A. White. . . . | Hamdens Brook, . . . i Burlington, 


John A. Chambers, 

! Elm Brook, . 

. Lincoln, . 


R. J.Durward, . 

j Halls Brook, 

. Woburn, 


F. W. Clemson, . 

1 Blanchard Brook, 

. Woburn, 


"W. J. Hammond, 

1 Fowles Brook, . 

. 1 Woburn, 


S. M. Harvey, 

Shakerglen Brook, 

. 1 Woburn, 


John A. Sweeteer, 

1 Cutlers Brook, . 



John 0. Daniels, 

1 Holbrook Trout Brook 




D. J. Wetherbee, 

! Nashoba Brook, . 



Chas. M. Kimball, 

■ Cemetery Brook, . 



Chas. M.Kimball, 

i Houghton Brook, 



Chas. M. Kimball, 

Taylor Brook, 



Chas. M. Kimball, 

1 Stony Brook, 



John A rftevens, 

Smallpox Brook, . 



C F. Winch, 

Rock Brook, 



Wm. A. Butler, . 

Walker Brook, . 




Morrills Brook, . 



Arthur E. Roberts, 

South Brook, 



Samuel Parker, . 

Saugus River Brook, 


1 5,000 

Daniel G-. Whelton, 

Poor Brook, 



Wm. E. Badger, . 

Saras Brook, 


1 5,000 

L. W. Hall, . 

Richardson Brook, 


1 5,000 

C. O Hall, . 

Varnums Brook, . 


! 5,000 

Geo. L. Huntoon, 

Double Brook, 


1 5,000 

F. M. Palmer, 

Cuba Brook, 

North Andovei 


! 5,000 

P. H. Ryan, 

Long Meadow Brook, 


1 5,000 

Richard Taff, . 

No name. 


1 5,000 

H. E Richardson, 

Snake Meadow Brook 



H E Richardson, 

Spoon Handle Brook 



G-eo. L. Lawson, 

Uptons Brook, . 



Robert J. Young, 

Spoon Handle Brook, 



Caleb L. Smith, . 

Blind Brook, 

Chelmsford, . 



Fry distributed from the Adams Hatchery during the Months of April 

and May, 1902. 

John L. Frizzell, 

Tultle Brook 



John L. Frizzell, 

Pierce Brook, .... 



John L. Frizzell, 

Fuller Brook, .... 



James S. Sanders, 

Benton Brook, .... 



James S. Sanders, 

Moulton Brook, .... 



James S. Sanders, 

Malthie Brook, .... 



James S. Sanders, 

Gibbs Brook, .... 



G. D. Gregory, . 

Clam Brook 




Shaw and Cole Brooks, 



Geo. W. Holt, . 

Mitchell Brook, .... 



Geo. W. Holt, . 

Crosby Brook, .... 



Geo. W.Holt, . 

Shaw Brook 



Geo ^V. Holt, . 

Warner Brook 



Fred C. Brown, . 

Ingalls and New Road Brooks, . 



Geo. F. Sayles, . 

Brown Brook 

Adams, . 


J. E. CadagOD, . 

Yaescho Brook, .... 

Adams, . 


Wm P Martin, . 

Fisk Brook, .... 

Adams, . 


Willard E. Hoyt, 

Hopper Brook, .... 



S.G. Tenney, . 

Leete and Sweet Brooks, . 



A. M. N'ichols, . 

Hudson Brook, .... 

Clarksburg, . 


James H. Krum, Jr., 

Tunnel and McManna Brooks, . 



W. S. Uatbaway, 

Stork Brook 



F.N Haekins, . 

Haskins Brook, .... 




Briar and Lower Brooks, . 








Fingerling Brook Trout Plants - 



Name of Waters, 



! Number. 

C. B. Jerome, 

Mountain Meadow Brook, . 

North Adams, 


M. W. Thomas, . 

Sherman Brook, .... 

North Adams, 


Geo.F. Say\e&€tal., 

Tophet and Hall Brooks, . 

Adams, . 


Sanborn Q-. Tenney, 

Green River Brook, . 



Geo. Z. Dean, . 

Steam Saw Mill Brook, 

Hinsdale, . 


W. H. Shervill, . 

Furnace Brook 



J. M. Stevenson, 

Sackett Brook, .... 

Dalton, . 


E. L. Brown et al., 

Anthony and Windsor Brooks, . 

Dalton, . 


0. M. Gibbs et al., 

South Egremont Brook, 

Great Barrington, . 


J. H. Casey, 

Green Water Brook, . 



J. H. Wood, 

Sackett Brook 

Pittsfield, . . 


John Harvey, 

Nonatiquot Brook, 



Harry D. Hunt, . 

Rabbit Hill Brook, . 



R. G. Howard, . 

Cooper Brook, .... 

Ashburnham, . 


F. L. Hager, 

Bemans Brook 

Winchendon, . 


James F. Heath, . 

Marshalls Brook, 

Taunton, . 


W. H. Gale, 

Smith and Hedge Brooks, . 



Chas. M. Kimball, 

Houghtons Brook, 

South Acton, . 


A. M. Lyman, 

Creamery Brook, 



H. Blandaraer, . 

Shattuck Brook 

North Dana, . 


H.E.Brown, . 

Whittemore Brook, , 

North Dana, . 


L. 8. Bailey, 

Raven and Josa Meadow Brooks, 




Millers River Brook, . 



Chas. CUussell etal 


Punch and Fisk Brooks, . 



John F. Hood et al., 

Fall River Brook, 

Turners Falls, 


Geo A. Flagg, . 

Spruce Pond Brook, . 

Boylston, . 


E. F. Lansil, 

Hop and Run Brook, . 

Sudbury, . 


H. P. Andrews, . 

Hog Brook, 

Hudson, . 


W. D. Lepper eia^., 

Fort Meadow Brook, . 

Marlborough, . 


J. W. Jackson, . 

Pudding Mill Brook, . 

Belchertown, . 


H. W. Roeers et al.. 

Mill Brook, 

West Upton, . 


C.V.Dudley, . 

Prentice and Carpenter Brooks, 

Northbridge, . 


O. F. Fuller, 

Quickstream Brook, . 



George Pogue et al.. 

George Brook, .... 

Grafton, . 


C. L Bush etal; 

Biglow and Hollow Brooks, 

North Brookfleld, . 


C. W. Goodwin et al. 

Adams and Whites Brooks, 

West Brookfield, . 


Alfred Read et al.. 

HoUister andLittleRiverBrooks. 



Ira J. Humer, 

Whitin Street Brook, . 

Holyoke, . 


F. M. Smith et al.. 

Leaping Well Brook, . 

South Hadley,. 


E. G. Miller et al., . 

Parsons and Broad Brooks, 



E. P. Bartlett et al.. 

Cook-Wedge and Buffum 


Pelhara, . 


F. T. Slater. 

Alewife Brook, .... 



Isaac C Day, 

Parter and Pearl Brooks, . 

Boxford, . 


David P. Waters et al 

• > 

Darlings Brook, .... 



Isaac D. Pope, . 

Crane River Brook, . 

Danvers, . 


E. A. Fuller et al., 

Mosquito and Boston Brooks, . 

North Andover, 


A. B. Robinson et al. 

Walker Brook, .... 

Georgetown, . 


Chas. A. Lunt et al , 

Tanhouse and Batchelder 


Rowley, . 


Richard Taff et al.. 

Tyngsborough Brook, 



Claude H. Tarbox, 

Wheeler Brook 

Bytield, . 


Geo. I. Simpson, 

Brown Brook, .... 

Attleborough, . 


F. B. Newton etal.. 

Barber and Coles Brooks, . 

South Framingham, 


L. G. McKniifht e« a/. 

Cold Stream Brook, . 

Gardner, . 


Wm. H. Leonard, 

Rumford and Torreys Brooks, . 

Foxborough, . 


Homer King, 

Tatnuck and Kettle Brooks, 



Chas L. Allen, . 

Barber Brook, .... 



A. M. Taft, . 




Henry A. Mower, 

Quinapoxet Brook, 

Holden, . 


Harry A. Dickerman, 

Mechanics Brook, 

Attleborough, . 






Ponds stocked loiih White Perch, 1902. 

[Section 19, Chapter 91 

, Revised Laws.] 

Little Sandy Pond, Pembroke. 

Maquan Pond, 

. Hanson. 

Milford Pond, 

. Swansea. 

Scaddings Pond, . 

. Taunton. 

Winnecunnet Lake, 

. Norton. 

North Pond, . 

. Orange. 

Stiles'Pond, . 

. Boxford. 

Dennis Pond, . 

. Yarmouth 

Middle Pond, . 

. Dana. 

Ponds stocked ivith Rainboiu Trout and Landlocked Salmon, 1902. 
[Section 19, Chapter 91, Revised Laws.] 
Onota Lake, Pittsfield. 

Cranberry Pond, 
Hard wick Pond, 
Pentucket Pond, 
Rock Pond, . 
Queen Lake, . 
Whalom Lake, 
Snows Pond, .. 








Note — Landlocked salmon were put into only the first three ponds in 
this list, but all were stocked with rainbow trout fino;erlino:s. 

The following ponds were stocked with rainbow trout, but 
not closed : — 

Long Pond, Wellfleet. 

Pocksha Pond, Rock. 




Distribution op Pheasai^ts. 

Pheasants were liberated in the covers in various sections of 
the State, as indicated in the following list, which also em- 
braces the names of applicants for birds : — 

A. C. Stevens, 
R. B. Chessman, 

E. P. Bartlett, 
L. H, Warner, 
Chas. A. Hall, 

F. N. Haskins, 
North Attleborough Fish 

tion, . 
C H. Morse, . 
Tobias H. Burke, . 
Henry Frost, . 
Edward N. Ames, . 
Chas. Spooner, 

P. P. Adams, . 
Abbott S. Mitchell, 
E. J S. Miller, 
Frank M. Chase, . 
Thos. B. Rounds, . 
Sanborn G. Tenney, 
J. D. Upton, . 
Arthur W. Beckford, 
J. A. Pettigrew, 
Thos Stackhouse, . 
George T. Wyer, . 
James E. Cadagon, 
William E. Hoyt, . 
Edward Brooks, 
John W. Wheeler, 
Arthur E. Roberts, 
Marlborough Fish and Game Protective As- 


Game Associa 



North Attleborough. 


West Quincy. 



South Hadley and 

Fall River. 
North Reading. 
Dan vers. 
Jamaica Plain. 
Marshfield Hills. 



1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 183 

Myles Standish, Rock. 

Rufus A. Sonle, New Bedford. 

Thos. W. Williams, Attleborough. 

Geo. N. Smalley, Carver. 

John Kenrick, South Orleans. 

Uxbridge Fish and Game Association, . . Uxbridge. 

David G. Welton, Salem. 

Geo. Pogue, Grafton. 

James H. Krum,Jr North Adams. 




DiSTRiBUTioi^ OF Belgma:n^ Habes. 

Belgian hares have been liberated in the covers, as indicated 
in the following list, in compliance with applications received 

the persons whose names appear : — 

David G. Welton, . 


W. H. Toner, . 



Rufus A. Soule, . 

New Bedford. 

Shephard R. Dyer, 


H. E. Reynolds, . 


Wm. H. Leonard, . 




John H. P. Dodge, 


Win slow Clark, . 


P. H. Clairsey, 


Charles Spooner, . 






Henry M. Knowles, 

New Bedford. 

F. B. Whitcher, . 


J. W. Jackson, 


E. P. Bartlett, 

Pel ham. 

Calvin D. Pratt, . 


Tobias H. Bm-ke, . 


James E. Cadagon, 




Willard E. Hoyt, . 


Thos. W. Williams, 


Brookside Hunt Club, 


Marlborough Fish and ( 

jame Association, . 


Michael Shea, 

New Bedford. 

George W. Fields, . 


1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 185 

Arrests Ajst) Cokyictioxs. 

The following tabulated statemeDt shows in detail the result 
of the enforcement of fish and game laws, so far as arrests and 
convictions are concerned. The total number of arrests was 
157 and the aofSfreo^ate of convictions was 138. Amono- those 
convicted, 1 appealed, 2 cases were continued for sentence, 
and 10 were put on file ; 19 of the persons arrested were dis- 
charged. The total amount of fines was $1,772. 

Considered in detail, 57 arrests were made for Sunday hunt- 
ing, 34 for illegal fishing, 20 for violation of the lobster laws, 
10 for shooting song and insectivorous birds, 9 for illegal 
hunting not otherwise specified, 8 for using ferrets, 6 for hunt- 
ing out of season, 4 for snaring, 3 for selling game out of 
season, 2 for offering partridge for sale and 1 for killing a 
deer ; thus 103 arrests were made for violations of the game 
laws and 54 for violations of the fish laws. 










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Short lobsters. 

Snaring partridge, 

Sunday hunting, . 

Sunday hunting, . 

Snaring partridge, 

Illegal fishing. 

Illegal fishing. 

Illegal fishing. 

Shooting song birds, . 

Snaring and illegal possession of 

Shooting song birds, . 

Snaring, .... 

Sunday hunting, . 

Siuiday hunting, . 

Sunday hunting, . 

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Sunday hunting, . 

Sunday hunting, . 

Sunday hunting, . 

Sunday hunting, . 

Sunday hunting, . ' . 

Sunday hunting, . . . 

Sunday hunting, . 

Sunday hunting, . 

Short lobsters. 

Short lobsters, 

Short lobsters, 




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Norton, . 

Salem, . 

Lynn, . 


Boston, . 


Boston, . 





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Rhode Island, 

Rhode Island, 

Rhode Island, 

Rhode Island, 

Rhode Island, 

Rhode Island, 



Chelsea, . 







. . - . . . . - . _ 

Alexander Campbell, 
Daniel W. Spooner, 
Richard Littleton, . 
Sumner P. Ames, . 
George W. Wilbur, 
George W. Bran, . 
Asa (Jalucia, . 
Charles Grobski, 
Angelo Carbon i, 
Benjamin M. (iould, 
Generollo Fucillo, . 
Augustus Pelletier, . 
John C Keiley, 
Henry Brown, . 
Edward Ilarriman, . 
John T Collins, 
Joseph Brigham, 
John MeGuiness, 
Patrick Keith, . 
Joseph Lowray, 
Ernest Phurin, 
Anthony Phurin, 
Williatn II. Curtin,. 
Edmond A, Vogel, . 
Avery Powell, 
Ernest Bowman, 
Clarence Smith, 




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* 1 







Acts of 1902. 

[Chapter 138.] 
An Act to transfer the powers and duties of the inspector 
general of fish to the board of commissioners on fisheries 


Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The office of inspector general of fish is hereby 

Section 2. The powers and duties heretofore conferred and im- 
posed upon the inspector general of fish are hereby conferred and 
imposed upon the board of commissioners on fisheries and game. 

Section 3. Said board may appoint in every town in which fish 
is packed for export, inspectors of fish, who shall be sworn before 
them or before a justice of the peace, and shall give bond to them 
with sufficient sureties, and be removable at the discretion of said 
board. Each inspector shall once in six months make the returns to 
said board necessary to carry into effect the provisions of chapter 
fifty-six of the Revised Laws. 

Section 4. The inspectors of fish shall have the powers and per- 
form the duties heretofore conferred and imposed upon the deputy 
inspectors of fish, but shall pay to the commissioners on fisheries and 
game the proportion of fees formerly paid to the inspector general of 
fish. Said commissioners shall pay the fees received from the in- 
spectors into the treasury of the Commonwealth on the first Monday 
of January and the first Monday of July in each year, and shall 
include a brief statement of the work of fish inspection, and of the 
fees received therefor, in their annual report. 

Section 5. Sections three and four of chapter fifty-six of the 
Jlevised Laws are hereby repealed. [_Approved February 27^ 1902, 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 193 

[Chapter 94.] 
An Act to regulate the taking of shellfish in the town of 


Be it enacted, etc. , as follows : 

Section 1. It shall be unlawful to take or catch any oysters 
from or in the waters of Blankin ships or Plantain island coves in the 
town of Marion, or to use a dredge or a drag net in said waters for 
any purpose, before the first day of September in the year nineteen 
hundred and four. 

Section 2. Whoever violates any provision of this act shall be 
punished by a fine not exceeding twenty dollars for each offence. 
^Approved February 20^ 1902. 

[Chapter 164.] 
An Act to authorize the board of commissioners on fisheries 


Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Chapter ninety-one of the j Revised Laws is hereby 
amended by striking out section seven and inserting in place thereof 
the following : — Section 7. The board of commissioners on fisheries 
and game may issue permits for the taking of sand eels in the tidal 
waters of the Merrimac and Ipswich rivers and Plum Island sound, 
and their tributaries. Said permits shall be issued without any fee 
therefor, and shall be revocable at the discretion of the commis- 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Ap- 
proved March 12^ 1902. 

[Chapter 178.] - 

An Act to authorize the board of commissioners on fisheries and 

game to make certain investigations. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1 . The authority of the commissioners on fisheries and 
game shall extend to the investigation of questions relating to fish 
and fisheries, or to game, and they may from time to time, personally 
or by assistaijts, institute and conduct inquiries pertaining to such 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [-<4p- 
proved March 12, 1902. 

194 FISH AND GAME. ' [Dec. 

[Chapter 283.] 

An Act to authorize the leasing of farm pond in the town of 

cottage city by the commissioners on fisheries and game. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. The coinmissioners on fisheries and game, or any two 
of them, may in the name of the Commonwealth lease, for a term not 
exceeding eleven years, the pond known as Farm pond, in the town 
of Cottage City in the county of Dukes County, with the arms, coves 
and bays connected therewith, for the purpose of cultivating useful 
fishes, for such periods of time and on such terms and conditions as 
may seem to them most for the public good : provided^ that nothing 
herein shall affect the right of any citizen of the Commonwealth to 
take fish in said pond or in the waters connected therewith, by hook 
and line, according to the laws now or hereafter in force relating to 
the taking of fish by hook and line. 

Section 2. Before making such lease the commissioners shall ap- 
point a time and place for a hearing upon the application therefor, 
and shall give notice of the hearing to every town within the limits of 
which any part of said pond lies. 

Section 3. The commissioners may fix the limits of the said pond 
and of the arms, coves and bays connected therewith ; which limits, 
being recorded in the registry of deeds for said county, shall be taken 
to be the legal limits thereof for all the purposes of this act. 

Section 4. The commissioners shall have the custody of all such 
leases, and may cause any agreements, rights, reservations, forfeit- 
ures and conditions therein contained to be enforced, and for that 
purpose may institute proceedings in the name of the Commonwealth, 
and may take possession of any premises for breach of condition of 
such lease, and after revesting the Commonwealth therewith may 
again lease the same. 

Section 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. \ Ap- 
pro ced April 8, 1902. 

[Chapter 85.] 
An Act to forbid quail shooting on the island of nantucket 

for a period of three years. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. It shall be unlawful to take, kill or have in possession 
any quail on the island of Nantucket at any time within three years 
after the first day of IVTarch in the year nineteen hundred and two. 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 195 

Section 2. Whoever violates any provision of this act shall be 
punished by a fine of twenty dollars for every quail taken, killed or 
had in possession contrary to the provisions hereof. \_Approved Feb- 
ruary 12, 1902. 

[Chapter 137.] 
An Act to establish the open season for trout, land locked 

salmon and lake trout in the counties of berkshire, frank^ 

lin, hampden and hampshire. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section sixty-three of chapter ninety-one of the Revised Laws is 
hereby amended by striking out the words " first day of August", in 
the fifth and sixth lines, and inserting in place thereof the words : — 
fifteenth day of July, — and by striking out the word " first ", in the 
sixth line, and inserting in place thereof the word : — fifteenth, — so 
as to read as follows : — Section 63. Whoever, except as provided 
in section sixty-six, sells or offers or exposes for sale, or has in his 
possession, a trout, land locked salmon or lake trout, except alive, 
between the first day of September and the first day of April, or in 
the counties of Berkshire, Franklin, Hampden and Hampshire, be- 
tween the fifteenth day of July and the fifteenth day of April, shall 
forfeit not less than ten nor more than twenty-five dollars for each 
offence ; and the possession of any such fish between said dates 
shall be prima facie evidence to convict. \_Approved February 27, 

[Chapter 165.] 
An Act relative to the protection and sale of quail in the 


Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. Section three of chapter ninety-two of the Revised 
Laws is hereby amended by inserting after the word " following", in 
the third line, the words : — or, in the county of Bristol, between the 
fifteenth day of December and the first day of November following, 
— and by inserting after the word "May", in the ninth line, the 
words : — except that, in the county of Bristol, this period shall be 
from the fifteenth day of December to the first day of May, — so 
as to read as follows : — Section 3. Whoever takes, kills or has in 
possession, or buys, sells or offers for sale a quail, between the first 
day of December and the first day of October following, or, in the 
county of Bristol, between the fifteenth day of December and the 
first day of November following, whenever or wherever such bird 

196 FISH AND GAME. [Dec, 

may have been taken or killed, shall be punished by a fine of twenty 
dollars for each bird ; but a person, firm or corporation dealing in 
game or engaged in the cold storage business may buy, sell or have 
in possession, and a person may buy from such person, firm or 
corporation, and have in possession if so bought, quail from the first 
day of December to the first day of May, except that, in the county 
of Bristol, this period shall be from the fifteenth day of December to 
the first day of May, if such quail were not taken or killed in this 
Commonwealth contrary to the provisions of this chapter ; and a per- 
son, firm or corporation dealing in game or engaged in the cold 
storage business may have quail in possession on cold storage at any 
season, if such quail were not taken or killed in this Commonwealth 
contrary to the provisions of this chapter. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Ap- 
proved March 12, 1902. 

[Chapter 236.] 
An Act to provide for the better protection of game. 
Be it enacted., etc., as follows : 

Section 1. Whoever, except as provided in section twenty-one 
of chapter ninety-two of the Revised Laws, takes or sends or causes 
to be taken or sent out of the Commonwealth any bird or animal 
protected by the provisions of said chapter which has illegally been 
taken or killed within the Commonwealth ; and whoever has in pos- 
session any such bird or animal with intent to take or send the same 
or to cause the same to be taken or sent out of the Commonwealth, 
shall be punished by a fine of twenty dollars for every bird or animal 
so had in possession or taken or sent beyond the limits of the Com- 

Section 2. Section twenty-two of chapter ninety- two of the Re- 
vised Laws is hereby repealed. [Approved March 27, 1902. 

[Chapter 544.] 
An Act to amend the revised laws and to supply certain 

OMISSIONS therefrom. 

Section 11. Section sixty-four of chapter ninety-one of the Re- 
vised Laws is hereby amended by inserting after the words " apply 
to", in the seventh line, the words: — the county of Berkshire nor 
to, — so as to read as follows : — Section 64. Whoever at any time 
takes, catches or has in possession, or whoever sells or offers or 

1902.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 197 

exposes for sale in this Commonwealth, trout less than six inches in 
length shall forfeit ten dollars for each such trout taken, caught, held 
in possession, sold or offered or exposed for sale ; but the provisions 
of this section shall not affect the provisions of section twenty-eight, 
nor shall they apply to the county of Berkshire nor to a person who 
is engaged in breeding or rearing trout or to any person who, upon 
taking such trout, immediately returns it alive to the wat^r from 
which it was taken. [Approved June 28, 1902. 

198 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 


The following tables show in detail, by counties, the statis- 
tics of the shore net and lobster fisheries of Massachusetts for 
the year ending Oct. 1, 1902, as reported to this commission. 
These tables embrace the fisheries with pound nets, weirs, 
floating fish traps, fyke nets, seines, gill nets and pots, the 
latter being used for catching lobsters. They do not, however, 
because of limitation of law, include other branches of the 
shore fisheries, and therefore lack completeness to that extent. 

Table No. 1 shows the number of fishermen employed in the 
various sea-bordering countries in the fisheries designated. 
The table shows an increase of 121 in the persons employed, 
as compared with 1901. This increase is most noticeable in 
Essex, Suffolk and Plymouth counties. In Norfolk County 
there is a decrease of nearly 60 per cent. , and in Barnstable 
County of 2 persons. Barnstable County employs about 40 
per cent, of the fishermen enumerated in this table. 

Table No. 2 shows, by counties, the number and value of 
boats and the number and value of the different forms of 
apparatus. It will be seen that 935 boats, with a value 
of $107,993.50, were employed in these fisheries in 1902; 
also 155 pound nets and trap nets, worth $94,230; 2,676 
seines, gill nets, etc., valued at $25,215.50; 20,058 lobster 
pots, worth $24,890.05 ; and shore property and accessory 
apparatus, with a value of $23,663.35. The total investment 
of the State in these branches of fishery is $275,992.40. This 
is an excess over 1901 of $46,129.80. Considered in detail, 
the following changes are shown between 1901 and 1902 : 
there has been an increase of 105 boats, with an additional 
valuation of $23,513.75; a decrease in pound nets and trap 
nets of 38, but an increase in value of $2,625 ; an increase in 
seines, nets, etc., of 700, with an added valuation of $6,322; 
an increase of 3,300 lobster pots, with an enhanced valuation 




of $3,276,60; and an advanced valuation of shore property, 
etc., of $10,392.45.* 

Table No. 3 shows, by counties and by species, the quanti- 
ties and values of products. These aggregate 17,587,467 
pounds, with a value, at the prices paid the fishermen, of 
$355,449.41. Barnstable County leads, with a yield of 10,- 
378,376 pounds, worth $135,357.39 ; Essex County, which is 
next in productiveness, had 3,415,233 pounds of products, 
valued at $68,675.20. In the preparation of this table the 
weight of lobsters was estimated ; the actual number of lob- 
sters was 670,245. 

Comparing these returns with those of 1901, there is an 
increase of 3,423,218 pounds of products and $41,406.14 in 

Table No. 1. — Showing, by Counties, the Number of Men employed 
in the Shore Net and Lobster Fisheries of Massachusetts in 1902. 






















Table No. 2. — Showing, by Counties, the Apparatus employed in the 
Shore Net and Lobster Fisheries of Massachusetts in 1902. 











Boats, ..... 
Pound nets and trap nets, 
Seines, gill nets and fyke nets, 


Shore property and accessory 
apparatus, .... 





$17,093 00 
9,075 00 
3,380 00 
5,484 95 

2,305 20 


$2,218 00 

3,735 50 

410 65 

$6,364 15 


$1,255 00 

402 00 
118 65 



$37,338 15 


$1,775 65 

* It is probable that much of the increase noted is due rather to more complete 
returns than were ever previously received than to any actual advance in number 
and valuation of various forms of apparatus. 

A better understanding on the part of the fishermen of the requirements of the 
law, and increased confidence that the information they transmit will be consid- 
ered confidential, so far as individual returns are concerned, accounts in part at 
least for more correct data being received. 

t Only lobster pots are included in the classification of " pots." 




Table No. 2. — Apparatus employed^ etc. — Concluded. 


Plymouth . 



Number. Value 






Pound nets and trap nets, 
Seines, gill nets and fyke nets, 


Shore property and accessory 





$16,013 00 

65 00 

797 50 

11,945 45 

1,177 35 





$45,778 50 

68,920 00 

14,783 00 

1,222 75 

13,440 00 





$7,012 00 

200 GO 

3,365 00 

263 40 

684 00 

Totals, .... 


$29,998 30 


$144,144 25 

$11,524 40 


Boats, .... 
Pound nets and trap nets. 
Seines, gill nets and fyke nets. 


Shore property and accessory 
apparatus, . 



Number. Value 





$15,424 00 

15,950 00 

1,280 00 

1,578 50 

2,773 00 

$37,005 50 


Number. Value 

$3,200 00 

20 00 

1,610 00 

257 50 

2,754 50 

$7,842 00 


Number. Value 




$107,993 50 
94,230 00 
25,215 50 
24,890 05 

23,663 35 

$275,992 40 

Table No. 3. — Showing^ by Counties and Species, the Yield of the 
Shore Net and Lobster Fisheries of Massachusetts in 1902. 











Alewives, .... 


$1,015 75 





Bluefish, . 


2 50 





Flounders and flatfis 

1, . 


3 47 





Mackerel, . 


3,644 51 







125 07 





Pollock, . 


2,453 66 







2 00 





Soup, . 


9 15 





Sea bass, . 





Sea herring, 


24,113 82 





Shad, . 


42 26 












Striped bass. 


12 10 







62 10 







4 38 





Other edible or 


species, . 


6,011 38 





Refuse fish, 






Lobsters, . 


31,173 05 


$17,694 02 


$1,620 19 

Oil, . 









$68,675 20 


$17,694 02 


$1,620 19 

* Only obster pots are included in the classification of " pots." 




Table No. 3. — Yield of the Shore Net and Lobster Fisheries — Con- 

Plymouth. i 














$418 50 


$7,771 01 






1,928 80 


$9,020 12 

FlounderB and flatfleh, . 




15,489 29 


137 49 

Mackerel, .... 


1,350 68 I 


28,228 26 


3,774 12 



94 00 


671 07 



Pollock, .... 


33 00 


4,352 20 


1,008 00 





11 20 







148 12 


192 42 

Sea base, .... 




13 59 



Sea herring, 


99 00 


23,847 .34 


37 00 





253 38 







15,540 45 


22 15 

Striped bsBB, 




354 18 


2 00 

Squid, .... 




21,212 66 



Tautog, .... 




416 73 



Other edible or bait 

species, . , . . 


224 50 


9,349 06 


495 70 

Refuse fish. 




279 94 





47,699 37 


5,490 11 


1,130 47 










$49,920 42 


$135,357 39 


$15,820 76 



Total for State. 










$184 00 


$5,485 63 


$14,874 89 



128 27 



11,079 69 

Flounders and flatfish, . 


1,635 38 


- i 


17,265 63 

Mackerel, .... 


2,771 79 



39,769 36 



11 50 




901 64 

Pollock, . . . . 


703 00 




8,549 86 

Salmon, . . . . 





13 20 



3,888 21 



4,237 90 

Sea bass, .... 


681 26 




694 85 

Sea herring. 


95 00 




48,192 16 



34 85 


696 60 


1,027 09 



42,162 90 




57,726 25 

Striped bass, 






368 58 



111 50 




21,387 27 



117 15 




539 16 

Other edible or bait 

species, . . . . 


2,521 90 

i 3,070 

203 05 


18,805 59 

Refuse fish. 


11 00 



290 94 

Lobsters, . . . . 


4,206 65 


711 49 


109,725 35 










$59,264 66 


$7,096 77 


$355,449 41 


. . No. 25. 




Year ending December 31, 1903. 


18 Post Office Square. 

Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



General considerations : — page 

Appropriations, 6 

Expansion of the work, 6 

Fish culture : — 

Appropriation, 10 

Expansion, . 11 

Output of fish, 13 

Method of distribution, 14 

Work at the hatcheries, 18 

Ponds stocked, .28 

Brooks stocked and closed, 32 

Rivers stocked, 32 

Examination of ponds, 32 

Work of the United States Fish Commission, .... 47 

Fishways ; need of legislation, 50 

Prevention of stream pollution, 63 

Death of fish because of supposed pollution, .... 56 

Preliminary report upon death of alewives, etc., . . . . 58 

Pond and brook fishing, . ' 60 

Fisheries : — 

Notable features of the year, 75 

Shore weir and net fisheries, 84 

Clams, 90 

Lobster culture and lobster fishing, . . . . . . 91 

Sea fisheries, 97 

Inspection of fish, 133 

Game : — 

How the hunting of game may benefit the State, .... 133 

Need of protective legislation, 138 

Status of game, 145 

Sea and shore birds, 149 

Partridge, woodcock and quail, 152 

The wild pidgeon, 159 

Pheasants, 159 

Song and insectivorous birds, 163 

Deer, 165 

The Belgian hare, 168 

Rabbits and squirrels, 169 


Breeding game birds and animals : — pagk 

Winchester, .172 

Pheasants, . 172 

Experiments in hatching eggs, . . . . . . . 173 

Crossing pheasants, 176 

The Belgian hare, . . . . 176 

Sutton, 177 

Report of superintendent, . . . . . . . . 177 

Experiments elsewhere, 181 

Distribution of game birds and animals, . . . . . . 183 

Enforcement of law : — 

Financial resources, 184 

Force employed, 185 

System adopted, . . . . . . . . . ' . 186 

The launch "Scoter," 189 

The work, 192 

New legislation, . . . . . ... . . . 204 

Courtesies 207 


A. List of commissioners, 211 

B. Distribution of food fish, 217 

Brook trout fry distribution, . .217 

Fingerling brook trout planted, 219 

Ponds stocked, etc., 222 

Brooks and rivers stocked and closed, 223 

C. Distribution of pheasants, 224 

D. Distribution of Belgian hares, . . . . . . . 226 

E. Arrests and convictions, 227 

F. Legislation of the year, 235 

G. Statistics of shore fisheries, 244 

Comm0ntoeaIt^ of P^assatljusdls. 

To His Excellency the Governor and Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Fisheries and Game respectfully sub- 
mit their thirty-eighth annual report. 

General Considekations. 

Appropriations. — The aggregate sum appropriated for the 
conduct of the various branches of the commission's work dur- 
ing the current year was $27,555. The details of the dis- 
bursement of this money will be comprehensively shown in 
the report of the Auditor of the Commonwealth, to which 
reference is made for these particulars. 

The appropriations were divided by law as follows : $5,630 
for compensation of the commissioners; $1,550 for travel and 
other necessary expenses of the commissioners ; $780 for clerical 
services ; $18,445 for enforcement of laws, the propagation and 
distribution offish, birds and animals, and for running expenses, 
rent and maintenance of hatcheries ; $500 for stocking ponds ; 
$300 for stocking brooks under special act ; and $350 for print- 
ing the annual report. 

A special act was passed granting $200 to defray any expenses 
that might arise in consequence of a convention of commis- 
sioners of lobster-producing States and British provinces. 

The slight increase from last year in the larger item of the 
appropriation is due to the consideration given to the repre- 
sentations of the commission as to the need of a swift launch 
for the enforcement of the fish and game laws along the coast, 
and the greater economy for the State to own such a craft, 
instead of chartering it at an annual outlay amounting to a con- 
siderable percentage of the cost. 

The generous treatment given by the Legislature to the rec- 
ommendations of the commission in the matter of appropria- 


tions is highly satisfactory ; it evidences a continuous growth 
of interest in the work, and a confidence in the proper and 
economic utilization of public money placed in our charge. It 
is true that all expenditures have been watched with care, and 
every effort has been made to secure the largest return for 
money expended ; but this is only plain duty, and any consid- 
eration accorded because of it, if such is the case, should be 
credited to the generosity of those concerned, or to a wider 
recognition of public needs. However this maj be, it is the 
ambition of the commission to secure the largest results in the 
public interest for the outlay made. It is believed this has 
been accomplished without exception, and that reason exists 
for satisfaction, not only with the general success of the year, 
but also because each step onward serves as a foundation for 
greater advance in future where progress is needed, and to that 
extent has a larger value than any isolated effort can possess. 
This will be more clearly apparent if attention is given to 
chapters containing details of the work. 

Uxjpansion of the Work. — As heretofore, everything pos- 
sible has been done to expand the work in various directions. 
As a rule, success has attended the effort ; in a few cases natu- 
ral causes, which were insurmountable, have prevented the 
attainment of certain results that otherwise could easily have 
been secured. Elsewhere detailed statements will show that 
there has been an improvement in the fish distributed by the 
commission, although there was a falling off in the number of 
shad planted, due to unpreventable cause. In the matter of 
rearing fingerlings a record has been made. Improvement in 
the hatching stations still continues ; in many ways they have 
been made better for the accomplishment of the results required 
of them. 

The breeding of pheasants has been prosecuted with a suc- 
cess never previously attained ; additional facilities have been 
provided, and studies have been prosecuted that we hope may 
prove useful, not alone to this work, but to many of our citi- 
zens engaged in poultry breeding. Interesting experiments in 
breeding birds have been instituted ; the results of these are 
such that the effect on the public welfare may have a value far 
beyond the entire amount expended in breeding pheasants. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 7 

Attempts to breed game birds have continued ; details of 
experiments will be found elsewhere. 

The statistical effort prosecuted by the commission in accord- 
ance with law is better understood by the fishermen than before, 
and they are gradually learning that it is to their own advan- 
tage to furnish the information required from them by the 
State . 

The effect of laws now on the statute books has been to 
cause the entire abandonment of official inspection of fish in 
this State. Whether it Avill be resumed in the future is a mat- 
ter of conjecture, but there seems no reason now to expect 
resumption while present laws remain. 

The building of a naphtha launch, from a special design, for 
patrolling the coast to secure the better enforcement of fish 
and game laws, is one of the most important steps taken by the 
commission in a long time, and marks an epoch in its progress. 
A few boats of this kind, the cost of which would be only a 
fraction of the cost of a steam vessel of the size formerly util- 
ized by the commission, could patrol the entire coast line of 
the State so effectively that the laws now in force would have 
larger significance than they have had. For the enforcement 
of laws along the coast nothing can surpass in effectiveness a 
swift, seaworthy launch, on which men can cruise and live, so 
that they are not dependent upon hotels or upon reaching par- 
ticular harbors where accommodations are procurable. When 
safety, speed, comfort and more or less untrammelled freedom of 
action can be secured at comparatively small expense, much 
has been gained, and the work has been placed in a notably 
progressive position. 

There has been no diminution in the very satisfactory rela- 
tions existing between scientists and scientific institutions and 
the commission. Whatever we could do to aid them we were 
glad to do, and in some instances the commission has received 
important voluntary aid from them in return. 

The convention of commissioners of the lobster-producing 
States and delegates from Canada was one of the most impor- 
tant events of the year. A consideration by such a body of 
distinguished men of the best means to preserve the lobster 
from further decimation was a matter of large consequence. 


But the inauguration of sucli a convention, whereby the knowl- 
edge and experience of many could be focussed on the accom- 
plishment of an object, is a matter of importance, for it points 
the way to other similar meetings, through which the public 
good may be promoted in matters relating to fisheries and 
game. The Commonwealth has just cause for gratification that 
it led in this endeavor to secure action which must have a wide- 
spread beneficial effect. 

While natural causes, notably the failure of the sardine to 
approach the coast of France in its usual abundance, have had 
a bad effect on particular branches of our fish trade abroad, 
still, a correspondence has been kept up with residents of other 
countries, in order that our fishing interests might be apprised 
if any information favorable to them was obtained. 

The field work, such as the examination of ponds, brooks 
and saw-mills, has never heretofore been so extensively prose- 

The effort to add to the collection of material illustrating 
the work of the commission has continued, and several inter- 
esting specimens have been obtained. The present utter lack 
of space for the installation of such a collection, necessary 
though it may be to an extent not easily understood by one 
unfamiliar with the work, makes further progress practically 
impossible, and nullifies the good intentions of those who other- 
wise might contribute to the collection. It may yet be possible 
to accommodate a specimen here and there, but nothing beyond 
that can be attempted with present limited accommodations. 

Additions have been made to the reference library, but in 
this case, too, the limit of present accommodations has been 
reached, and little more can be done until it is possible to find 
space for books. This is regrettable, for the need of a collec- 
tion of books on special topics is too apparent to admit of 

In other respects the expansion of the w^ork of the commis- 
sion, in consequence of public demands, has been such that it 
is no longer possible to find satisfactory accommodations in one 
small room. When the records of each year as it passes must 
be taken to Winchester for storage in the hatchery, where they 
are beyond easy reach for reference and liable to be destroyed, 

1903. J PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 1h. 9 

and when much of the work of the office must be done else- 
where, where privacy can be assured, it is unnecessary to say 
that a condition exists that ought not to continue longer. 
With only one room, to which every one has access, it is 
generally difficult and sometimes impossible to carry on the 
laro-e amount of work that must be done ; at the best the 
work must be done (if done in the office) in the face of great 
obstacles, and frequently at a sacrifice of personal comfort and 
strength. So excessive has the strain become that the chair- 
man has been compelled to provide himself with quarters else- 
where, where a portion of the day can be spent in attending 
to those duties which can be best performed when free from 
constant interruption. 

The increasing demands upon the commission for information 
and service evince a most satisfactory development of con- 
fidence in its ability to supply knowledge that is more or less 
closely associated with its functions, and also to meet any 
requirements upon it for material or action that may be made, 
providing, of course, they are within the scope of its effort. 
Sometimes requests for information not directly connected with 
our work have been received, and some have wished certain 
questions solved which we were not prepared to answer, 
because of lack of the men and material to deal with intricate 
scientific problems. However, through the courtesy of gener- 
ous-minded scientists we have been able to supply the required 
information, and there is gratification in knowing that the 
public has thus been well sensed. , 

The demand for documents issued by the commission, espe- 
cially those containing laws, has reached large proportions. 
Compliance with it is a matter of public necessity. The com- 
mission has striven to supply this class of literature to the 
public, and thousands of documents are now sent out, instead 
of hundreds, as formerly. This change is highly appreciated, 
and has had a satisfactory effect in securing better observance 
of law. The necessity which exists, however, for limiting the 
size of the annual reports as much as possible, precludes the 
possibility of publishing instructive papers on fish or fisheries, 
game birds and animals, etc., for which we have frequent 

10 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The attempt to change the status of the commission by abol- 
ishing the present Board of three commissioners, and having 
a Board of six members * appointed, was not only one of the 
notable occurrences of the year, but one that was extremely 
unwise from many points of view. 

The ostensible object of this effort was to secure representa- 
tion on the commission from the western counties, and to give 
the commissioners a larger force to do the work, and this quite 
regardless of the fact that the chief advocate of the measure 
publicly conceded that the commission had never been so well 
administered at any time as now. 

The opposition to this measure was extreme, and came from 
all sections of the State,! as well as from the press of other 
States. As a result, no action was taken by the Legislature 
on the bill referred to, beyond the hearing given by the com- 
mittee on fisheries and game, which reported "leave to with- 
draw" to the petitioners. 

Fish Culture. 
Appropriation. — "While no specific appropriation was made 
for fish cultural purposes, as already stated, our custom of pre- 
paring an unofficial itemized statement of the money required 
for the work enables us to give the amount estimated for 
the various purposes connected with fish culture ; although it 

* The bill introduced called for the appointment of six members, but it was 
understood that subsequently there was a desire on the part of its promoters to ask 
for its amendment so as to call for five instead of six commissioners. 

t It would be feasible to quote extensively from the press, to show the opposi- 
tion to this attempt to change the commission ; but possibly the following brief 
extract from an editorial in the North Adams " Transcript" of Jan. 29, 1903, will 
show the feeling that was universal throughout the State: "In the light of our 
knowledge of the admirable record which has been made by Chairman Collins and 
his associates, natural astonishment is felt at the proposition to abolish the com- 
mission as it stands, and substitute in place of it a new commission of six members, 
who will hold meetings once in three months. The movement has its origin in 
Pittsfield. The plan is one which does not deserve a moment's serious considera- 
tion. It cannot have been devised from a sincere desire to advance the interests of 
Massachusetts fish and game protection. The way to help that cause is to hold up 
the hands of the present commission, to give it the sinews of war, — more adequate 
means to work with. Chairman Collins has labored faithfully, intelligently and 
successfully; he has made the laws respected, has protected the game and the fish, 
and is protecting them. He has made the department a terror to the snarer. Any 
movement to interrupt the good work now being done, while it might gratify some 
personal feeling, would be directly opposed to public interests." 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUIVIENT — No. 25. 11 

is only just to say that this in part covers the expense of rais- 
ing pheasants, since some of those Avho are primaril}^ engaged 
in fish culture also give part of their time and attention to 
breeding and rearing birds. The aggregate estimated for under 
this head was $6,805. Of this, $500 was for stocking ponds 
and $300 for stocking brooks, both of these appropriations 
being made to meet the requirements of special acts, — sections 
5 and 19, chapter 91 of the Revised Laws. It is pertinent to 
state that the sum designated by law for stocking ponds, while 
at first adequate to meet the annual requirements of the people, 
is no longer sufficient to supply public demands, and only by 
the exercise of much tact and extreme economy has it been 
possible to nearly comply with the petitions for stocking 
ponds. This matter will be more fully discussed under the 
head of '' Stocking Ponds." 

Although the law permits the appropriation of $500 for 
stocking brooks, the course adopted the past two years was 
followed, on the recommendation of the commission, and $300 
was assigned for this work ; this has been sufficient for the 

It has been found in practice that the amount estimated for 
the cost of distributing fish is not sufficient ; the utmost econ- 
omy has failed to make it cover the expense. The reason is 
that the output of fish is growing immensely, and the demands 
on the commission to enlarge its field of operations in this par- 
ticular are likewise developing to a remarkable degree. Instead 
of thousands, we now distribute millions of fish; and whereas 
formerly only trout fry of one species were supplied, and con- 
sequently there was only one lot of fish each year, we now 
have two seasons of distribution, — spring and fall, — and 
various species are furnished to the applicants to meet their 
varying needs. 

In the aggregate this year's estimates were less than those 
of last year. This was because money was appropriated last 
year to purchase land at Sutton and to sink a well at Hadley, 
and no corresponding expenditures were made in 1903. Much 
has been done to improve the hatching stations, as will appear 
elsewhere, but this was accomplished without extra expense. 

JExjjansion. — In many respects a new record has been made 

12 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

in the work coming under this head, and the general trend has 
shown a gratifying advance beyond anything heretofore accom- 
plished. In two respects, however, there have been obstacles 
to progress that were insurmountable ; and, although it is 
believed these are only temporary, and each case was beyond 
the control of the commission, they are, nevertheless, note- 
Avorthy, for they show how uncontrollable causes may defeat 
plans and efforts. Reference is made (1) to the abnormal 
scarcity of shad eggs the present year, which made it impos- 
sible for the United States Fish Commission to send us as 
many fry as otherwise would have been easily possible ; and 
( 2 ) the fact that no law is on the statute books that compels 
the building of fishways. 

In the breeding and distribution of fish there has been a 
reasonable advance, with the single exception of shad. This 
success has been accomplished, too, in the face of the fact that 
the results at the Hadley station, in the matter of rearing 
fingerlings, has again been most disappointing and dishearten- 
ing, while the limits of possibility at the Sutton station had 
been so nearly reached last year that it seemed impracticable to 
do more there than was done in 1902 ; that so much was accom- 
plished was due to extraordinary effort. 

Everything that human ingenuity could devise to insure suc- 
cess in raising fingerlings at Hadley was done. No effort was 
spared, as will appear in detail elsewhere ; but the natural 
obstacles appear to be beyond control, and disaster came, 
despite the utmost care and vigilance. In producing fry, or in 
growing various species of trout or landlocked salmon that 
were larger than fingerlings, the results attained at Hadley 
were all that could reasonably be hoped for or expected ; but 
it does not yet seem feasible to successfully rear fingerlings at 
that station. 

The output at Sutton has been satisfactory, especially in the 
matter of rearing fingerlings. However, much has been done 
to provide additional facilities, and there will be no halt in 
attempts to secure greater results until there is convincing evi- 
dence that the limit of possibility has been reached. Mean- 
time, the hope is cherished that additional and adequate means 
for rearing fingerlings, which, at least, may supply what is 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 13 

lacking at Hadley, Adams and Winchester, will ultimately be 
available to the commission ; for, with the large and ever- 
increasing demand for fingerlings on the part of the public, for 
stocking ponds as well as brooks, and with convincing evidence 
of the advantage to be derived from the present system of 
stocking waters, the necessity of meeting the public demand is 
too apparent to admit of question. If this demand is as urgent 
and as important as it appears to be, no doubt its influence will 
be felt by those who represent the people, and means will be 
provided to meet it ; but unless the people interest themselves 
actively to secure more adequate means for this work of rearing 
fish, they must content themselves with what can be done with 
present facilities, which are now being well utilized. However, 
it is confidently anticipated that it will be possible to increase 
the production of fish fry for several years to come. By the 
adoption of new methods it may be found feasible to stock 
ponds and rivers mth large numbers of fry of certain species 
of fish at a much less cost than it has heretofore been prac- 
ticable to supply these. Improvements along this line are 
contemplated, but it may not be easy to bring all of them in 
at the same moment. 

Output of Fish. — A carload of shad fry was planted in the 
head waters of North Eiver at Furnace Pond, where a similar 
plant was made last year. There were approximately 1,500,000 
of these. They were put into the pond June 9, 1903. 

This consignment was received from the United States Fish 
Commission in one of its cars. The largest output of fish was 
a lot of 2,200,000 pike perch fry that were put into various 
ponds. This plant was made between May 16 and 21. There 
were also planted in ponds 4,500,000 pike perch eggs. 

The spring's plant of brook trout fry was slightly less than 
last year. This was due to a decrease in the demand for fi?y, 
and an extraordinary increase in the applications for fingerlings. 
Consequently, 903,000 brook trout fry and 10,000 brown trout 
fry were put out, — enough to amply supply all requirements, 
— and as large a number of fry as practicable were reserved for 
rearing to the fingerling size. In the fall distribution 59,660 
fingerling brook trout were planted in the brooks; 1,500 
yearling brook trout, 9,000 brown trout fingerlings, 1,000 



rainbow trout finoerlino-s and 12,000 landlocked salmon fino^er- 

CD CD ' O 

lings have been liberated in ponds ; and 600 adult and yearling 
brook trout have been selected to put into ponds and rivers ; 
while 1,000 brook trout and 500 rainbow trout fingerlings have 
been reserved to increase the brood stock. Mention should 
not be omitted that 6,000,000 landlocked smelt eggs have been 
put into ponds where the smelt has not heretofore occurred. 
Inasmuch as the smelt hatches successfully when its eggs are 
transplanted in this way, this work has substantially the same 
effect as stocking with fry. The aggregate output of eggs, 
fry and larger fish is thus shown to have exceeded 15,000,000. 
The relative value of these plants will appear more clearly 
when consideration is given to the fact that a larger percent- 
age of the salmonidae than ever before were fingerling trout and 

The value of smelt in our landlocked waters is manifold. 
This species is the natural food of the landlocked salmon, 
which apparently thrives better upon it than if dependent 
upon any other kind of food. The smelt is also excellent food 
for other predaceous species. It is likewise a good food and 
game fish. Its rapid increase in the waters where it has been 
planted warrants the hope that it may serve a good purpose as 
a means of sport, as well as furnishing food for fish and men. 

Method of Distribution. — The system of distribution 
adopted, both as applies to the free delivery of fish and the 
method of stocking waters twice a year, meets with the high- 
est commendation. In only one instance that we are aware 
of has any fault been found. One of the recipients, who 
reported the fingerling trout sent him were in ' ' perfect condi- 
tion" when planted, declares it a '^ waste of time and money 
to both State and public to put in so few. Grood streams," he 
writes, '« should have 5,000 to 10,000 at each delivery." * 

* We understand that this individual told the messenger who took the fish to 
him that he should have had 30,000 fingerlings. A declaration of this kind, or 
even of that over his own signature, indicates an ignorance of the possibilities of 
rearing fingerling trout, and likewise of the possibilities of a brook for supporting 
trout life, that is startling, not to speak of the indifference to the rights of other 
citizens. To supply 30,000 brook trout fingerlings to each applicant would require 
between 5,000,000 and 6,000,000 fish, — approximately one hundred times as many 
as we were able to raise, or probably a larger number of fingerlings of that species 
than is put out by all the States of the Union. Further comment is unnecessary. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMEXT — Xo. 25. 15 

John F. Lniiian of Palmer reported as follows: "Fish 
received and placed in the brooks in fine condition. All 
appeared strong and healthy. Consider them the best lot of 
fingerling trout I ever saw." 

William S. Sheldon of Ashby avers : "The trout arrived in 
good condition." 

O. L. Howlett of Holland says : " Fingerlings are just what 
we want to replenish our brooks. Three or four such replen- 
ishings would put our brooks in a condition so that fishing 
would be o'ood." 

William H. Leonard of East Foxborough writes: "Some 
of the trout were larger than have been received here pre- 
viously, being about five inches long." 

F. J. Piper of Townsend " was very much pleased with the 
trout and the fine condition in which they arrived." 

" The trout were in first-class condition," writes Rev. J. S. 
Cutter of Orange, "and everyone lively and active. Xot a 
single fish was lost or injured in any wa}^" 

From X^orth Brookfield E. D. Corbin writes : " These trout 
were very nice ones." 

"A fine lot of fingerlings," says Cabot L. Smith of Chelms- 
ford Centre. 

F. A. Grriffin of Lowell states : " The trout were received in 
fine condition ; did not lose even one." 

" Fish arrived in excellent condition," writes Alfred Read 
of Westfield, "and we were much pleased with them. They 
were large and very healthy looking fingerlings." 

" Xever saw a finer lot of fish," says C. F. Allen of Worces- 

F. S. Ames of Gardner reports: "We placed these trout 
in good water, . . . and they were in perfect condition. . . . 
I can see fine results from the fry and fingerlings placed in the 
streams in this vicinity." 

"These trout were all in very good condition," says 
Greorge W. Sherman of Adams. 

"The fino^erlino's were in o-ood condition." J. E. Stuart, 

"Fingerlings arrived in splendid condition. ... In my 
opinion, we can have good fishing in Fiskdale brooks if we can 

16 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

only continue to stock them for three or four 3^ ears." P. S. 
Callahan , Sturbrido-e . 

' ' This is the nicest lot I have ever taken away from the 
hatcherj^" * George L. Gill, Northbridge. 

"As a result of stocking the brooks in this town, . . . trout 
fishing is the best it has been in twenty -five years ; we got 
more trout and much larger fish. . . . The fry I had last 
spring have done finely this summer. " William Pratt, Gardner. 

" Trout came in very nice condition. Please accept thanks." 
H. F. Freeman, Brookfield. 

C. H. Pease, a prominent merchant of Lee, who is presi- 
dent of a club having a club house at Greenwater Pond, in the 
town of Becket, writes, under date of Oct. 20, 1903: "Our 
people very much appreciate your efl'orts to stock our lakes 
and streams with game fish. The lake in which I am particu- 
larly interested — Greenwater, in the town of Becket — has 
been kept filled the past season, and the pike perch which 
you sent us in May seem to be doing nicely, — can see them 
in large numbers along the shores." 

Deputy A. T. Hollinshead of Braintree says : " The fish put 
in the Quincy reservoir are coming good, for they can be seen 
jumping out of water all the time." 

The foregoing will doubtless suffice to show the practically^ 
universal satisfaction with the service the commission is now 
giving both in the rearing and distribution of fish. Having in 
mind the multifarious obstacles to overcome in carrying fish 
successfully over long distances ; the continuous care required 
to keep the water aerated properl}^, so as to have them in good 
condition ; and the transportation by wagon over roads of 
greater or less length, and which are often rough and jolty, 
the complete success met with and the wide approval of the 
present method of distribution are reasons for satisfaction, since 
the highest aim and purpose of the commission is to serve the 
public to the best of its ability, and in every direction. 

The only known obstacle to complete success was the lack 
of a greater supply of large cans for the transportation of 
fingerlings. Fingerlings or large fish are liable to sufi'er or even 
to die when carried in the cans formerly used for distributing 

* In this case the applicant preferred to go to the hatchery himself for the fish. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 17 

fry. The funds available this year did not, however, admit of 
getting any more suitable cans ; but, by the exercise of much 
care and vigilance, loss was avoided except in one instance, 
and then it was not excessive. A comparatively small expend- 
iture next year will obviate the recm^rence of a similar mis- 
hap, which, if only slight, is disconcerting. 

The fall distribution of fish for the stocking of streams and 
ponds is of sufficient magnitude to keep several deputies busy 
for fully six weeks, despite the fact that they work to the limit 
of their capacity. A glance at the list of recipients of trout, 
and the record of ponds stocked, will show how wide-spread 
is this effort ; that the fish go into nearly every town in the 
State, — frequently to several persons in the same town or 
city, — and often into sections more or less remote from rail- 
roads, where they can be safely taken only by the exercise of 
the utmost care and skill, while it is evident that any reg-ard 
for personal comfort on the part of messengers cannot be seri- 
ously taken into consideration. Simple and commonplace as 
it may seem, the effective stocking of the interior waters of a 
State is one of those enterprises that demands devotion to duty, 
as well as skill and topographical knowledge. These are avail- 
able, and are gladly supplied ; but the fact should not be lost 
sight of that this work of fish planting, together with the dis- 
tribution of pheasants and hares at the same time, takes from 
the law-enforcing effort a number of the most capable and 
energetic officers. It is true they often do double duty, to the 
extent that they do all they can to enforce the game laws on 
Sunday, when fish cannot be carried. But, nevertheless, the 
effect is that the available force for enforcing law is materially 
reduced, at a time, too, when it is most needed for the protec- 
tion of game. This is sensibly felt, particularly in a year like 
the present, when the financial resources have not been sufficient 
to put a number of extra men on the paid force during the 
open game season, — a period when wilful violation of law 
seems to be most rampant. There is, however, reason to hope 
and expect that this is only a temporary condition, and that 
the present method of fish distribution is sufficient^ popular 
to command the necessary support that will admit of it being 
fully carried out without crippling any other part of the work. 

18 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

A full explanation of the system of notification of applicants 
for fish, etc., was published in our last report, and need not be 
repeated here. Now that it is better understood by all con- 
cernedj the system appears to work admirably. 

Work at the Hatcheries. — The efi'ort to bring the hatcheries 
nearer to a condition that will enable them to completely ful- 
fill their functions has been continued with unabated zeal and 
purpose. So far as this relates to improvements for breeding 
and rearing pheasants and hares at Winchester and Sutton, 
detailed mention will be made in other chapters. No repairs 
or improvements have seemed necessary at the fish hatcheries 
at Adams and Winchester, for the reason that these are new, 
and are only what may be called developing stations, where fish 
eggs can be taken in the eyed stage, hatched out and reared to 
the stage for distribution as fry. It does not at present seem 
possible to do anything with these stations beyond making 
them convenient distributing points for fry, — and this is what 
they were intended for. 

The effort to improve the Sutton station has been continued, 
as will appear in the report of the superintendent. This has 
been chiefly in the direction of clearing out the underbrush on 
the newly acquired land, tapping springs for additional supplies 
of water, and building some new pools for rearing trout. The 
changes made, while they have been material, adding greatly to 
the appearance and resources of the station, have been carried 
on by the regular force at the hatchery, so that the cost has 
been little or nothing. 

In other respects the work of bettering the condition of the 
grounds, by removing stumps, planting flowers, etc., has been 
continued ; and the advance made in various directions indi- 
cates that the day may not be distant when this station will be 
a model of its kind, — not only in the intelligent utilization of 
all resources for the breeding and rearing of fish, birds and 
animals, but likewise in those respects that contribute to the 
comfort of the superintendent, and appeal to the good taste of 
the visitor who approves of tidy and well-kept public places 
of this kind. 

Little has been done at the Hadley station that would prop- 
erly come under this head. The doubt as to the feasibility of 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 19 

making this a first-class fisli cultural station has certainly not 
been removed by the experience of this year ; and while this 
remains or is intensified, there is no incentive to do much out- 
side of the continuous effort to better fish rearing conditions. 
At present there is little probability that anything can be suc- 
cessfully accomplished there beyond hatching fry and maintain- 
ing a brood stock of fish, under difficulties ; and there seems 
to be ample reason for anticipating the necessity of putting 
this into the second grade of stations, and looking elsewhere 
for different conditions, if the work is to be prosecuted on a 
scale commensurate with the public demand. Under such cir- 
cumstances it seems like a waste of effort to attempt general 
improvements on a scale that would be justifiable and proper 
if the conditions were different. 

Superintendent Arthur Merrill has submitted the following- 
report, which contains many details relating to the work at the 
Sutton station that are interesting and instructive : — 

The collection of brook trout eggs in 1902, from which the stock 
of fish raised this year was hatched, amounted to 624,000, obtained 
from 640 trout. Of these, 200,000 eggs were shipped to the Adams 
hatchery in January, and 424,000 were kept here for hatching. In 
May 255,000 brook trout fry were distributed, and the remaining fry 
of this species, which, less the loss in hatching, was 100,000, were 
reserved for rearing to fingerlings. 

In addition, 25,000 brook trout fry and 20,000 landlocked salmon 
fry were hatched from eggs obtained from the United States Fish 
Commission, and 20,000 brown trout fry from eggs collected from 
brood fish in the pond here. The stock of brown trout was increased 
in the spring by 15,000 fry received from the Hadley hatchery. 

No rainbow trout eggs were received, and for the first time in 
several years no stock of this fish was raised at this station for dis- 
tribution. The whole stock of fry reserved was 180,000, which was 
27,000 less than the number kept for rearing last year. The finger- 
lings raised this year were somewhat less in number than those of 
1902, but far superior in size and quality. No trouble was expe- 
rienced from epidemic diseases, and no sickly lots of fish were on 
hand at the time of distribution, the season when such trouble is 
to be mostly apprehended. Some feeble lots of fry in the upper tubs 
in the spring, and brown trout later in the summer in the same place, 
were the only fish that suffered loss from sickness, and the loss in 
these cases was slight. The fish of all kinds, and in all ponds, were 

20 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

larger than the year before, and, with but one former lot excepted, 
were larger than any previously grown here. As a result, it was 
possible to fill a largely increased number of applications satisfac- 
torily. Several thousand fish exceeded four inches in length, and 
hundreds were five and six inches long. Many of these large fish 
were males, sexually mature, though only eight months old. The 
rapid, healthy growth of the fish was largely due to the rains of the 
summer, which were very abundant, and maintained a full supply of 
spring water which did not deteriorate in the summer and fall. 

The fry were distributed as usual for rearing, the brook trout in tubs 
and pools supplied by spring water and the brown trout and salmon 
(except some trial lots in the upper tubs) below the dam where the 
pens and tubs receive their water supply from the pond. The most 
of the tubs below the dam were empty throughout the summer, 
because of the failure to receive rainbow trout eggs. 

The growth of the fry presented no unusual feature, but it was 
observed that the great increase in size was not at the expense of 
numbers, for the pools where the largest ones were grown contained 
as many or more than usual. The upper tubs produced less brook 
trout than usual, and one pond showed a shrinkage, 6,000 being pro- 
duced where 10,000 were grown the year before, but this was fully 
made up by gains in the other ponds. The total number of finger- 
ling brook trout raised was a little over 50,000. 

The heaviest loss of trout fry was from causes generally termed 
unknown. This includes the losses from frogs, snakes, predatory 
birds, animals and insects, cannibalism among the trout, and loss 
from disease or weakness, when, as is often the case, mud, vegeta- 
tion or masses of conferva conceal the fish that die. The loss varied 
in different pools, and was invariably more severe where access to the 
water is easy, and especially where the margin is shallow. It is pos- 
sible to reduce this loss some by making improvements that will safe- 
guard the fish, and permit care for them that will check cannibalism 
and disease. Although, as a rule, the limit of production has been 
reached in the ponds, there are some exceptions each year, where the 
losses are heavier than ordinary, and a pond may yield several thou- 
sand less than it should. The results were such in one of the smaller 
ponds, where the stock of fish exceeded by several thousand the 
number in that pool any year before ; but at midsummer the fish dis- 
appeared rapidly, and were soon reduced to less than the ordinary 
stock, but not the slightest evidence as to what was taking them was 
found. The pond was enclosed with netting, and the losses ceased. 

From 20,000 salmon eggs 18,000 to 19,000 fry were secured, but 
soon after hatching this number was reduced one-third by failure of 
the water supply in the hatchery, due to defects in the pipes. These 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 21 

fish escaped the attacks of disease that have depleted this kind in 
years before, and 10,000 were planted in equal lots in various ponds. 

The 35,000 brown trout fry produced 9,000 fingerlings. One lot 
of these were grown in the plank pens near the hatchery, where the 
loss of fry was quite heavy through the spring months, but the finger- 
lings raised were exceedingly large. The rest of the brown trout 
were grown in the upper tubs in spring water, and were small, though 
healthy ; the loss was very slight. 

In April 5,000,000 pike perch eggs were received from the United 
States Fish Commission station at Swanton, Vt., on Lake Champlain, 
but they were in such bad condition on arrival that only 1,000,000 
hatched. This number, however, was all that could be hatched well 
with the present fiow of water, as the supply pipes are badly clogged 
with rust scales. 

Early in April smelt eggs were collected from Lake Quinsigamond 
to the estimated number of several million, and shipped to Watuppa 
Lake, Fall River, and lakes in Ware and Pittsfield. The smelt is 
very prolific, and such a high percentage of their eggs is usually 
fertilized and hatched that one planting commonly stocks a body of 
water abundantly. 

The loss of fry due to snakes and fish-eating birds was possibly 
less than usual, as not so many of them were seen about the ponds, 
and greater success attended their capture when they did appear. 
Thirty kingfishers were killed, nearly all of them by means of pole- 
traps placed over the ponds where they usually fished. Nine herons 
were trapped before midsummer, and for the rest of the season none 
were seen. A method of trapping herons was tried that proved very 
effective, and will doubtless serve to keep the numbers of this bird 
well reduced. Small pools, three to four feet broad, were made near 
the principal feeding ponds, and around the margins under the water 
a circle of traps was placed. The herons were attracted to these 
pools by a few trout, usually about 20, placed therein, and rarely 
escaped capture at the first visit. Snakes were well reduced in the 
spring and previous fall by hunting them on warm days, when they 
were out sunning themselves. Many were killed then, and few were 
seen about the ponds during the summer. 

The insect that has frequented the upper tubs for several seasons 
appeared at the usual time, and destroyed trout that could not be 
estimated at less than several thousand. Covers were fitted more 
effectively than usual, but it was not possible to prevent the loss 
wholly, as misplaced or warped covers often exposed the fish. The 
invader, whatever it was, preferred brook trout. Brown trout and 
salmon, though left uncovered, were not touched, and the same was 
observed of rainbow trout in previous years. 

22 FISH AND OAME. [Dec. 

Before another season a new line of pipe to supply the hatchery 
will be laid to a point halfway down the pond, and it is intended to 
locate the tubs at this place, using the hatchery pipe to supply them. 
It is believed that the removal will end the trouble, as the insect 
causing it appears to inhabit the locality near the tubs, where the 
woods are dense and the ground covered with thick deposits of mould, 
underneath and through which numerous springs flow. The new loca- 
tion selected is dry, open ground. 

Improvements about the station were made under somewhat in- 
creasing difficulties, as the ordinary routine work constantly requires 
more time, and, the time being limited, less of it can be devoted to 
permanent work, although each year the need of such work grows 
more urgent. 

In the winter, which was as soon as the work could be done follow- 
ing the purchase of the land, a pond was excavated above what is 
called the " yearling or No. 2 pond," and a system of ditches drain- 
ing all the springs supplying the ponds was started. This work has 
resulted in draining many stagnant pools, where masses of vegetation 
formed obstructions, and, if carried to completion, will bring all the 
water to the central ditch in underground drains. 

In the No. 2 pond a stone dam was built, cutting off the shallow 
arm at the head, and making another pool which will serve for rear- 
ing fry. This dam is broad, up and down stream ; it is also provided 
with a covered wasteway, which makes an excellent shelter for the 
yearling trout that are in the pond below. Walls of stone laid in 
cement were started from this dam, to eventually continue around the 
pond ; and, following this work, the bottom will be paved with flag- 
stones with cemented joints. The pond is used to hold the brood 
stock after spawning, and it is found necessary to take some meas- 
ures to prevent them injuring themselves through their efforts to go 
through the spawning process. The fish, though relieved of their 
eggs, still appear to be sexually excited, and work as though they 
had the eggs to deposit ; they dig holes for nests in the bottom of the 
pond, which is gravel so hard that it can only with great difficulty be 
loosened with a pick. The exhaustion and injuries because of this 
work are fatal to many fish, the number lost sometimes exceeding 
one hundred large trout. If stones can be carted to this place in the 
winter, which is the necessary time for doing it, this work can be 
done another year, and a repetition of the loss mentioned can be 

Below the hatchery the part of the brook channel, which is used as 
a runway for trout, was cleaned out and deepened ; for convenience 
in doing this work, a small dam was built near the east end of the 
hatchery. This runway will be made deeper for the next season, 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 23 

and is one* of the places where a protection of netting is urgent. 
Less than the usual amount of improvements for fish cultural work 
was made through the summer, as the work on pheasant pens, hen 
yards and houses required all the spare time for nearly three months, 
and at other seasons many minor improvements were made and much 
work was done on the grounds. This work is largely for the purpose 
of extending the area of cleared land, to permit it to be used for the 
work on hares and pheasants, and also to keep it in better order. 
All of the State land was wild, where the forest was recently cut, 
and, where unimproved, is covered with stumps and a thick growth 
of sprouts. The wooded part recently purchased was cleared of 
underbrush and fallen trees, which was done as a preliminary work 
to cleaning out the springs. 

The spawning is late this year, because of the unusually cold sea- 
son. The collection of trout eggs has been greatly delayed, because 
of the ice that formed in the brood pond ; and some eggs have been 
lost in consequence of fish spawning under the ice. The number of 
spawners was less than expected ; due in part to an excess of males 
in the young stock added to the breeders the year before, and in part 
to a decrease in the fish put into the pond. We will get upwards of 
600,000 brook trout eggs, more than 40,000 brown trout eggs, and I 
have collected 6,000 healthy and vigorous eggs from four landlocked 
salmon that weighed 2J to 3 pounds each. 

The stock of brood brook trout on hand consists of 650 adults and 
1,500 yearlings. Of the former, 300 are large males, that should be 
disposed of ; and there is also an excess of 300 yearling males that 
we do not need. 

I have found about the usual number of adult fish affected by the 
throat disease, and taken about 50 thus afflicted from the brood pond. 
Among the yearlings I have found about the same number having 
the disease in an incipient stage; these have also been removed, for 
the disease would ultimately develop so as to spoil their usefulness 
before another spawning season. 

Specimens of trout affected with this trouble have been submitted 
to Dr. C. S. Hodge of Clark University, who kindly undertook an 
examination of them. I also gave specimens to Mr. C. C. Jocelyn of 
Bucksport, Me., who is an artist familiar with diseases of fish, and 
who promised to send me drawings of the trout I gave him which 
would show the effect of the throat affection. Dr. Hodge has deter- 
mined that the disease is due to bacteria, but will make a longer study 
before reaching final conclusions. I shall take some live specimens 
to him this week, which he will keep in an aquarium for observation. 
Fourteen Belgian hares, seven bucks and seven does were received 
in June from Winchester, but did not become sufficiently matured to 

24 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

breed this season. They were kept in pens that were constructed for 
a trial of hares four years ago, but these not being suitable for 
winter, other pens were arranged so that they might burrow into the 
ground. This they have done, and to all appearances have gone 
deep enough to make warm winter quarters. The many dry, sandy 
knolls on the hatchery grounds make it possible to use such pen& 
without limit, if they are successful. An ample supply of green food 
for summer and forage and vegetables for winter feed for the hares 
was raised, and this supply can be increased to any extent desirable 
to provide for an increase of the animals. 

The following report, compiled from letters received from 
William D. Tripp, superintendent of the Hadley station, con- 
stitutes a comprehensive account of the operations at that 
place, and, incidentally, indicates the obstacles met with and 
the utter hopelessness of attempting to rear fingerling trout or 
salmon there : — 

During the spawning season at the close of 1902 and the beginning 
of 1903 a total of 291,000 eggs were obtained from the various species 
of brood trout at this station. Of these, 201,500 were from brook 
trout, 64,000 from brown trout, and the rainbow trout yielded 25,500 

In addition, 25,000 brook trout eggs were received from the govern- 
ment hatchery at St. Johnsbury, Vt., which, with the local collection, 
made a total of 226,000 brook trout eggs at the station. Of these, 
16,000 died while in incubation or as young fry, leaving 210,000 
healthy fry in the spring. At that time 180,000 of these fry were 
sent out to stock the brooks, and 30,000 fry were kept at the station 
to be reared to fingerlings. 

From the brown trout eggs 4,100 were lost in incubation, leaving 
nearly 60,000 healthy fry of this species. Ten thousand of these fry 
were planted in Loudville Eiver at Westhampton, 15,000 were sent 
to the Sutton hatchery, and the remaining 34,900 were kept at Hadley 
to rear to fingerlings, but were nearly all lost. 

The loss of rainbow trout eggs during incubation was slight, it did 
not exceed 500. Five hundred eggs and fry were sent to the Mt. 
Holyoke College for zoological studies ; the remaining 24,500 fry 
were reserved at the station for rearing to fingerlings. 

We did not receive any landlocked salmon eggs at this station this 
year, and the three species already alluded to — brook trout, brown 
trout and rainbow trout — were all the kinds of trout handled at Had- 
ley in 1903. 



1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 25 

The attempt to raise fingerlings may be considered a failure, and 
less success was secured this year with brown and rainbow trout than 
with brook trout. The fry of all varieties died in large numbers, and 
nothing that could be done was sufficient to prevent the fatalities. The 
brown trout suffered the greatest mortality, only 100 fingerlings being 
reared from nearly 35,000 fry. The rainbow trout did only a little 
better; 1,400 of these reached the fingerling stage. The brook trout 
did slightly better than either of the other species, 3,500 fingerlings 
being saved out of 30,000 fry. This was contrary to the usual 
experience, for in previous years the rainbow and brown trout fry 
have endured the conditions at Hadley with less loss than brook trout. 

The temperature of the water received into the hatching house from 
the artesian well that was drilled last year remained evenly warm 
during the winter, consequently the eggs hatched quickly and the fry 
grew very fast during the cold weather ; they attained an extraor- 
dinary size before the period for the spring distribution arrived. 

On April 24, 1903, 5,000,000 pike perch eggs arrived at the Had- 
ley station from the United States Fish Commission station at Swan- 
ton, Vt. These eggs were in very poor condition, fully 50 per cent, 
of them being dead when received. But, nevertheless, by dint of 
much care and constant attendance upon the eggs during incubation, 
1,200,000 fry were hatched from the lot. These were planted in 
ponds in this section of the State. 

In preparation for raising fingerlings, and with the hope that better 
results could be secured by using the water from the artesian well 
than by using the brook water, as formerly, in March a system of 
twenty tubs was arranged in front of the hatching house, the tubs 
being removed from alongside of the brook, where they stood last 
year. These were placed on a platform built in a terrace-like form, 
so that the tubs were arranged in groups of fours, one group below 
the other, thus permitting the water to flow, by gravitation, from one 
set of tubs into the other, thereby supplying all with one lot of water. 
To accomplish this, a pipe was connected, inside the hatching house, 
with that which led from the artesian well and supplied the hatchery 
with water. The outer end of this new pipe led into the upper tier of 
tubs, from which the water passed, as already stated, into the tubs 
next below, and so on through the whole system. Unfortunately, 
however, it was discovered that, after the water was turned on to 
its fullest capacity, the supply was insufficient for both tubs and 

After the greater part of the fry were distributed from the hatch- 
ery, where they had been kept in the troughs until that time, several 
thousands were put into the tubs ; but in a few days these began to 
die rapidly, although no cause could be assigned for the mortality, for 

26 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the fish were in the same kind of water that they had done well in 
while in the hatchery. 

The large rearing pool above the pond where the brook trout are 
kept, and which is supplied with water from flowing wells, was 
divided into four nearly equal sections by partitions of plank and wire- 
netting screens. In April 50,000 brook trout fry were put into three 
sections of this pool, and in May 25,000 rainbow trout fry were 
placed in the fourth compartment. Much reliance was placed on this 
pool, in which the conditions were thought to be favorable to success. 
Floats made of willow were placed in each section, to furnish shade 
for the fry and to assist in keeping the water cool. 

The young fish ate well and grew fast. Very few dead fry were 
seen in the pool, but they disappeared mysteriously from day to day 
without apparent cause. In July, however, when the fry had attained 
a size which would permit of their being handled, they were all caught 
for sorting into different grades, according to size.* It was then seen 
that their size ranged from one and one-half inches to four inches in 
length, and the conclusion was reached that the mysterious losses were 
due to cannibalism, the larger trout having indulged in their propen- 
sity to devour their smaller brethren. 

After having been sorted into different grades, so as to get fish 
nearly of the same size for each grade, the trout were returned to the 
sections again, and there was no further fear of cannibalism, for some 
time, at least ; it is probable there was no further loss from this. 

Meantime, 20,000 brown trout fry were kept in the tubs until a 
considerable number died and all appeared to be weak and sickly. It 
was then decided to remove them to a small pool, where the condi- 
tions were thought to be fairly good. But the trout were so weak 
when put into the pool that all of them went to the bottom and lay 
there quite inert. And now came a catastrophe, for what had looked 
like little sticks lying on the bottom of the pool turned out to be cadis 
worms, and the fry were soon seized, killed and devoured by them ; 
only the few trout which still had strength sufficient to shake off the 
worms escaped the slaughter. 

As will be seen from the foregoing, all attempts to raise fingerlings 
at this station have failed, and all species have suffered alike. It 
would be better undoubtedly to put the fry into the brooks than to 
try to rear them to fingerlings with the conditions as they are. The 
little additional water obtained from the artesian well is warmer than 
we had before, and is of no practical use for rearing fingerlings. Nor 
is it considered feasible to secure additional spring water enough 
to be of any service without a large expenditure of money, and even 
then the chances of the water being suitable for trout raising are not 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 27 

At the present time there are 475 brook trout in the brood pond, 
varying from two to three years old ; there are also 2,000 brook trout 
that were a year old in March, 1903. So far as known, 209 large 
brook trout are missing from the brood pond. Presumably they 
have been destroyed by enemies, to which reference will be made in 
a succeeding paragraph. 

There are on hand in the pool above the large pond 435 rainbow 
trout that are three and four years old. In the planked pools below 
the dam there are 132 four-year-old brown trout that are in excel- 
lent condition. Only 3 fish of this species have been lost this year, 
and those now living are in fine condition. They have done well, 
despite the comparatively high temperature of the water in mid- 
summer. Eighty-five four-year-old landlocked salmon are also kept 
in the planked pools near the brown trout, and appear to thrive. 

The adult fish, or trout from a year old upward, seem to do well in 
water that fry rapidly die in. Where the brown trout and landlocked 
salmon were kept the water was supplied from the large pond through 
a three-inch pipe. Its temperature ranged from 60° to 68° F., and 
the fish apparently did well in either. In the pool where the adult 
rainbow trout were kept the temperature was from 55° to 68°, and 
where the brook trout were located it went from 57° to 68° F. 

It will thus be seen that the maximum summer temperature of the 
water at this station is 68° F., which is high for trout, and the fact 
that S. fontinalis does so well is a reason for satisfaction. 

Nothing has been done in building new pools, for there is no water 
for any more, and those already available are sufficient for any 
anticipated needs of this station. 

The willows which were planted along the sides of the pools have 
taken root, and they grew to about three feet tall last summer. It 
will be some time before they will be big enough to properly shade 
the pools. Nothing beyond this and the planting of a few other 
trees near the pools has been attempted in the way of providing 
shade or shrubbery, for there are about thirty head of cattle continu- 
ously roaming over the land of this station, which is not fenced, and 
they would destroy anything they could browse on. 

Much effort has been expended to keep in check the various 
enemies of trout that have caused so much destruction in the brood 
pond. During the year five mink have been trapped, and six herons 
(commonly called ^'quaks"), three blue herons and twenty-two 
kingfishers have been shot. Many others have been seen that could 
not be approached near enough to make a shot effective. It is 
possible fish hawks were among the depredators, but none were 
killed. An eel twenty-eight inches long was caught while the large 
trout were being taken for their eggs. It is well known that the eel 

28 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

is very destructive to fish life, and this specimen has no doubt been 
an active factor in reducing the stock of breeding trout. Whether 
there are more or not in the big pond is a matter of conjecture, for 
the bottom is soft mud, and eels could bury deep into it and escape 
observation, should it be drained. 

The outlook for eggs this fall and the coming winter does not differ 
materially from that of last year. There are about the same number 
of large brook trout, but more or less eggs should be secured from 
the 2,000 yearlings. 

The brown trout will probably yield about as many eggs as last 
year; they should not fall below 60,000, and may considerably 
exceed that number. 

Inasmuch as only a few of the rainbow trout spawned for the first 
time early in the present year, many of them had not attained sexual 
maturity, and had no eggs. This spawning season they are expected 
to yield a much larger number, but of course no estimate can be given 
that may be nearly correct. 

From one female landlocked salmon 1,000 eggs were taken about 
the middle of November, but as late as the last of that month there 
were no indications that any more of this species were gravid. 

Ponds stocked. — Thirty-four great ponds of the State have 
been stocked with desirable varieties of food fish, and regula- 
tions controlling fisheries in twentj^ of them have been applied. 
Eighteen of these ponds have been stocked for the first time 
under section 19, chapter 91^ Kevised Laws, and two of them, 
— Quabbin Lake in Greenwich, and Massapoag Pond in Dun- 
stable, Groton and Tyngsborough, — which were stocked three 
years ago, have been restocked, and the fisheries in them have 
again been regulated in accordance with law and in compliance 
with the petitions submitted. In addition to these, several 
ponds that were stocked in 1901 and 1902, and the fisheries in 
which have been regulated, Avere restocked ; while a few ponds 
were stocked upon application, but no regulations have been 
applied to them. Other ponds were stocked with pike perch 
eggs, and several ponds that had previously been stocked with 
landlocked salmon were stocked this year with smelt. 

Following are the names and locations of the ponds, also the 
species of fish put into them, etc. : — 

Winthrop Lake, Holliston, was stocked with pike perch ; 
N"uttings Pond, Billerica, White Pond, Concord, and Long 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 29 

Pond, Royalston, were each stocked with pike perch and 
brown trout ; Flax Pond, Lynn, was stocked with pike perch 
and rainbow trout ; Greenwater Pond, Becket, with pike perch 
and landlocked salmon ; Laurel Lake, Lee, Spectacle Pond, 
Littleton, and Neck Pond, Barnstable, were stocked with 
landlocked salmon ; * Shaw Pond, Becket, Hagget's Pond, 
Andover, Forge Pond, Littleton, Hampton Pond, Westfield, 
Pearl Lake, Wrentham, Bolton Pond, Wachusett Mountain 
State Reservation, Harris Pond, Methuen, and Pottapaug 
Pond, Dana, were stocked with brown trout. f 

All the foregoing were stocked for the first time by the State 
under section 19, chapter 91, Revised Laws. Quabbin Lake 
in Greenwich, and Massapoag Pond in Dunstable, Groton and 
Tyngsborough, were stocked with landlocked salmon, and 
regulations have been applied to them for a second term of 
three years. 

The following ponds, which were stocked, and the fishing 
therein regulated, in 1902, were restocked : Winnecunnet 
Lake, Norton, with brown trout ; Middle Pond, North Dana, 
and Hardwick Pond, Ware, with pike perch. Round Pond, 
Palmer, which was stocked and closed in 1901, was restocked 
with pike perch ; Fort Meadow Pond and South-west Pond, 
Marlborough, and Forge Pond, Granby, were stocked, by 
request, with pike perch, but no regulations were applied. 
Lake Quinsigamond, Worcester, was stocked with yearling- 
brook trout ; but, inasmuch as the fishing in this lake is regu- 
lated by law, no action was taken by this commission in that 

The regulations governing fishing in the ponds and lakes to 
which they have been applied are uniform. J These regulations 
prohibit, for three years from date of issuance, '*all fishing 
from the first of November to the first of June of each year." 
Fishing is permitted with single hook and hand line, or line 
(with single hook) attached to a rod or pole held in the hand, 

* It is worthy of note that landlocked salmon have thrived in Neck Pond as a 
result of previous stocking, as shown by the fact that several adult salmon have 
been caught recently. 

t All trout and salmon put into these ponds were fingerlings. 

t Bolton Pond, being a small body of water on a State reservation, is an excep- 
tion, as the rules governing the reservation apply to it. 

30 . FISH AND GAME. [Dee. 

on Monday, Wednesday and Saturday of each week, from the 
first day of June to the first day of November of each year, 
while the regulations are in force. A penalty of $20 for viola- 
tion of these regulations has been fixed by the commission, in 
accordance with law.* 

The ponds stocked with landlocked smelt were as follows : 
Onota Lake, Pittsfield ; Snows Pond, Ware ; and Watuppa 
Lake, Fall Eiver. 

Pike perch eggs were planted in Single tary and Dority ponds, 
Millbur}^, Lake Quinsigamond, Worcester, and in Bridgeman's 
Pond (a series of tliree ponds) in Belchertown. The numbers 
planted ranged from half a million to two and a half millions 
to each pond. 

The ponds stocked with smelt had previously been stocked 
w4th landlocked salmon, and the fishing therein regulated by 
the commission. Landlocked smelt have been introduced 
primaril}^ to supply a natural food to the salmon, and thereby 
make surer that they will thrive. A secondary though im- 
portant object is to supply our ponds with a species of fish 
which, though small in size, is alike desirable for food or sport. 
In each case the ponds were heavily stocked with eggs, which 
hatch with little loss ; and there is ample reason to believe that 
smelt will be abundant in those ponds^ in a comparatively brief 

Of the ponds stocked with pike perch eggs, Bridgeman's 
Pond had been stocked, and was closed in 1900 ; fishing in 
Lake Quinsigamond is regulated by special act ; but there are 
no restrictions to fishing in the Millbury ponds. 

It was anticipated that the commission would be in a posi- 
tion this year to stock a considerable number of ponds heavily 
with pike perch, inasmuch as the United States Fish Commis- 
sion generously sent a large consignment of eggs. But the 
eggs were received in bad order, due to improper method of 
shipment by the official in charge, consequently much difficulty 
was experienced with them. Under the circumstances, it was 

* Regulations which were applied to Turnpike Pond, Wrentham, in 1900, and 
to Milford Pond, Swansea, in 1902, because of misrepresentations that these were 
great ponds of the State, were withdrawn the present year, when it was found upon 
examination that each of the ponds was artificial, and, therefore, not entitled to 
protection hy the State. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 31 

deemed best to put the bulk of the eggs into ponds, and let 
them take the chance of hatching, while those that seemed to 
be the best of the lot were kept at the hatcheries and incubated 
in the ordinary way. These, however, did not exceed one- 
third of the number received. Pike perch eggs are not easy to 
handle successfully under the best conditions, and there is 
reason for congratulation on the result obtained from those 
received, even if there was some disappointment with the 
order in which they arrived at the hatcheries, — an incident of 
fish culture which may, we hope, not be repeated in the future. 

For the second time tlie mortality to the rainbow trout fin- 
gerlings we attempted to rear at Hadley so nearly exterminated 
them that only enough were left to stock one pond. If ordi- 
nary success had been met with in rearing this species, enough 
fingerlings would have been available to heavily stock a num- 
ber of ponds. 

The success which has attended the stocking of ponds in 
recent years, and the regulating of fishing therein, has gen- 
erally been great, and has resulted in much satisfaction to citi- 
zens. The commission has received numerous letters and 
reports, in which mention is made of the marked improvement 
in fishing on closed ponds, due to an increase of fish. Brief 
quotations from some of these appear in the chapter on ' ' Pond 
and Brook Fishing." There can be no question of the advan- 
tage to fish of prohibiting winter fishing, by which a few indi- 
viduals, fishing through the ice, can deplete the fish in a pond 
to such an extent as to ruin fishing for the summer angler. 
To the extent that our regulations prohibit ice fishing, much 
good is done ; and this is supplemented by the introduction of 
good food and game species in stocking the ponds. The wide 
recognition of this is evidenced by the extraordinary demands 
on the commission to stock a large number of ponds each year. 

The recent amendment of the law (section 19, chapter 91, 
Revised Laws), whereby it is now possible to restock and 
reapply regulations, affords an opportunity to bring many of 
the ponds into good fish-bearing condition, rather than to 
leave them to be " fished out " to the last degree as soon as 
possible after the expiration of the term for which they have 
been closed. 

32 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Brooks stocked and closed. — Heath Brook in Tewksbury 
and Content Brook in Billerica have been stocl^ed with brown 
trout ; Shawsheen River at Andover has also been stocked with 
the same species. These streams have been stocked in com- 
pliance with petitions, and regulations have been applied to 
them in accordance with section 5, chapter 91, Revised Laws. 

These streams are closed to all fishing for three years from 
December, 1903, with the following exceptions : fishing is 
permitted with single hook and hand line, or line (with single 
hook) attached to rod or pole held in the hand, on Tuesday, 
Thursday and Saturday of each week during the trout fishing 
season, for the year ending Dec. 1, 1906. Penalty for viola- 
tion of regulations is $20. 

lowers stocked. — North River was stocked with shad, 
nearly 1,500,000 fry of this species having been planted jn 
Furnace Pond at the head waters of the stream. As already 
noted, Shawsheen River has been stocked with brown trout at 
Andover. Last year it was stocked with the same species at 

JExamination of Ponds. — The examination of ponds was 
begun earlier than usual this year, because of the abnormally 
warm weather in the latter part of May, the result of which 
was that the temperatures were nearly as high as in midsummer. 
The Avork was, however, interrupted in June, owing to the un- 
seasonably cold and stormy weather during that month. Later 
it was resumed, and in no year has it been so vigorously or so 
widely prosecuted. We publish descriptions of 26 ponds (2 
of them of small area that are on a State reservation) which 
have been examined, and allusion is made to another that was 
visited, but could not be investigated for lack of a boat, 
although the fact was determined that it was a natural great 
pond of the State. This makes an aggregate of 27 ponds that 
have received the careful attention of the chairman. And it 
should not pass unnoticed that these waters are located in 
various parts of the State, from the extreme western part to 
Cape Cod. In some cases they could be reached only by long 
carriage drives, as they are usually off" the regular lines of 
travel by rail. 

This particular branch of research is not only important 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 33 

from the stand-point of the obtainment of information required 
for the intelligent stocking of ponds with fish, but it is also 
necessary that we may avoid complying with petitions to stock 
private ponds which have been misrepresented to us as great 
ponds of the State. It is to be regretted that we have recently 
found that several ponds which we have been requested to 
stock in accordance with law are private waters, flowed under 
the mill act, and therefore that we have no legal right to con- 
trol fishing in them. If the practice of filing such petitions 
continues, it will compel us to decline to stock any pond until 
we have opportunity to determine its legal status. In the 
meantime, the publication of certain facts about ponds, as the 
result of examination, adds to our knowledge of them, and pre- 
serves a permanent record the value of which cannot be over- 
estimated. In four years 69 ponds have been examined, and 
many more have been visited, but could not be investigated 
because of lack of a boat, although valuable information regard- 
ing them was obtained. 

Following are brief descriptions of ponds visited in 1903 : — 
Snake Pond, Sandwich : This pond is situated near a little 
village named Forestdale, in the south-western section of the 
town of Sandwich. The principal species of fish are black bass, 
yellow perch and pickerel. The bottom of the pond was found 
to be mostly hard and clean, but in midsummer it is generally 
covered with grass. In the cove, so called, the bottom is 
muddy for the most part. The shores of the pond are gen- 
erally small stones, pebbles and gravel, with patches of sand 
here and there. The maximum depth obtained was 33 feet. 
The pond was examined on May 19, on which date the air 
temperature in the sun was 102° F. The surface temperature 
of the pond close to the shore line was 73°. The temperature 
at various depths was as follows : 66° at the surface in the 
middle of the pond, 65° at a depth of 12 feet ; 62° in 23 feet ; 
and 60° in 33 feet. 

Lawrence Pond, Sandwich : This pond is at the village of 
South Sandwich, and is of considerable size, but is shallow 
throughout, with soft mud bottom in the deeper portions, on 
which there is a considerable growth of grass in midsummer. 
There are, however, patches of clear Avhite sand, stones, peb- 

34 FISH AXD GAMP]. [Dec. 

bles and gravel. The principal species of fish are black bass, 
white and yellow perch, pickerel, sunfish and catfish. The 
following temperatures were obtained on May 19 : surface, QQ^ 
F. ; at depths of 17 and 23 feet, 64° ; and 62*^ in 25 feet, which 
was the maximum depth secured. 

Peters Pond, Sandwich: This is a fine large pond, and is 
reputed to have a depth of 60 feet, although the maximum 
depth found was 42 feet. There are a few large pickerel in 
this pond, but the principal species of fish are black bass and 
white and yellow perch. It is reputed to have neither sunfish 
nor catfish. For the most part the shores are very steep, and 
the pond is deep close to the shore line. At a distance not 
exceeding 100 yards from the shore a depth of 38 feet was 
obtained. The bottom seems to be diversified, and for the most 
part composed of mud and sand. The shore is various in its 
character, having stretches of white, sandy beach, while in 
other places it is composed of stones, pebbles and gravel. 
The sandy beaches, as a rule, slope gently to the water, but 
where the shores are rocky they fall ofi" steeply. This pond 
was examined on May 20, when the temperature of the air was 
9()o Y ^j-^g temperatures of the water were as follows : sur- 
face at shore and shallow water, 70^ ; the temperature was 61° 
in 33 feet not far from the north shore ; 66° at the surface in 
the middle of the pond ; 60° in 38 feet and 42 feet. 

Spectacle Pond, Sandwich : The principal species of fish in 
Spectacle Pond are pickerel, black bass, yellow perch, and 
occasionally a large eel. There are reputed to be no white 
perch, and no sunfish or catfish. The maximum depths are 
generally from 18 to 20 feet, although the maximum depth 
obtained was 19 feet. The bottom is reputed to be mostly 
mossy in summer, and was found to be soft and grassy where 
soundings were taken at the time it was examined. There are 
stretches of white, sandy beach here and there sloping gently 
to the water, but there are also areas of shore that have small 
stones, pebbles and gravel. On Maj^ 21, when this pond was 
examined, the surface temperature some distance out from the 
shore was 70° F., and the following temperatures were ob- 
tained in the depths mentioned : 64° in 18 and 19 feet; and 
(^Q'^ in an intermediate depth.' 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 35 

Scuddings Pond, Taunton : This pond, which has been 
officially designated as Scuddings Pond, but the local pro- 
nunciation of which is Scaddings Pond, is of considerable size, 
and is now generally known as Sebatia Lake, this name being 
^iven to it because of the location of Sebatia Park on the 
shores of the pond. There are some islands in the pond which 
add much to its attractiveness. Sebatia Park, to which refer- 
ence has been made, is a favorite resort for citizens of Taunton. 
The principal species of fish are pickerel, black bass, white and 
yellow perch and pout or catfish. The depth varies consider- 
ably, being shallow in some sections, while in a large area in 
the main body of the pond it ranges from 20 to 30 feet, the 
latter being the maximum obtained. The bottom is chiefl}" soft 
mud, but there are patches of sand and some stones, while in 
the shallower portions of the pond there is a profusion of grass 
on the bottom, and large numbers of lily pads. The following 
temperatures were obtained on October 7, when the examina- 
tion was made : air, 70° F. ; surface, 67° ; at depths ranging 
from 7 to 30 feet a uniform temperature of 64° was found. 

Watsons Pond, Taunton : The fish in this pond are the 
same as those in Scuddings Pond, due probably to the fact 
that the two bodies of water are connected by what is called 
Watsons Brook, although it is more of a channel than a brook, 
since the w^ater in it flows either way whenever one pond rises 
slightly above the other. Although of considerable size, Wat- 
sons Pond is shallow, and 10 feet was the maximum depth 
obtained. The surface temperature Avas 68° F., and the bottom 
temperature at depths ranging from 9 to 10 feet was 64°. The 
bottom is sandy for the most part, with patches of gravel, 
stones and muddy sand. 

Winnecunnet Lake, Norton : This is a shallow pond, of 
considerable size. The principal species of fish are pickerel, 
yellow and white perch, catfish, sunfish and shiners. There is 
a difi'erence of statement regarding the abundance of fish, some 
claiming that they are generally scarce, with the exception of 
eatfish or pout ; while others assert that yellow perch and 
pickerel are very abundant, and fair catches of white perch are 
obtainable. Two small brooks run into the pond. The bottom 
is mudd}^ and sandy for the most part, and there are lily pads 

36 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

in the shallower sections. On October 7, when the examina- 
tion of the pond was made, the following temperatures were 
obtained : air, 70° F. ; surface, 69° ; and the uniform tempera- 
ture of 64P in depths ranging from 8 to 13 feet, the latter being 
the maximum obtained. 

Massapoag Pond, Dunstable : The most important species 
offish in this pond are pickerel, white and yellow perch, horn- 
pout or catfish, sunfish or roach, and shiners. The white 
perch are there in consequence of the pond having been stocked 
with this species by this commission in 1901. The bottom of 
the pond is hard, as a rule, but is soft in spots, and especially 
so in that part of the pond where the water has been raised by 
flowage, and where formerly there were meadows. In these 
sections, where the water is rather shallow, there are some lily 
pads, but generally speaking there is little vegetation of thi& 
character in the pond. This is a fine, large sheet of water^ 
about a mile and one-half long and of varying width. A 
number of cottages or camps are built along the shores, and 
three or four small brooks empty into it. Outside of the 
sections covered by water due to flowage the pond is of 
reasonable depth, although the maximum depth obtained did 
not exceed 33 feet. Some claim that it has an extreme depth of 
40 feet or more. Two shallow sand bars extend across the pond 
at some distance apart. On July 1, when the pond wa& 
examined, the following temperatures were obtained : air, 80° 
F. ; surface, 74°; at a depth of 24 feet, 56''', 33 feet, 54°. 
The pond is somewhat remarkable from having mostly hard 
bottom in the larger depths. 

Wachusett Lake, Westminster : This is a long, fine sheet 
of water, and on one side of the lake is a park for the accom- 
modation of the public, which it is understood is owned and 
controlled by the local electric road company. The pond ia 
apparently between two and three miles long, and is chiefly 
noted for catches of pout or catfish. Yellow perch are also 
plentiful, and black bass are said to be in fair abundance, but 
not usually inclined to take a hook. No lily pads or other 
aquatic growth were observed. The size of the pond, we were 
informed, has been considerably extended by flowage, although 
it is believed to be naturally a great pond of the State. In 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 37 

addition to the fish already mentioned, there are pickerel and 
sunfish. The bottom is generally soft in the middle and deeper 
parts, although there are patches of hard bottom. On July 
24, when this pond was examined, the following temperatures 
were obtained : surface, 71° F. ; in a depth of 10 feet, 70° ; 
and 18 to 24 feet, 60°. The last-mentioned depth was the 
maximum obtained. 

North Pond, Milford : This is apparently a flowed pond, 
about a mile and one-half long and of varying width, though 
generally not exceeding a quarter or a third of a mile in 
breadth. There are many coves with corresponding headlands 
jutting out into the pond, which in places make it rather nar- 
row. Along its shores are several camps, which are more or 
less occupied in summer. The principal species of fish are 
pickerel, which are reputed to be plentiful, yellow perch, cat- 
fish, sunfish and shiners. The bottom of the pond is appar- 
ently soft throughout; nevertheless, no pond lilies or other 
aquatic vegetation were observed. The absence of any vegeta- 
tion of this kind is probably due to the recent flowage of the 
pond by reason of the raising of the water through the build- 
ing of a new dam. At the time the pond was examined, on 
July 15, the following temperatures were secured: air, 76° 
F. ; surface of water, 70° ; at a depth of 18 feet, 63° ; 20 feet, 
61°; and 21 feet, 60°. 

Long Pond, Eoyalston : This pond is apparently about one 
mile long, with the land coming down steeply to it on one 
side, and somewhat lower, with stretches of bold shore, on the 
opposite side. There are a few camps along the shores of the 
pond, which is shallow, and chiefly celebrated for pout or cat- 
fish ; there are also pickerel, j^ellow perch and sunfish. Pond 
lilies occur in greater or less numbers over a large part of the 
pond, but in some places are either submerged or not numer- 
ous. The bottom is muddy, and generally covered with 
aquatic grass. On July 25, when it was examined, the fol- 
lowing temperatures were obtained : air, 78° F. ; surface of 
water in middle of pond, 73° ; at a depth of 9 and 10 feet, 
64°, the latter depth being the maximum secured. 

White Pond, Concord : This is a handsome sheet of water, 
nearly elliptical in form, about three-eighths of a mile long and 

38 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

a quarter of a mile wide. It has generally bold shores, while 
the bottom falls off steeply, so that there is comparatively deep 
water not far from the land, at least in many places. The 
water is remarkably pure and clear, so that the bottom can be 
seen at a considerable depth. No aquatic vegetation, such as 
grasses or lily pads, was observed at the time this pond wa& 
examined, on August 4, and doubtless the absence of vege- 
table spores accounted largely for the unusual clearness and 
purity of the water. There are three camps on the banks of 
the pond, which are favorite resorts in summer, and sometimes 
in winter, for those who own them. The principal species of 
fish are yellow perch and pout, or catfish. The yellow perch 
are reputed to be small, as a rule, and the catfish are far from 
numerous. ]S[o information of pickerel being in this pond 
could be obtained. The shores or beaches around this pond are 
generally composed of small stones, gravel and sand, and the 
bottom for some distance out from the shore is composed of 
the same materials, although in some places in the deeper sec- 
tions there is soft mud. It is a matter of record that this pond 
has an extreme depth of 65 feet, although no greater depth 
than 60 feet was found when the examination was made. The 
following temperatures were obtained : air, Q6° F. ; surface, 
72° ; at a depth of 17 feet, 72^ ; 29 feet, 70° ; 32 feet, 68° ; 
40 feet, QQ""; and 58 to 60 feet, 62^. 

Milford Pond, Swansea : This is a rather narrow, elongated 
artificial pond, it having been flowed for manufacturing pur- 
poses many years ago. The shores are rocky in some places 
and sandy in others. The bottom of the pond, except near the 
shores, is muddy. So far as observed, there are no camps or 
cottages along the shores of this pond. The principal species 
of fish are pickerel, white perch and catfish, the latter being- 
plentiful, but pickerel appeared to be scarce ; there are also a 
few sunfish. The pond is shallow, not exceeding eight feet 
in depth being obtained. The following temperatures were 
secured on July 31, when the examination was made : air, 
76^ F. ; surface, 76° ; and at a depth of 8 feet, 74°. 

Echo Lake, Princeton : This is a small, artificial pond, not 
exceeding two or three acres, on the State Reservation at Wa- 
chusett Mountain. So far as could be learned, pickerel are the 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 39 

principal species of fish there, although there are some catfish 
or pout. There was not available any boat to go out on this 
pond, consequently all observations were made from the dam, 
where the bottom fell off quickly. The bottom is evidently 
muddy, and there is some aquatic growth. The following- 
temperatures were obtained on July 24, when the pond was 
examined: air, 72° F. ; surface of pond at shore, 80°; and 
at a depth of from 4 to 6 feet, 74°. 

Bolton Pond, Princeton : This is a small, artificial pond, on 
the State Reservation on the opposite side of Wachusett Moun- 
tain from Echo Lake. It probably does not exceed three 
acres in extent. The only species of fish in it, according to 
Mr. Chase, superintendent of the reservation, are pickerel and 
pout. The pond is apparently fairly deep for its size, but no 
boat being available, the maximum depth could not be ob- 
tained, and the best that could be done was to make observa- 
tions from the dam. The surface temperature there was 74° 
F. ; and at a depth of 5 or 6 feet, 68°. 

Lake Winthrop, Holliston : This is a pond of considerable 
size, being nearly a mile in length and about one-half mile 
extreme width. In places around the pond there are elevated 
wooded points or stretches of shore, and cleared plateaus inter- 
spersed with low, swampy sections. On the whole, the pond 
is rather pretty and attractive, and so near Holliston village 
that it is easily within the reach of residents who resort to it 
for bathing and fishing. While there are no cottages or camps 
around the pond for fishing, there is a booth-like structure 
which was formerly used for dancing, while the adjacent 
grounds were used for picnics. We understood that it was 
less used than formerly. Around the shores of the pond in 
shallow places are more or less lily pads and other forms of 
aquatic growth. The principal species of fish in this pond are 
pickerel, yellow perch, catfish or pout, sunfish, and a few 
shiners. Fish, we understand, are not generally plentiful. 
The pond was stocked with pike perch in the spring of 
1903. The shores are diversified by patches that are rocky 
and marshy. The pond has three little islands in it. The 
bottom is mostly soft mud, apparently without vegetable 
growth. At the time it was examined, on July 10, the follow- 

40 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

ing temperatures were obtained : air, 92° F. ; surface, 86° ; at 
a depth of 6 feet, 77° ; 9 feet, 72° ; 12 feet, 65° ; and in 16, 
17 and 19 feet, from 63° to 64°. 

Spectacle Pond, Littleton : This is a fine pond of consider- 
able extent, and is seemingly a favorite resort of people in sum- 
mer. There are four camps, so called, embracing eight to ten 
small structures, altogether. The principal species of fish are 
pickerel, yellow perch, pout or catfish, sunfish or roach, and a 
few shiners. This pond is remarkable in having the lowest 
temperature of any similar body of water examined by this 
commission. On August 11, the date when the examination 
was made, the following temperatures were obtained : surface, 
74° F. ; at a depth of 9 feet, 62° ; 16 feet, 56° ; 23 feet to 25 
feet, 52°; 27 feet, 51°; 30 feet, 48°. The maximum depth 
obtained was 30 feet. As a rule, the water is remarkably 
clear and free of aquatic vegetation, although there are a few 
lily pads or other aquatic grasses near the shores in some 
places. The beaches are mostly small pebbles, stones, gravel 
and sand, while the bottom is chiefly soft mud, although there 
are here and there hard patches of stone or gravel. A brook 
flowing through a pond in Ayer leads into this pond at its 
head, and there is also another small brook that empties into it. 
It has an outlet which connects it with Forge Pond. The 
banks are steep in places, and the bottom falls off abruptly 
here and there, although in some parts of the pond it slopes 
ofi" very gradually, and is rather inclined to be shallow than 

Forge Pond, Westford : This is a pretty, natural pond, the 
size of which may have been increased moderately by flowage, 
for there is a small dam 8 or 10 feet long at the outlet. It is 
now more than a mile long. Forge Village is on one side of 
it, where also is a large ice house, while numerous small cot- 
tages or camps have been built along the other sides of the 
pond. The shores of this pond are well wooded for the most 
part, and generally bold, rising steeply from the water for long 
stretches. There is apparently little aquatic plant life, unless 
perhaps in some shallow places here and there. The principal 
species of fish are pickerel, yellow perch and catfish, all of 
w^hich are reputed to be fairly plentiful ; there are also sunfish 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 41 

and shiners. A brook which runs from Spectacle Pond empties 
into the head of this pond. On August 11, at which time 
Forge Pond was examined, the following temperatures were 
obtained : surface, 70° F. ; at a depth of 18 feet, 65° ; 22 feet, 
63° ; 28 and 30 feet, 60°. The maximum depth obtained was 
30 feet. The beaches for the most part are composed of small 
stones, pebbles, gravel and stone, and this character of the 
bottom extended out some way from the shores, although only 
soft mud was found in the greater depths. 

Hart Pond, Chelmsford : This is a flowed pond of consid- 
erable size, and one which was flowed many years ago for 
manufacturing purposes. So far as records are obtainable, it 
was first flow^ed in the seventeenth century ; and w^e have yet 
been unable to find any records establishing the fact that it was 
originally a pond, or at any rate a pond exceeding twenty acres 
in extent. It is said to be controlled by parties in Lowell, 
known as the '^ Butler heirs." The principal species of fish 
are pickerel, yellow perch, pout and sunfish, all of which are 
reputed to be fairly plentiful ; there are likewise a few black 
bass. There is a dam on one side, and a few camps or cot- 
tao-es are scattered here and there around the shores of the 
pond. On August 14, at which date this pond was examined, 
the following temperatures were obtained : surface, 78° F. ; 
at depths of 8 and 12 feet, 70°. The latter was the maximum 
depth obtained from numerous soundings. The bottom is 
apparently soft mud all over the pond. 

Laurel Lake, Lenox : In many respects this pond, situated in 
the most beautiful part of Berkshire County, and surrounded by 
fine estates and elegant summer homes of wealthy people who 
have been attracted there by the beauties of the region, is one 
of the most interesting and charming spots in the State. Oen- 
erally speaking, the land rises rather steeply from the pond, 
more or less of it being wooded, while long stretches of well- 
kept lawns and fields are seen in many directions. The 
shores are generally rocky, and the bottom of the pond as a 
rule falls away steeply to depths of 20 to 25 feet near the 
shore ; showing that, although the level of the pond has been 
raised some twelve feet or possibly more by the building of a 
dam at its outlet, the area has not been increased to the extent 

42 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

which is common with ponds that have been flowed. The 
pond is about two-thirds to three-fourths of a mile long, and 
approximate!}^ two-thirds as wide as it is long. There are one' 
or two small brooks that run into it. The Smith Paper Com- 
pany of Lee use and control the water of this pond for manu- 
facturing purposes ; but, inasmuch as it was originally a great 
pond of the State, it would seem that they have no control over 
the fishing therein. The principal species of fish are pickerel, 
black bass (which have been introduced), yellow perch, cat- 
fish, carp, sunfish and shiners. It is said that the pickerel 
seldom grow large, but that they have an exceedingly fine 
flavor, being superior to fish of the same species taken in some 
other waters. It is claimed that formerly they were plentiful, 
but that recently there is an apparent scarcity of this species. 
This alleged scarcity has given rise to many surmises as to the 
cause, some attributing it to the presence of carp, and others to 
a great abundance of shiners, the latter believing that the 
abundance of natural food makes the pickerel indiflerent to bait 
or lures of other kinds. It is possible that the presence of 
black bass in this lake may have caused a scarcity of pickerel, 
as in some other ponds. Except in some of the shallow coves 
which have been flowed by the rise in the pond, due to putting 
a dam at its outlet, the bottom is apparently hard throughout, 
being probably composed of gravel, pebbles and stones of 
greater or less size. In the shallows the bottom is muddy, 
with a growth of pickerel weed or other aquatic grasses. 
Where the pond is deeper there is no grass of an}^ kind, and the 
conditions of bottom and water are such as to suggest peculiar 
fitness of the lake to the existence and growth of such of the 
game species as require gravelly bottom for spawning, and a 
comparatively low temperature of water. On the occasion 
when this pond was examined, September 11, the following 
temperatures were obtained : surface of lake, QS^ F. : at a 
depth of 8 feet, 68°; 20 feet, 65° ; 27 feet, 56°; 38 feet, 
53°; and 50 feet, 49°. The maximum depth obtained was 
50 feet. 

Shaw Pond, Becket : The land surrounding this pond is 
generally steep and well wooded, but there are a few low 
places here and there. There is 3^et only one camp on the 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 43 

bank of the pond, but it is probable that coming years will see 
the establishment of a number of others. Pickerel and yellow 
perch are reputed to be abundant, and also bulllieads or catfish 
are in good numbers. Eels are numerous, and occasionally in 
winter, when fishing through the ice, the anglers get a large 
trout. The latter are supposed to come into the pond from 
the two brooks w^hich empty into it. As a rule, the bottom is 
soft mud, with a profusion of aquatic grass, and around the 
shallows are pickerel grass and lily pads in summer. There 
are, however, reputed to be some patches of gravell}" bottom. 
The maximum depth obtained was 16 feet, so it will be seen 
the pond is shallow, as a rule generally not exceeding 8 to 12 
feet. When visited, on September 9, the following tempera- 
tures were obtained : surface, 62^ F. ; at depths of 12, 15 
and 16 feet, 60^. 

Benton Pond, East Otis : Having learned, on September 9, 
when Shaw Pond was visited, that no boat could be obtained 
at Benton Pond to make a satisfactory examination, it was 
decided not to visit it. 

Greenwater Pond, Becket : This is a fine pond, with clear 
water and beautiful surroundings, although little has been done 
yet to change natural conditions, if we except the fact that a 
dam has been placed at the outlet of the pond, which ha^ 
raised it about 8 feet and added considerably to its area, which 
was quite extensive previously, enough so, at least, to bring 
it easily above the size required to make it a great pond of the 
State. The land surrounding the pond is mostly steep and 
wooded, with shores diversified by stretches that are rocky, 
pebbly or gravelly, as a rule. In the shallow portions of the 
pond, which are mostly those that have been flowed by 
raising the water, there are lily pads and pickerel grass ; but 
where the pond is deeper, especially where it falls off steeply 
from the shores, there is a scarcity or absence of aquatic veg- 
etation. There is a club house situated on a bank of the 
pond in a very pretty location. Extending almost entirely 
across the pond opposite this club house is a bar composed of 
gravel, pebbles and stones, over which there is a depth of 
about 2 feet. This marks the limit of the natural pond, and 
all north of it, where the water is about 7 or 8 feet in depth, 

44 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

has been flowed, while in the other parts of the pond there is 
a much larger depth. There are two or three small brooks 
which run into this pond, but some of them, at least, drj up 
in summer. The principal fish are pickerel, black bass, cat- 
fish and yellow perch. Pike perch fry w^ere put into the pond 
in the spring of 1903, and are reported to have been seen in 
considerable numbers during the summer. Sunfish and shiners 
are also reputed to be abundant. Pickerel and black bass 
are said to be fairly plentiful, and larger than they are usually 
found. Except in the shallower parts of the pond, where the 
Tvater has been raised by flowage and where the bottom is 
soft, the bottom of this pond is composed of gravel, pebbles 
and stones, and affords most satisfactory conditions for the 
spawning of certain species of fish, — notably any of the 
Salmonidee, the pike perch, etc. When this pond was visited, 
on September 9, the following temperatures were obtained : 
surface, 64^ F. ; in a depth of 24 feet, 63°; 31 feet, 62^ ; 38 
feet, 56^; 43 feet, 53^. The fact that temperatures of 56° 
and 60° were obtained in a depth of 48 feet, which was the 
maximum depth secured, indicates that there is a diversity 
of temperature at the bottom of this pond, due probably to 
the fact that it is fed more or less by springs. There is as 
yet only one club house on the shores of the pond, that 
belonging to the Passumpsic Club, but presumably future 
years will show a considerable addition of camps or club houses 
in this section. 

Hampton Pond, Westfield and Southampton : This is an 
attractive natural pond, about one and one-fourth miles long, 
but bent at almost right angles, so that from any point of view 
it does not really appear so long as it is. It is connected by 
a navigable channel for boats with Horseshoe Pond. It is a 
favorite resort for the people from the large towns within easy 
reach of it, and particularly those from Westfield and Holyoke. 
On its banks are a pavilion and several camps or cottages. 
The Pequoit Club of Holyoke has a club house on a little island 
in the centre of the pond. It is a very pretty place, and is 
said to be much patronized b}^ members of the club and their 
friends. The shores of the pond are generally well wooded, 
and in some places they are rather steep, but nowhere high. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 45 

The beaches are of sand, gravel, pebbles and stones, and the 
bottom throughout partakes of this character, being hard and 
clean, but mostly covered with aquatic grasses. The principal 
species of fish are pickerel, black bass, j'^ellow perch, catfish, 
sunfish and shiners. There is a marked variation of statement 
regarding the abundance of fish ; some claim that they are 
fairly abundant, and others that they are very scarce. The 
maximum depth obtained was 29 feet. At the time the pond 
was examined, on September 16, the temperatures were as 
follows: surface, 72° F. ; at a depth of 13 feet, 72°; 18, 19 
and 20 feet, 70° ; 21 and 24 feet, 68^ ; and 29 feet, 65°. 

Quabbin Lake, Greenwich : This is a fine, natural pond, 
nearly a mile long, with generally well-wooded banks. There 
are a few lily pads and more or less pickerel grass or other 
aquatic vegetation near the shores where it is shallow, or in the 
coves, but elsewhere there is no indication of vegetation in 
the pond. The banks are low in places, but elsewhere rise 
more or less steeply from the water. It has an inlet of con- 
siderable size, and an outlet as well. There is a hotel near it, 
called the Quabbin House, and numerous camps along its banks. 
The pond is fairly deep, and with low temperature at the 
bottom, although at the surface the temperature is warm 
enough for all practical purposes. The principal species of fish 
are yellow perch, catfish, shiners and a few eels. The pond 
has recently been stocked with pike perch by the State. 
These were put into the pond in the spring of 1901, and in the 
early summer of 1903 a specimen was captured which weighed 
one and three-quarters pounds. The bottom appears to be 
diversified with patches of mud and hard sand or gravel ; as 
a rule, however, the bottom is composed of soft mud in the 
deeper parts. On September 17, when the pond was examined, 
the following temperatures were obtained : surface, 70° F. ; at 
a depth of 27 feet, 60° ; at a depth of 30 feet, 58°; 40 feet, 
which was the maximum depth obtained, 54° and 56°. The 
temperature seemed to vary somewhat at the same depths, due 
apparently to the presence of springs in some localities. This 
pond is interesting from the fact that an application has been 
made to restock it under the new law, which permits of such 
action, and also because those most interested claim that the 

46 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

supply of fish in the pond has been materially improved by 
the protection given within the last three years, — so much so 
that the number of summer residents is increasing to such an 
extent that the size of the local hotel is being doubled at the 
time this is written. 

Warner Pond, Greenwich : This is a rather small pond, 
probably not being more than fifty acres in extent. The banks 
are well wooded all around the pond, which has in several 
places white sandy beaches. There are no camps. Evidently 
lily pads are numerous during the warmer part of the summer, 
and at the time the pond was examined pickerel grass was still 
abundant. The principal species of fish are pickerel, yellow 
perch, catfish, sunfish and shiners. When the pond was 
visited, on September 18, the temperatures obtained were as 
follows : surface, 70^ F. ; and at a depth of 17 feet, which 
was the maximum depth secured, 68°. The bottom is soft 
mud throughout, and was covered thickly with pickerel grass. 

Curtis Pond, Greenwich : This is a pretty, oval-shaped pond, 
about three-fourths of a mile long by one-half mile wide, and 
has one rather sluggish inlet running into it, and also an outlet. 
The banks are almost in a primeval condition, being well 
wooded down to the shores. A camp was being constructed at 
the time the pond was visited, but this is the only residential 
structure around the pond. The latter has only a few lily pads 
and some pickerel grass in shallow spots along the shores or in 
the coves, more particularly at the upper and lower ends of the 
pond. The shores are generally composed of sand, gravel or 
pebbles. Generally speaking, they are not steep, but in a few 
places the land rises somewhat abruptly but not to a consider- 
able height. The pond is alleged to have a depth of 90 feet, 
but a very careful examination of it failed to develop a greater 
depth than 35 feet. The principal species of fish are pickerel, 
yellow perch, catfish, sunfish and shiners, of which none are 
abundant, according to local report. When the pond was 
visited, on September 18, the following temperatures were 
secured : surface, 64° F. ; at a depth of 25 feet, 60° ; 33 and 
35 feet, 56°. As a rule, the bottom is hard sand, gravel and 
pebbles, but in some places it is of soft mud. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 47 

Neck Pond, Barnstable : This pond is situated near the vil- 
lage of Osterville. It is probably fifty or sixty acres in extent. 
It was visited on October 7, but could not be examined, for 
the reason that no boat was obtainable. 

Work of tlte United States Fish Commission * — While the 
aggi-egate output of fish fry from the hatcheries of the United 
States Fish Commission on the coast of this State was not exces- 
sively short of that of last }'ear, there was an extraordinary 
falling ofl" in the production of cod fry, — from 212,001,000 
in 1902 to 87,392,000 in 1903. The output of flatfish fry 
amounted to 77,292,000 more than in 1902, while considerable 
quantities of fry of other species — tautog, scup, mackerel and 
sea bass — that were not reported as having been hatched last 
year were added to the result of 1903. 

The remarkable decline in cod fry, which is important in the 
attempt to restore the primitive abundance of cod off our shores, 
was due to an unusually small catch of cod on the shore grounds. 
This decline in catch was attributed chiefly to very unfavor- 
able weather for fishing, although it is probable that a scarcity 
of fish prevailed in the waters near the coast, so that the results 
secured on the days when fishing could be prosecuted were not 
as satisfactory as they should have been. There Avas also a 
considerable decrease from the previous j^ear in the lobster fry 
obtained. This change was wholly at the Gloucester station, 
which is the chief lobster-hatching point in the State, and was 
due to unseasonable gales and heavy seas, that destroyed many 
lobster pots and temporarily delayed fishing. The output of 
lobster fry from Woods Hole, which has never been large in 
recent years, was slightly increased this year. This was because 
no fry were reserved, as last year, for experimentation, and also 
because in one of the districts where egg-bearing lobsters were 
collected better success than usual was met with. Reference 
is made to the chapter on lobsters for detailed facts and figures 
relating to this matter. 

The production of flatfish frj^ is largely if not entirely de- 

* This Bureau, which was formerly independent, has been incorporated with 
the department of Commerce and Labor, and now has the official designation of 
" Bureau of Fisheries." 

48 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

pendent upon the attention that can be given to this particular 
branch of fish culture. There is seldom if ever any difficulty 
in getting any needed supply of eggs of flatfish, and, as the 
hatching of them is not difficult, the magnitude of tlie result 
is limited chiefly by the available facihties and force for the 
work. It was not very long ago when the artificial propaga- 
tion of flounders or other flatfish that occur in our littoral 
waters would have been deemed unwise and an unprofitable 
efl'ort. But conditions have changed ; flatfish are becoming 
more highly appreciated for food than ever before ; the market 
demand for them is increasing in consequence, and already a 
beam trawl fishery for the capture of these species has devel- 
oped at Cape Cod ; efl*orts are being made to introduce the 
more efi'ective otter trawl, and the industry of catching flatfish 
is assuming proportions of importance, with a prospect of still 
greater development in the near future. In view of all this, 
the artificial propagation of the species which furnish the object 
of this developing industry is timely, and worthy of contin- 
uance on the largest scale possible. 

The experiments with the mackerel (^Scomber scomhrus) and 
various other species are interesting, and it is certain that 
whatever can be done to increase the supply of such species as 
the sea bass, scup and tautog ofl" our south-eastern shores, 
where they most abound, should be encouraged and appreciated 
by our citizens. 

The statements that follow — mcludino^ those relatino^ to the 
lobster — show that the total production of fry at the two 
coast stations was, approximately, 395,288,000, which was 
less than the aggregate of 1902 by 62,848,000. Of the total 
product, 365,916,000 fry were planted in the coast waters of 
this State. Of these, 245,425,000 were flatfish, 87,392,000 
were cod, 25,751,000 were lobsters,* 5,867,000 were tautog, 
920,000 were sea bass, and the balance were nearly equally 
divided between scup and mackerel. 

The following detailed statement, furnished by the Bureau 
of Fisheries, Department of Commerce and Labor, shows with 

* Of the lobster fry planted in the waters of this Commonwealth, 4j624,000 were 
hatched from eggs " taken outside the State." 




exactness the number of each species (other than lobsters) 
planted at certain points along the coast of this State, also the 
totals put out from each hatchery : — 

Statement of Cod and Flatfish hatched and 'planted in Massachusetts Waters 
by the Gloucester and Woods Hole Stations of the United States Com- 
mission of Fish and Fisheries, during the Fiscal Year ended June 30, 




Woods Hole great harbor, Woods Hole, Mass., 


Vineyard Sound, off mouth Woods Hole harbor, Mass., 


Vineyard Sound, off Jobs Neck, Mass., .... 


Vineyard Sound, off Tarpaulin Cove, Mass., . 


Vineyard Sound, off Robinsons Hole, Mass., . 


Vineyard Sound, off Nobska Light, Mass., 


Vineyard Sound, off Quicks Hole, Mass., 


Vineyard Sound, off Woods Hole, Mass., 


Buzzards Bay, north Robinsons Hole, Mass., 


Buzzards Bay, west of Weepecket Island, Mass., 


Hadley Harbor, Gosnold, Mass., 


Atlantic Ocean, Gloucester, Mass., . 




Woods Hole great harbor. Woods Hole, Mass., 


Woods Hole little harbor. Woods Hole, Mass., 


Eel Pond, Woods Hole, Mass., 


Hadley Harbor, Gosnold, Mass., 


Waquoit Bay, Waquoit, Mass., 


Atlantic Ocean, Gloucester, Mass., . 


Atlantic Ocean, Manchester, Mass , 




Vineyard Sound, off Parkers Point, Mass., .... 


Woods Hole great harbor. Woods Hole, Mass., 


Buzzards Bay, Long Neck, Mass., . . . . . 








8 cup. 
Woods Hole great harbor, Woods Hole, Mass., 

Buzzards Bay, off Long Neck, Mass , . 
W^oods Hole great harbor. Woods Hole, Mass., 

Sea Bass. 
Woods Hole great harbor. Woods Hole, Mass., 
Vineyard Sound, off Parkers Point, Mass., 






The scope arid importance of the fish cultural effort on the 
coast of this Commonwealth, as detailed above, is too apparent 
to require discussion to emphasize it. Allusion will be made 
elsewhere to fry and eggs of fresh-water species which have 
been furnished this State by the United States Fish Commis- 
sion to stock our interior waters. 

Fishways; Need of Legislation. — In view of the fact that 
the establishment of a fish commission in Massachusetts was for 
the special purpose of determining what should be done to 
make possible the passage of migratory fish over the obstruc- 
tions in our rivers to the spawning grounds at the head waters 
thereof, also that the attention of the commission was for 
several years thereafter devoted chiefly if not exclusively to 
building fishways, it is certainly remarkable that the laws 
appear to be so deficient with some exception that, as they 
stand on the statute books to-day, they are ineff'ective, so far 
at least as possessing any vitality to cause the building of a 
fishway where none has been previously built, however much 
it may be needed for the passage of fish. 

The decision of the legal department of the Commonwealth 
shows conclusively that, aside from furnishing authority to 
compel the repair of a fishway, which because of age or acci- 
dent has become useless, the laws relating to fishways are 
powerless. It will, therefore, be necessary to enact a law giv- 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMEXT — No. 25. 51 

ing to the commission the authority to compel the building of 
a fishwaj where one is required, unless the public prefer to 
abandon this line of effort as a means of securing the restora- 
tion and increase of migratory fish in our streams and ponds. 
The continuance or abundance in our waters of certain species 
which are valued as food, as the object of an important indus- 
try, as bait to enable the prosecution of other great fisheries, 
or as a means for recreation to the sportsman, is a matter of 
greatest consequence, and cannot be lightly set aside. It is 
assumed that the simple mention of present conditions will be 
sufficient to insure legislative action ; for it is not anticipated 
that an effort which has been continued more than three decades 
by this State, the example of which has been followed by al- 
most the entire nation, will be abandoned now. But, should 
nothing be done, the attempt made the past two years to stock 
our rivers with shad and to secure a greater abundance of river 
herring must cease, with the result that it may never be re- 
sumed, or, if so, under conditions far less favorable than those 
now existing. 

For two years the commission has been endeavoring to get a 
fishway built over the dam on Acushnet River, near New Bed- 
ford. The owner of the dam refused to erect a fishway, and 
finally, after the failure of negotiations and orders to accomplish 
the desired object, the matter was placed in the hands of the 
Attorney-General to deal with. The outcome is embodied in 
a letter from the legal department ; and it is worthy of con- 
sideration that the issue thus brought to the notice of the 
Legislature and the public is not alone whether this particular 
fishway shall be build, but whether any other fishway shall be 
erected in Massachusetts. Folio win o' is the letter from the 
Assistant Attornej^-General, and its findings are sufficiently 
explicit to speak for themselves : — 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
Office of the Attorney-GtEneral, Boston, May 26, 1903. 

€apt. J. W. Collins, Chairman, Fisheries and Game Commission. 

Dear Sir : — In preparing to try the case of Collins et aZ., Com- 
missioDers, v. Hamlin, which is a suit in equity to compel the 
defendant to comply with an order of your Board purporting to 

52 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

require him to build a fishway over his dam in the Acushnet River, I 
have come to the conclusion that the suit must be unsuccessful. 

I brought the petition under R. L., c. 91, § 9, assuming that the 
section authorized your Board to order changes in any dam upon a 
river whe're fish ways are required by law to be maintained, so as to 
make them suitable for the passage of fish. But an examination of 
the history of the statute makes it clear that the authorized method of 
procuring a fishway over a dam, which, as in the present case, has 
never contained a fishway, is for your Board to construct it at the 
expense of the Commonwealth, if, in your opinion, the owner is 
unable to afford the expense ; otherwise, at the expense of the owner. 
(St. 1869, c. 384, § 4 ; P. S., c. 91, §§ 7, 8 ; St. 1900, c. 344 ; R. L., 
c. 91, §§ 12, 13.) It is only in case of an existing fishway that the 
Board, at its option, may order suitable changes, or make the changes 
itself. (St. 1867, c. 344 ; P. S., c. 91, § 4 ; St. 1899, c. 103 ; R. L., 
c. 91, § 9.) The penalties for not maintaining a fishway also apply 
only to an existing fishway. (St. 1867, c. 344.) 

The suit concerning the Wyman dam at Middleborough, in which 
your Board was successful, compelled the restoration of an existing 
fishway under the above statutes. The case of the Holyoke Water 
Power Company, 104 Mass. 446, in which the defendant was com- 
pelled to build a new fishway, was brought under the special statute, 
1869, c. 422, which was applicable only to the Merrimac and Con- 
necticut rivers. I find no such statute concerning the Acushnet 

I advise, therefore, that the present suit be abandoned. 
Yours very truly, 
Frederick H. Nash, Assistant Attorney- General. 

It is of large importance that, in the event of building addi- 
tional fish ways, the utmost care shall be exercised to secure 
their proper location, as well as their suitable construction, in 
order that the public may receive the largest benefit in con- 
sequence of the action taken. Unfortunatelj^, it sometimes 
happens that a fish ladder is so badly located that the object 
of building it is entirely defeated, and, as a result, its erection 
is worse than useless, for those ignorant of the real cause of 
inefficiency are liable to ascribe it to some other cause than 
the right one, much to the prejudice of fishways as a means for 
fish to pass over dams on their way to spawning grounds at 
the head waters of streams. 

The Lawrence fishway is a noteworthy example of making 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Ko. 25. 53 

such a structure useless, even when it is built at large expense. 
The writer has examined it on several occasions, and is of the 
opinion that either it should be abandoned as worthless, or that 
it should be rebuilt in another location as soon as the laws will 

The foot of the fish way is in close proximity to the outlet of 
a sewer, which pollutes the river at that point to such an 
extent that one may marvel that even a lamprey eel enters it. 
Indeed, there were not many of them that made the venture 
this year. Superintendent Thomas S. Holmes reports that : 
*' Lampreys appeared in the Lawrence fishway May 15. There 
were very few of them, and none were seen after June 17. 
The only other fish seen were a very few suckers, chubbs and 
silver eels." 

This is not strange ; the wonder is that any fish were seen 
in or near the fishway, for not only is the water contaminated, 
but the lower end of the fishway is out of the water a large 
part of the time, — that has been its condition whenever seen 
by the writer. 

Inasmuch as the commission is usually considered responsible 
for the proper location of fishways, as well as for their satis- 
factory construction, the Board in authority at the time the 
Lawrence fishway was built will doubtless be held accountable 
for its present unsatisfactory location, which has effectively 
defeated the purpose of its erection. However that may be, 
it is evident that the commission should now be authorized by 
law to have fishways built where they are required for the con- 
tinuance of fish life in our streams. 

Prevention of Stream Pollution. — The prohibition of 
stream pollution, in accordance with section 8, chapter 91, 
Revised Laws, has at no previous time received the same 
degree of comprehensive attention as during 1903, although 
this subject has been one of the matters for investigation and 
action to which the chairman has given his personal attention 
during the past few years, when the Legislature was not in 
session. The importance of this work is so great that an 
effort was made this year to nearly complete it, and it is sup- 
posed that little now remains to be done to insure our fish- 
bearing streams against the menace to their usefulness that 

54 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the J have been exposed to for many years. The result of this 
work is as follows : in 1900 orders were sent to 15 mill own- 
ers ; in 1901, to 24; in 1902, to 24; and in 1903, to 27. 
This makes a total of 90 orders prohibiting the discharge of 
sawdust into streams that have been sent out in four years ; 
and when consideration is given to the fact that, with slight 
exception, these mills and the streams on Avhich they are 
located have been personally examined by the chairman before 
other action was taken, it will be seen that much effort has 
been devoted to the object of securing purity of waters, 
especially if thought is given to the fact that the same firm or 
individual may have more than one mill ; that the number of 
mills visited and affected by orders exceeds the number of the 
latter ; also that this is only one of many duties that demand 
the personal attention of the commission. 

There is a difference of opinion as to the effect of sawdust 
on fish life, and those interested in mills maintain, with rare 
exception, that it does no harm. The means have not been 
available for us to enter into a scientific investigation of the 
matter, so as to place the determination of the question beyond 
doubt. It is fortunate, however, that we are able to quote 
some of the results of a scientific investigation of this subject 
(space does not permit extensive quotation) ; and the conclu- 
sive nature of these will, it is hoped, demonstrate the wisdom 
of the law making it possible to prohibit sawdust pollution, as 
well as the necessity for the vigorous enforcement of the law. 

In a report on the effect of sawdust on fish, A. P. Knight, 
professor of animal biology. Queen's University, Kingston, 
Can., makes the following statements, among others, which 
prove beyond question the poisonous nature of water-soaked 
sawdust : — 

When sawdust was allowed to lie in still water, or in very slowly 
running water, . . . the most disastrous effects followed the immer- 
sion of different animals in the poisonous mixture. Not merely did 
adult fish die in it, but fish eggs, fry, aquatic worms, small arthro- 
pods, animalcules and water plants. Nor was the cause of death 
due to suffocation from lack of oxygen, because when air was made 
to bubble rapidly through the solution the final results were the same, 
the only difference being that death was somewhat delayed. No one 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 55 

could paint too vividly the deadly effects of strong solutions of pine 
or cedar sawdust when soaked in standing water. Adult fish died in 
two or three minutes ; fish eggs in a few hours ; fry and minnows in 
from ten to fifteen minutes ; aquatic worms and insects, eight to 
twenty-four hours ; aquatic plants, a few days. Every living thing 
died in it, and if one were to judge of its effects by laboratory 
experiments alone, then the prohibitory legislation needs no better 
defence. * 

Professor Knight experimented with perch eggs in a clean 
aquarium into which a bag of sawdust had been put. The 
lower strata of water was affected by the sawdust, but higher 
in the aquarium the water was clear. " Four batches of eggs 
Avere placed in the aquarium at 10 a.m. of the 13th of May," 
says Professor Knight, " viz., two batches on the very bottom 
of the aquarium in the brownish water impregnated with a solu- 
tion from sawdust, and two on the surface of the bag of saw- 
dust, well within the clear water. Next mornino- at 9 a.m. 
every egg in the yellowish-brown water was dead, and every 
egg in the clear water was alive. Assimiing that the brownish 
water was a saturated solution of material extracted from saw- 
dust," continues Professor Knight, "two other solutions were 
made from it, one of 25 per cent, and one of 50 per cent, 
strength in tap water. Fresh batches of eggs were placed in 
each of them. In twenty-four hours the eggs in the 25 per 
cent, solution were all ahve, half of those in the 50 per cent, 
solution were dead. In twenty-four hours more some of the 
fry had hatched out, but eggs and fry in both solutions were all 

Experiments were also made to determine if these results 
were "due to lack of oxygen, rather than to poisonous extracts 
dissolved from the wood," and the water was charged with air. 
The same result was obtained. Professor Knight says : ''The 
conclusion, therefore, is quite clear. The eggs were killed, 
not by lack of oxygen in the water, but by the poison con- 
tained in the water, and evidently dissolved out of the saw- 

This is in absolute harmony with our observations of the 
effect of sawdust on fish life in streams, and the convincing 

* " Forest and Stream," Oct. 24, 1903. 

56 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

results of these scientific experiments should have their proper 

Orders prohibiting the discharge of sawdust were sent to the 
following mill owners during 1903 : Clifford F. Brochu, Mon- 
tere}^ ; B. E. Parkhurst, Dunstable ; Everett E. Tarbell, L. 
Sartell & Son and Henry W. Shattuck, Pepperell ; A. A. 
Flint, Tyngsborough ; Joseph Small, Warren E. Marble, Cyrus 
A. Jefts, S. E. Sherbert and Nathaniel Sarsfield, Ashburnham ; 
L. E. Flint, S. E. Buxton and A. M. Wilder, Ashby ; Joseph 
F. Thompson, Townsend ; Nelson W. Wyman, Wilder P. 
Clark, O. L. Mann, Clarence A. Brooks, Elisha M. Whitney 
and Charges C. Carter, Winchendon ; George C. More, West- 
ford ; Walter Blanchard, Plympton ; David Parlin and John 
A. Carter, Dana; Edward E. Whitney, New Marlborough; 
Walter E. Dean, Oakham. 

In several cases other mills were visited, but it was found that 
the owners of them were so fully complying with the law for 
the prevention of sawdust pollution that it was not deemed 
necessary to send them formal orders, especially since they 
readily undertook some slight changes that were required. 
The fact that the demand for and utilization of sawdust are 
increasing materially helps considerably in the enforcement of 
the law relating to pollution, while the absolutely fair and 
impartial treatment accorded by the commission has promoted 
a feeling of confidence and respect in suburban sections that is 
satisfactory. In one instance, that of John Yanstone of 
Prescott, the commission temporarily suspended an order, 
upon proper representation, with the understanding and agree- 
ment that the mill should not be operated at all after 1903. 
In some instances saw-mill owners have promptly seen the 
advantage to themselves of prohibiting the discharge of saw- 
dust, for they have comprehended the effect not only on fish 
life, but on people who may be attracted to a region by 
improved fishing, thus benefiting materially the locality to 
which they resort in summer, by furnishing a market for 
lumber to build dwellings, likewise a market for real estate, 
labor and products. 

Death of Fish because of Supposed Pollution. — During 
the late spring and early summer numerous complaints were 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 57 

received of the death of large numbers of fish in various fresh 
waters, notably in streams or ponds through which or to which 
the migratory species passed. The alewife seemed to be most 
largely affected by this mortality. It was noticeable, however, 
that fish of other species, and in ponds in the extreme western 
part of the State, suffered more or less. A thorough research 
into the causes of this mortality in different sections of the 
Commonwealth would doubtless have resulted in much infor- 
mation of scientific value ; but the commission was not in a 
position, either as to men or material, to undertake an investi- 
gation of this kind, involving the employment of competent 
scientists for several months at the least. 

Although it was appealed to most urgently to examine into 
this case and that, nothing could be done, for the simple reason 
that no money was available to pay for services of this kind. 
The suggestion that one of the deputy commissioners should be 
sent to look into the matter was prompted by a desire for 
something to be done, which was so intense that the fact was 
lost sight of that, aside from all of the deputies being fiilly 
occupied in the duties for which they are employed, only a 
trained and competent scientist would be capable of dealing 
with the problem of the cause of such mortality to fish, and no 
one of the law-enforcing force of the commission is known to 
have any scientific knowledge which would fit him for a task 
of this kind. 

Under the circumstances, the commission was fortunately 
able to interest Dr. George W. Field in this matter, and he 
voluntarily gave such attention to some of the waters near the 
coast as circumstances permitted. While the conditions that 
caused the death of fish elsewhere may have varied from those 
he found, it seems fair to presume that the cause of mortality 
was more often due to lack of vitality in the water, because of 
pollution, than to anything else. Indeed, this may have been 
the exclusive reason. The degree to which streams and ponds 
may be polluted by sewerage and the discharge of acids and 
other deleterious ingredients into them from factories, etc., is 
surprising to those who have given no attention to this matter. 
In some States there are rivers completely fishless because of 
it. It is evident that the number of fish which could live com- 

58 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

fort ably and healthy in clear, pure water would become *'an 
over-population/' as designated by Dr. Field, when the life- 
giving qualities of the water haye been exhausted by contami- 
nation. The results of Dr. Field's researches are giyen below, 
and are well worth the serious consideration of all who are 
concerned about the continuance of fish life in our waters : — 

Preliminary Report upon the Cause of Death of Alewives in Mystic 
River and the Lower Mystic Lake during May and June, 1908. 

June 9, 1903, 11.15 a.m. Rear of armory, Medford Square, Med- 
ford, Mass. Tide running up stream ; about one hour to high tide. 
Many dead full-grown alewives in stream ; a few but recently dead, 
the majority apparently dead from twenty-four to seventy-two or 
more hours ; evidently carried down and up the river by successive 
tides. Counted fifty-four dead in an eddy perhaps fifty feet in cir- 
cumference ; two other eddies within three hundred feet where the 
dead fish seemed to be still more numerous. These eddies are cer- 
tainly of greater area, but too far from shore for satisfactory observa- 
tion. On a fair sample of fifty linear feet of shore counted sixteen 
dead and decaying alewives stranded by previous high tide ; odor in 
the neighborhood was decidedly offensive from this source. 

June 9, 12 noon. Harvard Avenue bridge over Mystic River, 
West Medford, Mass. Dead alewives passing under bridge at rate 
of four per minute. Immense numbers of living alewives swimming 
about, many of them spawning. 

Lower Mystic Lake, 12.45 p.m. Lower end of lake thickly dotted 
with dead alewives. Perhaps two acres with on the average one 
dead fish to every square rod. Alewives spawning in immense num- 
bers all about the shores, having crowded into the lower lake. Dis- 
section of the recently dead fish disclosed no obvious direct cause ; 
the spawn and milt had not been discharged ; all organs seemed 
healthy and normal except the blood, which appeared to show indica- 
tions of asphyxiation. I was therefore led to suspect that the amount 
of oxygen in the water was insuflacient to maintain the vast multitude 
of alewives which enter the Mystic in May and June. 

The above extracts from my field notes suflSciently indicate the 
general condition. 

My observations at the fishway between the Upper and the Lower 
Mystic Lake showed that no fish were running ; and, according to 
the statements of the attendants at the dam and at the boat house, 
the fish have not used this fishway for at least three years. This 
would indicate that while in years past the alewives used the Upper 
Mystic Lake and the upper stream as a spawning ground, they are at 

1903.1 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 59 

present restricted to the much smaller area of the lower lake and to a 
few shallow portions of the Mystic River below the lakes. In addi- 
tion, the numbers of individuals have probably increased since the use 
of nets in the Mystic waters has been suspended ; and, finally, the 
gradually increasing contamination of the waters has reduced the 
amount of free oxygen in the water, and thereby limited the amount 
of animal life which can be supported. Here we have to deal with a 
case of a fish population which has become an over-population on 
account of an insuflScient supply of oxygen in the water. The causes 
of this unnatural condition are the following : — 

First, the dam between the upper and lower lake, which tends to 
restrict the breeding grounds, and thus leads to the accumulation of 
great numbers of fish in a much smaller area. 

Second, the pollution of the water by manufacturing and other 
ways, which reduces the capacity of this water to maintain living 

Third, the suspension of fishing by nets in the waters of the 

There is a peculiar connection between these three factors. The 
dam has shut the alewives from the pure upper fresh water reaches 
which they naturally seek, and restricted them to brackish water 
areas, where pollution is liable to be particularly fatal, on account of 
the supernatant fresh water, which prevents in some measure the 
oxygenation of the salt water below by preventing the access of the 
air to the salt water. So long as fishing was permitted, this condition 
of a population beyond the capacity of the water may have been ob- 
scured by the diminution of numbers to such an extent through fishing 
that practically all the remaining fish found sufficient oxygen in the 
water ; but with the suspension of fishing the numbers of fish have 
become greater than can live in water which has its oxygen-containing 
capacity so impaired as has the Mystic. 

This trouble during the presence of the alewives in the spawning 
migration is already an annual annoyance and expense to at least the 
towns of Medford and Arlington, and the cost of collecting and 
removing the decaying fish promises to increase each year. In view 
of these facts, I am led by this brief examination to suggest to the 
Medford board of health that the matter is one which might properly 
be referred to the State Board of Health and to the Commission on 
Fisheries and Game. Meantime, I offer suggestions for tentative 
consideration : — 

First, that the attention of the Metropolitan Park Commission be 
called to the economic waste of fish which might well serve as cooked 
food, and to the consideration of the possible desirability of permitting 
within the areas under their jurisdiction the catching of alewives with 

60 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

hand nets or with seines (not more than say twenty feet long) at cer- 
tain definite points on the shores of the river and lakes, under proper 
restrictions. This might open to some classes an opportunity to 
get food fish at little expense by their own individual exertion. This 
might prove not only a practical aid to worthy people, but the process 
might be of interest to visitors, and a stimulus to the greater utiliza- 
tion of the park. 

Second, as to the obvious pollution of the waters of the Mystic. 
This is an important and complicated problem, of which only one 
phase has been referred to ; but the right solution of the entire prob- 
lem is one of importance to all who live within the influence of these 

With the increasing population the fish in our rivers and inland 
waters become of greater economic value to the people, and each year 
the number of instances of fish dying in vast numbers is multiplied. 
Many complaints of this character have been brought to my attention 
this year, including Massapoag Lake in Sharon, Assawampsett Lake 
in Middleborough, etc., but of these it has been only possible for mc 
to make the above reconnaissance of the Mystic. The question is a 
very complicated one, and its solution requires a careful biological 

Respectfully, George W. Field. 

The Boston ''Globe" of Oct. 6, 1903, called attention 
editorially to "lake and river pollution." The following 
extract will show the tendency of the article and the urgency 
of the evil that calls for such public comment : — 

The effects of river pollution on the supply of healthy fish for the 
nation are being felt more or less all over the country. Everywhere 
the complaint is growing, of widespread pollution through tons and 
tons of chemicals cast out by manufacturing plants into the lakes 
and rivers. The trouble is that in most cases the solution is not 
soluble. At some points in New York State the poisoned water has 
invaded the spawning grounds for bass, pike and pickerel, often 
causing tremendous destruction, and at other places the fish have 
been entirely driven away. 

With . . . mill pollution at work in the great rivers, the people 
are beginning to demand that something be done. 

Pond and Brook Fishing, — There is an unanimity of state- 
ment as to the increase in the size and abundance of fish in our 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 61 

interior waters and a consequent betterment of fishing which 
leaves no doubt that much improvement has occurred. The 
numerous press articles which tell of catches seldom or never 
equalled in this State in recent j^ears are fully verified by the 
careful observations of our deputies, many of whom claim 
that fishing in ponds and streams has been better in 1903 
than at any time for many years. Not only have trout been 
more numerous in the brooks than for a Ions: time, but the 
size of the fish has been extraordinary. Even in Berkshire 
County, where some claim trout seldom exceed six inches in 
length, the consensus of testimony shows much larger ones 
have been taken. Indeed, catches have been reported of trout 
weighing more than two pounds, and the Avriter can testify to 
seeing a lot of Berkshire brook trout that ranged from nine 
to sixteen inches in length. 

But these allusions to the fish of our western county are only 
to emphasize the conditions, for reports of " big ones " and 
^' large catches" have come from all sections of the State. 
Nor have these been confined to brooks alone, for fine fishing- 
has been reported in the ponds and lakes stocked by the com- 
mission, wherein the fishing has been regulated and the destruc- 
tive operations of ice fishermen have been prohibited. 

In either case the result obtained indicates unmistakably 
what can be accomplished by liberal stocking and reasonable 
protection of our inland waters. While there are undoubtedly 
still occasional violations of law, and streams and ponds may 
be devastated by poachers, it is nevertheless true that little 
illegal fishing is now done, as compared with a few years ago. 
The result has been so advantageous to the law-respecting 
angler that there is now practically a universal desire to aid 
the commission in its protective work. 

The demands on the commission to stock brooks and ponds 
are growing by leaps and bounds, as shown by the large num- 
ber of brooks stocked this autumn with brook trout fingerlings, 
and also by the extraordinary number of ponds that fish have 
been put into. A few years ago it was customary to stock 
only a few ponds, perhaps six or eight; but this year the 
commission has stocked thirty -four ponds, a number which 
emphasizes the public demand and the strenuous effort made to 

62 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

meet it, and to meet it in a way which, we trust, will secure 
the maximum good. 

It is probable that the cold, rainy month of June, which was 
so fatally disastrous to birds, proved advantageous to fish life 
in the brooks. The latter, instead of being in danger of dry- 
ing up to the degree that they have in other summers, or the 
water in them getting too warm at that season, were as a rule 
well filled with water that kept at a temperature throughout the 
summer that was more favorable than usual to the existence of 
brook trout. Although these conditions had no eflect on the 
early spring fishing, they were, nevertheless, of large impor- 
tance later, not alone as affecting the supply and catch toward 
the close of the season, but more especially because of their 
bearing on the prospective output of the brooks in 1904. The 
drought that followed after June might have caused much loss, 
except for the cold rains which preceded it. 

While the press and personal notices of fishing which we 
shall venture to quote are all of a character to prove interest- 
ing, since they convey a comprehensive idea of actual condi- 
tions in every section of the Commonwealth, the statements 
which refer particularly to Berkshire County are remarkably 
noteworthy, for the reason that it has been held that that county 
should be exempt from the operation of the law prohibiting the 
capture of trout less than six inches in length, and, as a matter 
of fact, it is now so exempt because it has been believed by 
many that the trout in the western section of the State are 
seldom if ever longer than six inches. 

It will be noticed that there are several reports of the appear- 
ance of the pike perch in the ponds where it has been planted. 
In one case fish of this species are reported as having been seen 
a foot long, but that they showed no inclination to take a hook. 
If this is so, there is reason for satisfaction : (a) because it 
indicates an abundance of live food in the pond, insuring rapid 
and healthy development ; (/>) it shows that the pike perch will 
live in our ponds ; and (c) this indisposition of the fish to bite 
before fully matured gives greater assurance that they will escape 
untimely death by being caught before they have an oppor- 
tunity for reproduction. There need be no anxiety on the 
part of any one about the pike perch taking a hook when it 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 63 

is larger. It will bite as freely and fiercely as any of the 

Accounts come to us, some of which are quoted in the follow- 
ing pages, which indicate that the rainbow trout is liable to do 
well in our ponds, although it is yet too early to expect much. 
Indeed, it would be better if none were caught until after they 
have spawned, though that cannot be expected. 

Several instances of the capture of landlocked salmon have 
come to our notice. This is most gTatifying and encouraging; 
it indicates that the plan of planting lingerling fish of this 
species has proved successful, and, taken with the fact that we 
have raised landlocked salmon to maturity at our hatcheries, 
the possibility of successfully stocldng Massachusetts waters 
with this ' ' king of game fishes " does not seem so remote as it 
did four years ago ; indeed, it now seems assured. 

If, as a result of continuous effort, the day soon comes 
when it is practicable to catch, within our own borders, land- 
locked salmon, brown trout, — the famous trout of Izaak 
Walton, — the brilliant-sided rainbow trout, the sleek Sus- 
quehanna salmon (as the pike perch is often called) , in addition 
to the peerless square-tail trout of our brooks, also the black 
bass, the keen-eyed pickerel, the white perch or the ever-present 
yellow perch, — humble congener of the more lordly member 
of the family, the pike perch, — the angler of this State will 
have the opportunity to enjoy the ponds and brooks which, near 
his home, will then contribute liberally to the gratification of his 
love of sport and his appetite. The day is near when this will 
all be possible, and even now there is a growing appreciation of 
the advancing value of brooks and ponds because of the increase 
of fish in them, and the consequent enhancement of their 

Following the precedent heretofore established, an attempt 
will be made to show the condition of fishery, from the angler's 
stand-point, in various parts of the State. For the sake of 
convenience, the State is divided into three sections — eastern, 
central and western — for this purpose. The first group of 
extracts from news items, letters and reports, shows the 
noticeable features of fishing, including angling for smelt, in 
the eastern division. 

64 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Among the interesting communications received was one 
addressed to the chairman by Mr. C. A. Driscoll of Boston, 
who mentions the capture of landlocked salmon from a pond 
near the sea in Barnstable. He writes : — 

About the middle of August, 1902, I was fishing at Neck Pond, so 
called, in the village of Ostervllle, town of Barnstable, and caught three 
landlocked salmon, which weighed approximately from three-quarters 
to one pound each. 

He was very certain of their identity, for when this occurred 
he had just returned from Dan Hole Pond, N. H., where he 
had caught fish of this species. Besides, other fish of the 
same kind were taken from Neck Pond and sent to the United 
States Fish Commission, in Washington, he says, for iden- 

The Sandwich correspondent of the Boston '' Herald," in a 
despatch dated April 25, 1903, writes : — 

Despite the extremely cold and rainy weather which has prevailed 
this month, the trout fishing has been better than for seven or eight 

The Boston "Herald," of May 4, discussing the smelt and 
its appearance in the brooks of the eastern section of the State, 

says : — 

Many of the brooks in the vicinity of Boston are now thoroughfares 
for the fish. Danvers brooks have their share, as do those of Hing- 
ham, Weymouth, Nantasket, Newburyport, etc. The Weymouth 
brook once had a very euphonious Indian name, but the miracle of 
the fish crowding its banks in the spring was so remarkable that 
everybody forgot to call it anything but just " Smelt Brook." At 
present it is the great sight of the town, and the banks are not only 
frequented with sightseers, but even the cats cannot resist dabbling 
their dainty paws into the dreaded water for an occasional catch, and 
ducks that live along the way are gorging themselves with the feast 
continually hurrying past them. 

This w^ealth of fish life, hurrying with irrepressible ardor to 
the head waters of the streams, impelled by the overmastering 
instinct of procreation, is then of little interest to the angler, 
however much of future pleasure it may promise him. For 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 65 

while the spawning impulse is on them, the smelt, like some 
other species of fish in the breeding season, refuse the daintiest 
lure, and " will not look at a hook,'' as a fisherman expressed it. 

Mr. Fred J. Brown of Woburn, replying to an inquiry about 
pike perch in early August, said he had " not heard from nor 
seen a single pike perch out of vmter. Pike perch ten or 
twelve inches long have been seen," he continued, '*but they 
do not seem to take any bait." 

Mr. P. McCarthy of Lawrence, writing under date of May 
26, in explanation of a request he had made for landlocked 
salmon fry, made the following statement : — 

My reason for asking for landlocked salmon was that I got some 
from Mr. Brackett some years ago, and put them in the same brook 
with good results ; and I actually think the first salmon I landed on 
the Merrimack River with rod and line was one of those landlocked 
salmon fry that I put into Hawkes Brook at the rapids in Mitchells 

The following items are extracted from the annual reports 
of the deputies in the eastern section of the State : — 

Plymouth. — It is well known that game fish are becoming extinct 
in many of our ponds, . . . and it is evident something will have to 
be done soon in the way of stocking the ponds. Brook trout are also 
very scarce. — Walter D. Shurtleff. 

Raynham. — Fish remain about the same in ponds not stocked. — 
Henry S. Wilbur. 

Pembroke. — Good fishing this season; fine catch of black bass, 
pickerel and white perch. — Otis Foster. 

Hingham. — Smelts have been large ; the run about same as 
usual. — W. I. James. 

Cohasset. — Fine results have come from stocking and closing 
[Lily] pond to winter fishing. Large catches of pickerel have been 
taken from the pond last season. — W. O. Souther, Jr. 

Quincy. — Smelts have been very plentiful this year, and some 
large catches have been made. — C. N. Hunt. 

Fishing is good. There have been some good catches of pickerel 
and perch and extra good catches of smelts around Quincy and vicin- 
ity. — David L. Gordon. 

East Dedham. — Vickerel, trout and perch are plentiful in the 
ponds, but the Neponset River is a cemetery for fish. — Samuel 

ee ' FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Needham, — I saw lots of brook trout [in a brook] of all sizes a 
few days ago. — A. Crowell. 

Milford. — Fishing is not extra good. There is complaint that 
people in early spring catch the trout put out the previous season. — 
W. N. Prentiss. 

East Norton. — Since Winnecunnet Pond was stocked the pickerel 
season has been one of the best that we have had in years. On June 
6 Messrs. Sylvester and Eaton of North Attleborough caught thirty- 
one pickerel. Very few white perch caught [yet], but they are in- 
creasing. — E. C. Pike. 

Marlborough. — Fish are quite plentiful in the small streams. — 
Lyman Hapgood. 

Trout are doing well. — H. C. Hudson and H. A. Snow. 

Northhorough. — More trout last spring and larger in size than in 
the past. — Ethan Bothwell. 

Wohurn. — The trout season brought forth some fine specimens, 
and also brought out the fact that this vicinity can produce as good 
trout as anywhere in the State. Pickerel, perch and black bass have 
been caught quite freely in Horn Pond, but none after November 1. 
No pike perch have been obtained, although they have been seen as 
long as ten or eleven inches. — F. J. Brown. 

Wakefield. — Fishing in our lakes holds good, notwithstanding they 
are fished so much by out-of-town parties. Many strings of large 
perch have been caught, and many pickerel weighing from one to 
four and one-half pounds. Black bass have been taken that weighed 
from one to five pounds. A bass that was badly hooked and broke 
away later came ashore dead ; it weighed seven and one-quarter 
pounds. — Samuel Parker. 

The good results of restocking fished-out trout brooks are plainer 
than ever before, as fair catches of trout have been made this year in 
brooks which have been wholly empty. — George M. Poland. 

Reading. — There were elegant strings of trout caught this season ; 
one trout taken from North Brook weighed a pound and six ounces, 
and one caught three hours later from South Brook weighed a pound.* 
— H. E. McIntire. 

Lynnfield. — Trout fishing has been very good this year. — George 

North Lexington, — Fish are quite plentiful. — Charles E. 

* This is interesting, since we are credibly informed that two or three years 
ago the Reading brooks were barren, so far as trout were concerned. They were 
then stocked by Mr. Arthur E. Roberts, at that time representative in the Legis- 
lature, with fish obtained from the commission. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 67 

Groveland, — The first three days' fishing in Argelia Brook * eight 
hundred good trout were taken, as near as I can find out. I was at the 
brook last Sunday, and saw plenty of fingerlings. — Gardner Wood. 

Georgetown. — Fish are doing well. Nice strings of perch and 
trout were caught this summer. — H. L. Brown. 

North Andover. — Black bass, pickerel and white perch have been 
caught in large numbers in the great ponds. — William J. Toohet. 

Haverhill. — Fish are about the same as last year. — Edouard 

Lawrence. — The brooks in Andover that were stocked with trout 
last year are doing well ; lots of nice trout in each brook. — A. J. 

Gloucester. — Trout fishing at Gloucester and Rockport has been 
fair. — A. Rogers. 

Central Section. — The fishing at Lake Quinsigamond is 
thus referred to by the Worcester "Telegram," May 20, 
1903: — 

Some philanthropist must have restocked Lake Quinsigamond, for 
fish were reported as biting lively yesterday. R. W. Fiske, who was 
out with C. A. Lewis, Charles Steele and Denny Hagerty, says they 
caught fifty-three pounds of pickerel, and had rare sport. Mr. Fiske 
was particularly elated over landing a pound-and-a-half trout, which 
was the only trout taken. 

The "Telegram" of April 29 made the following allusion 
to the capture of a landlocked salmon, which is supposed to be 
one of those put into Lake Quinsigamond by the commission. 
The despatch was dated at North Grafton, April 28, and 
says : — 

Medoz Perron, Main Street, caught a landlocked salmon at the 
rear of the Washington Emery Mills this afternoon. It is the finest 
ever caught in this stream, weighing over six pounds. It is thought 
the salmon came down the stream from Lake Quinsigamond. 

Concerning this, Mr. C. H. Nelson wrote : — 

The published statement of weight was exaggerated, but the fish 
did weigh over four and one-half pounds. It was caught by Medoz 

* This was a brook stocked in 1901, and the fishing therein regulated in accord- 
ance with section 5, chapter 91, Revised Laws. It was opened during the trout 
season of this year to the extent that fishing was permitted three days in the week. 


. forest Lake. — In his weekly report for the week ending 
June 7 Deputy John F. Luman stated that a ' ' handsome rainbow 
trout nine inches in lengtli " had been taken in Forest Lake, 
Palmer. The fact that this pond had been stocked by this 
commission with rainbow trout fingerlings two years previously 
made the taking of a trout of this species during the present 
year convincing evidence of the survival of the fish put into 
the lake. This is at least encouraging, especially in view of 
the fact that in another year those that still exist will have 
reached the spawning age. 

The Palmer "Journal," Sept. 18, 1903, in discussing the 
local fishing, says : — 

Those who enjoy the sport of fishing and have turned to Forest 
Lake and Round Pond for the indulgence of this proclivity have been 
quick to note the beneficial results which have accrued by reason of 
the stocking of these waters by the Fish and G-ame Commissioners, 
and the closing of them to ice fishing, as well as restricting the fishing 
with hook and line. As a result of such restriction the fish have had 
an opportunity to mature and grow fat during the past two years, and 
some fine catches have been made recently. 

Some particularly choice specimens have been taken from Round 
Pond within a few days, among them being four fish caught one day 
which tipped the scales at ten pounds, — an average of two and one- 
half pounds each. From Forest Lake some big fish have also been 
taken, a few of them weighing five pounds and over. Previous to 
the closing of these waters the capture of a fish of this size was a very 
unusual event. . . . 

Landlocked salmon do not live in all Massachusetts waters, but 
Forest Lake seems to be an ideal place for them, as several have been 
taken there this year. Although they have not attained great size, 
their growth in the past two years proves that they will give anglers 
some good sport in the near future if allowed to grow a little more. 
This fish is slow to show itself in Massachusetts waters, but the fact 
that they have been taken from Forest Lake is evidence of good sport 
to come, and anglers will be glad to know that salmon fishing in Forest 
Lake promises to be a rare sport within a very few years. 

At various times in the early part of the season Deputy Shea 
of Ware has sent the following information about fish and fish- 
ing, which is in addition to notes in his annual report, else- 
Avhere quoted : — 

1904.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 69 

E. W. Lawton of this town [Ware] informed me this morning that 
there were two rainbow trout caught in the lower end of Muddy 
Brook yesterday ; they were about seven inches long. Muddy Brook 
runs into Snow's Pond, and Snow's Pond is where we planted some 
rainbows last fall, and that is where they must have come from. 

In his report for the week ending June 14, he says : — 

Mr. Brannigan and Mr. Sheldon fished Muddy Brook Saturday, 
and got twelve trout that weighed from three-fourths to one pound 
each, and several smaller ones. Mr. E. M. Thayer fished the same 
brook Saturday forenoon, and got about twenty-five trout that would 
weigh about one-fourth pound each. 

In looking over the baskets of Mr. Gee of North Dana and Mr. 
Swift of Athol, June 21, I saw some trout that they caught in Swift 
River with a fly, and they weighed over two pounds each. Mr. Gee 
told Mr. Luman and myself that the day before they caught fifteen 
trout, that weighed over ten pounds. Mr. H. E. Brown, the man we 
looked over on Silver Brook, told us he has caught six hundred trout 
this season. 

In his report for the week ending August 30 Deputy- 
Shea makes the following statements under the head of 
' ' Remarks : " — 

While in North Dana, August 25, Mr. H. E. Brown informed us 
that he has caught eight hundred trout this season ! . . . Mr. Charles 
Gee of North Dana told us that he has found trout fishing the best this 
year that it has been at any time during the past ten years. Mr. Gee 
is an expert fisherman, and does considerable fishing. Mr. E. M. 
Thayer of Hardwick reports the same about trout. 

Mr. Edward Miller, secretary of the Northampton Rod and 
Gun Club, writing on May 25, stated that trout fishing had 
been better the first two weeks of the season than he had ever 
previously seen it in fifteen years. After the time mentioned 
it was not so easy to catch trout, for the reason that the long- 
continued drought dried up the trout brooks and made fishing 

Following are extracts from annual reports of deputies : — 

Upton, — We think fish are better since we stocked the brooks. — 
P. Shaughnesst. 

West Upton. — There are more trout and bass this year than last. 
— D. A. Warren. 

70 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Grafton. — Trout fishing never was so good. All fishermen say 
there were more trout caught this year than the entire aggregate of 
the last four or five years. I expect next year will be still better, 
for the fish put in the streams * are doing well. Some of the brooks 
make me think of streams I have seen in the British provinces, — 
almost alive with trout. — George Pogue. 

Fish are increasing in the streams. — G. H. Brown. 

Millhury. — Trout were plentiful this year, much better than the 
average. Black bass fishing was poor. — G. E. Whitehead. 

Spencer. — More and larger trout have been caught this season 
than formerly. — A. D. Putnam. 

West Gardner. — Trout fishing has been good. Large catches 
have been made, frequently of good-sized fish. — F. S. Gasavant. 

Mo7itague. — The trout fry and fingerlings seem to be doing well, 
and a large proportion of them are in evidence. — A. M. Lyman. 

Athol. — I think trout are diminishing here, except where brooks 
are stocked yearly. — A. H. Jefts. 

Webster. — Fishing was better this year. — Joseph P. Love. 

Fish in lakes and streams about as usual. — R. C. Hall. 

Palmer. — From every locality came the same expression : " This 
has been the best trout season we have ever had." Great results 
have been accomplished here in Palmer, where Round Pond and 
Forest Lake have been stocked and closed, — more and larger fish 
have been taken. The same results are manifest in other sections, 
where the work of the commission in this respect has given uni- 
versal satisfaction.! — J. F. Luman. 

Ware. — Deputy Shea, who has visited seventj^-five towns 
betv^een the New York line and Cape Cod, states that the 
past year has been a record breaker for trout fishing. He 
reports : — 

Old fishermen from all sections report trout fishing the best last 
season it has been for ten years. Mr. Charles Gee of North Dana 
reports catching thirteen trout that weighed sixteen pounds, and the 
like is reported from all sections. 

Western Section. — In no other section of the State, per- 
haps, has there been as much comment on fishing as by the 
press of that under consideration, and it might be feasible to 

* These are streams stocked "by the State. 

t The notes of Mr. Luman refer generally to the whole central section of the 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 71 

quote newspaper statements in extenso, if occasion demanded 
it. We sliall, however, content ourselves with a few of the 
many extracts that are before us, and, as heretofore, in dealing 
with the fishing in other sections, use these as, in a way, intro- 
ductory to the notes extracted from reports of the deputies, 
which cover a much broader range of territory and observation. 
Amonff the Great Barrinoton news items in the Pittsfield 
^' Eagle," June 10, 1903, was the following : — 

Dr. Stockwell of New Marlborough caught a three and one-half 
pound trout in the Konkapot River Monday, and it is to be mounted 
by Henry Rudge, the taxidermist. 

A correspondent of the Pittsfield ''Journal" of April 18 
submits certain statements which, while calling attention to 
large catches, justly condemn the spirit which prompts some 
fishermen to take out of a brook the last trout that can be 
induced to bite, quite regardless of anything except that it 
counts, and adds '' one more " to the string. He sslys : — 

A morning paper publishes the catch of two alleged sportsmen 
during the first two days of trout fishing this season. Two men in 
one day took one hundred and twenty-seven trout weighing eighteen 
pounds ; the day previous, one of them took twelve pounds of fish. 
So each of these men captured sixty-three fish, weighing nine pounds. 

The statement, if true, is certainly discreditable, and betrays a 
deplorable lack of the instincts of real sportsmen anglers. No man 
who slaughters fish in this wholesale fashion has any decent regard 
for the rest of the great army of fishermen. And it is bad enough to 
be guilty of such unsportsmanlike conduct, without making a boast 
of it in public print. Still, this publicity may be a good thing, for all 
men may know the sort of chaps who are depleting our brooks of 

Thus early in the season trout are not full of fight, and there is as 
much glory in pulling out speckled trout by the wholesale as there is 
in picking potato bugs. 

The very men who did such fishing would be among the first to 
accuse poachers, market-fishermen, dynamiters and brook-limers of 
destroying all chances of even a moderate basket. But, of the two 
classes of fishermen, certainly the man who takes out twenty-one 
pounds of trout in two days is no better sportsman than the other, 
though he is within the letter of the law. Men who do their best to 
kill every fish in a stream are extremely selfish, to put it mildly, and 

72 FISH AND GAME. [Dec, 

there is little to condone in such '' sport." If a man is so selfish as 
to clean out a-brook with hook and line as completely as though a net 
had been used, he ought to be labored with, to be convinced that 
there is a legitimate catch, within the bounds of reason. 

Protection of fish and game is perfectly useless, a roaring farce, so 
long as such catches as those cited above are of common occurrence. 

The Springfield "Republican" of April 17 contained des- 
patches from various points relating to trout fishing, which 
indicated that the angling in the early part of the season was 
generally good, and the catches as large as prudence and care 
for the future of the brooks would suggest they ought to be. 
Its Northampton correspondent, referring to records made on 
a cold day, when trout are popularly supposed not to be 
inclined to take a hook, makes mention of the following : — 

Some of the records are the following : C. H. Sawyer and W. A. 
Sheldon, forty-four, weight seven pounds ; Matthew Grogan and 
Patrick Ahearp, twenty-eight, weight five pounds ; John Fenton, 
sixteen; Eugene Dickinson, thirty-five, weight five pounds; Walter 
Tomer, twenty-six ; Louis Gaylor and W. J. Collins, sixty-four, 
weight fourteen pounds ; J. T. Dewey and Joseph Torr, ninety ; 
Charles Daniels, twenty-five, weight five pounds. 

In the Great Barrington items of the same paper was the 
following : — 

John Race and Mr. Taylor caught fifty-eight trout Wednesday, 
Henry Fassett and Edward Cross fifty-eight, Oliver Rivers and O. 
Gould twenty-six, and John B. Hull twenty-one, some of the fish 
tipping the scales at a pound. 

There was also the following reference to fishing near 
Springfield : — 

Five West Springfield sportsmen had excellent luck fishing for 
trout in Bear Hole Brook yesterday. They set out about 5 in the 
morning and returned at 4 in the afternoon. They brought back in 
all sixty-two fine fish. One of the party caught a trout weighing 
over a pound. The fish are plentiful^ and of fine quality. 

The North Adams "Transcript" of April 22 published a 
Williamstown despatch, as follows : — 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Ko. 25. 73 

H. H. Heap caught a trout Tuesday afternoon from Green River 
that doubtless holds the record of late years. The fish was exactly 
sixteen and one-half inches from the end of his head to the tip of his 

The Pittsfield ''Eagle" of April 15, in noting the "many 
good catches," says : — 

One of the first to return from the brooks was J. Ivan Shepardson. 
His basket and coat pockets revealed seventeen and one-half pounds 
of the finest trout ever taken from a brook. William Talcott of 
Lanesborough secured fifteen, Dr. Downing and George Roberts ten 
pounds each. Frank P. Newton also made a fine catch of forty-five. 

The Pittsfield ' ' Evening Journal " of May 6 notes : — 

Lieut. "W. K. Henry went out Monday morning early for a few 
large trout which had escaped him last season. He returned at noon 
with a score of handsome fish, all weighing from a pound to a half 

The same paper on May 20 says : — 

E. W. Malloy claims to have caught sixty-seven trout in Berkshire 
trout streams in two days. One of his fish exhibited in the window 
of the Central market to-day weighed over two pounds. 

The Pittsfield " Sun " of April 30 has the following records 
of large catches of brook trout at Grreat Barrington, — note- 
worthy more on account of size than numbers : — 

"William P. Taylor caught fourteen trout Tuesday that weighed 
thirteen and one-half pounds ; Wallace Jones caught twelve trout last 
Thursday, weight ten pounds, eleven ounces. C. H. Sage and C. M. 
Gibbs caught twenty-five trout weighing seventeen and one-half 
pounds. This seems to disprove the statement that there are no 
trout in Berkshire over six inches in length. On Monday Sage and 
Gibbs caught twenty trout. In the lot were some of the finest ever 
seen hereabouts. 

The conditions at the other end of Berkshire were no less 
favorable, as is shown by the following extracts : — 

The North Adams " Evening Herald," April 20, says : — 

Fred Crawford, a short distance from Williamstown, pulled out a 
trout which weighs exactly two and one-quarter pounds. The fish is 

74 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

sixteen inches long, and a beauty in every particular. Mr. Crawford 
was so well pleased with his catch that he started at once for home, 
not caring to bother with the little fellows after that. 

The Adams ' ' Transcript " of May 1 notes : — 

Fred Crawford caught a second two-pound trout in Green River, at 
Williamstown, last Saturday, seventeen inches in length and very 
similar to the first. This is the best local record so far as heard from. 

The foregoing are only a few of the press items available 
which show an unusual abundance of trout in the western sec- 
tion of the State, and those of a size comparable with the trout 
taken from brooks anywhere. The notes from deputies which 
follow will further emphasize the conditions in 1903 both as 
regards brook and pond fishing : — 

Berkshire County. — The trout season in the western section of the 
State was the best it has been in a number of years, larger trout and big- 
ger strings were taken. Bass fishing was also good. — A. M. Nichols. 

Florida. — Fishing was better this season than for many years. 
The season closed with brooks well stocked. — L. E. Ruberg. 

Adams. — The trout season was the best in many years. Trout 
ran large. Even in Pittsfield, where, according to some, trout are 
only four or five inches long, some were caught that weighed from 
one pound to two and one-half pounds each. We can now see the 
benefit of stocking the brooks, and the better protection of fish. 
This is the first year I have not found some of the springs limed. I 
never saw so many trout in the springs as last Sunday [November 
8]. — Francis O'Neill. 

Buckland. — There were more and larger trout this year than there 
have been for several years. — M. J. Cranson. 

I found the trout fishing excellent, large ones much more plentiful 
than in former years. — E. C. Hall. 

Pittsfield. — Small amount of trout caught this season, on account 
of low water, but there are plenty of trout spawning at present. 
Very few black bass caught from Onota Lake ; there was better fish- 
ing in Pontoosuc Lake. More pickerel taken from Onota Lake this 
season than in any two years before. — W. R. Stearns. 

Neio Lenox. — Fish are getting more plentiful. — H. H. Dewey. 

Lee. — Greenwater Lake, in Becket, has been filled [with fish] the 
past season. — C. H. Pease. 

Becket. — Trout have been plenty and of larger size than last year; 
there is a good stock left over for another year. — W. J. Cross. 

1903] PUBLIC DOCmiENT— No. 25. 75 


Notable Features of the Year, — Remarkable as 1902 was 
for events in the sea fisheries that could be considered extraor- 
dinary, the current year is no less so, and in some respects 
is still more noteworthy, although the chief features differ 
materially from what has been previously recorded by us. 
While some of these happenings indicate a gratifying pros- 
perity and progress, others, unfortunately, demonstrate too 
plainly that influences are at work which, if they cannot be 
checked or controlled, are morally sure to injure the fisheries 
and to retard their development more or less. 

For many years our ocean fisheries have been confronted 
with conditions that gradually have caused their abandonment 
in most localities outside of the larger ports. It will certainly 
be unfortunate if the industrj^ in these ports, which are the 
last strongholds of deep sea fisheries, should also be subjected 
to influences from those engaged in them that may work great 
harm. Eeference is made to the mutinous spirit which appears 
to have prevailed this year to an unparalleled extent among the 
fishing crews, if the published accounts furnish any basis for 
correct conclusions. Xot only have voyages been broken up, 
according to these statements, and vessels been compelled to 
return home without fares of fish, but the lives of masters have 
been imperilled, the safety of property jeopardized, and peace- 
loving men, who constituted the bulk of the crews, have been 
prevented by bullies or desperadoes from pursuing the cruises 
upon which they sailed, while they have been subjected to 
threats or possible personal violence that cannot frequently be 
repeated in any sea industry without destroying it. One master 
of a fishing vessel, who shot one of his crew who was alleged 
to be in open mutiny, is incarcerated in prison in a foreign 
country ; while members of a crew who caused much disturbance 
on another schooner, causing her return home, as was averred, 
were, after trial, discharged from custody. The effect of all 
this can scarcely fail to be seriously harmful unless steps are 
immediately taken to prevent a recurrence of these distressing 
events ; for it is evident to all familiar with the sea, and espe- 
cially to those having knowledge of our deep sea fisheries, that 

76 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the result of the action of the courts will be to encouragre 
insubordination in our fishing fleet, and to make the masters 
helpless, so far as legal right is concerned, to maintain disci- 
pline and to suppress mutiny. If the decision of the courts 
indicates that it is not illegal for members of a fishing vessel's 
crew — more or less mider the influence of intoxicants, and 
with their brutal passions inflamed — to appropriate the boats 
or other property belonging to a schooner, contrary to the 
orders of the master ; to threaten personal harm to the master 
or their shipmates ; to break or destroy property of the vessel 
they are on ; or to go on shore in a foreign port contrary to 
orders, then no time should be lost in securing the enact- 
ment of laws that will apply to such cases, and that may make 
possible the prosecution of a business in which, like all busi- 
ness of the sea, subordination is the key-note of success, for 
without it nothing need be expected but disaster. 

Capt. William Thomas, master of the fishing schooner 
*' Elmer Grray," has been credited with giving expression to 
statements that seem to us so eminently correct that we are 
glad to quote them in full, since it appears to us this matter is 
one the importance of which cannot be overestimated ; and 
for that reason the conservative views of wise and experienced 
men should receive the consideration they are entitled to. He 
says : — 

SaiUng masters are not afforded sufficient protection. Hardly a 
crew but what includes a foreign element, and even if there are several 
good men aboard, they will invariably be enticed into wrong-doing. 
Captain Willard is now behind the bars because he defended his life. 
The decision has served to increase the hostility of brow-beating 
sailors. Each vessel ships about eighteen men, and when trouble 
arises it is the captain against his crew. The situation then resolves 
itself into one of self-defence or a jump over the side. According to 
Captain Willard's treatment, all masters who protect themselves must 
reckon on long imprisonment. 

The enmity of the sailors has its basis solely in lack of bait. It 
is an unfortunate predicament, but no one is to blame. For some 
unknown reason the squid have been scared away, and without 
them fishing is impossible. 

I fear that blood will be spilled before our Gloucester vessels suc- 
ceed in returning. The foreign sailors are in desperate mood, and if 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 77 

an outbreak occurs on the high seas, it will embrace all American 
vessels within bounds. Captain Arsenault's encounter with his crew 
will, I expect, be repeated on other vessels.* 

It is evident that prompt measures should be taken to change 
the system of officering fishing vessels from those ports where 
it is customary now to have only one officer, — the master. 
The system was doubtless adequate a century ago or thereabouts, 
when crews of the fishing craft then in vogue rarely numbered 
more than seven or eight men in all ; and these were usually 
neighbors, friends or relatives of the master, who could not 
possibly anticipate any difficulty in maintaining his control. 
Indeed, the skipper was sometimes reluctant to assume the 
command to which his shipmates had elected him. t All worked 
together then for the common good. 

But a vast change has taken place since the days of chebacco 
boats and pinkies. The vessels employed to-day are immensely 
larger ; they generally carry crews ranging from fourteen to 
more than twenty men, and these men are drawn from many 
sources. Often they are foreigners, — at least many are for- 
eign born, — of many nationalities ; they are usually free from 
the personal ties of ownership, kinship and friendship that bound 
men in former times to their vessel and their skipper ; and 
some of them have no concern whatever for the property rights 
of owners, nor regard for the authority of the commander 
unless he chances to be physically qualified to enforce the 
respect that is due him. Even then he cannot look after the 
welfare of his charge when he is on shore, as he often has to be 
on business incident to a voyage. At such times a vessel must 
of necessity be left to the mercy of viciously inclined persons 
in a crew; for, inasmuch as there is no officer on board, there 
is no one with legal authority to prevent whatever excesses may 
occur. Under these circumstances, it is remarkable that the 
conditions met with this year have not sooner appeared. There 
is no question in the writer's mind — and he speaks from an 

* The Boston " Post," Sept. 5, 1903. 

t The writer was told hy the late Andrew W. Dodd of Gloucester that he actu- 
ally shed tears, when, just hefore he was out of his teens, it was decided that he 
should take command. The responsibility overawed him. But his success was 

78 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

experience of thirty years in the Atlantic deep sea fisheries — 
that there have been many occasions in recent years when they 
were dangerously near. 

Foreseeing the probability of such occurrences, and realizing 
their detriment to the fishery, he ventured to publish the fol- 
lowing recommendations fully twenty years ago ; and these 
are now repeated with the emphasis justified by the regretful 
incidents of the present year : — 

(a) Since the needs of the fishing vessels are at the present day 
not very different from those employed in the whahngand merchant 
marine, it seems evident that there should be more than one officer. 
There should be a mate, or first officer, who should share the respon- 
sibilities of the captain. He should have authority in the absence of 
the captain, and in case of accident to the latter should at once take 
charge of the vessel. This man should, of course, be subject to ex- 
amination, like the captain, or at any rate should give evidence to the 
proper persons of his ability to perform the duties of his office. The 
creation of a grade of subordinate officers among the fishermen would 
undoubtedly have a good effect upon the whole body of men engaged 
in the pursuit. The number of responsible positions would be doubled, 
and the responsibility placed upon these men would render them more 
sedate and reliable. They would be recognized as in the line of pro- 
motion, and their efforts to improve themselves would be greatly 
stimulated. The advantage to the fishery capitalists also would be 
very great, since they would be able to supply vacancies in the list of 
skippers from men who had been systematically trained for the posi- 
tion, instead of being obliged to select untried men at random from 
among the crews. At present the only means by which the owner can 
select a skipper for one of his vessels is upon the recommendation of 
some other skipper with whom he has sailed, and every one knows 
how little value such recommendations ordinarily possess. 

(b) The enactment or the confirmation of laws by which the rela- 
tions between the crew, the skipper and the owners shall be clearly 
defined. It is the common belief that the same laws apply to the 
fishing vessels that are in force with respect to merchant vessels. 
Even if this be the case, the question of law is but little considered 
by the fishermen in the discipline on board of a fishing vessel. The 
officers should be supported in the necessary measures which they may 
take to quell insubordination or mutiny and to prevent disorderly con- 
duct, the same rights being recognized as in the case of merchant 
vessels. The crews should be obliged to sign shipping papers in 
regular form, and these papers should be regarded as legal contracts, 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 79 

and means for their enforcement should be provided ; this, too, with- 
out the necessity of protracted and expensive law suits. American 
consuls in foreign ports should be instructed to aid the masters of 
vessels in controlling disorderly men. Such a provision as the last 
one would have an important effect in controlling the acts of crews in 
provincial ports. It is now possible for two or three of the crew, by 
drunkenness and disorder, to neutralize the well-meant efforts of all 
their associates, and prevent the success of the voyage. 

(c) The investment of the officers of the vessel with a greater 
amount of dignity. It is, of course, impossible on board a fishing 
vessel to maintain the same kind of exclusiveness which prevails on a 
merchant vessel or a whaler. The number of officers is less, and the 
nature of the employment prevents all ceremony. At the same time, 
it is within the power of the officers, by their personal bearing, to pre- 
vent familiarities on the part of the crew, and thereby greatly to 
increase their own influence.* 

It is probable there will be those whose conservatism will 
<?ause them to strenuously object to any such changes. Inno- 
vations are always opposed, and the idea of changing the 
long-established customs of the fisheries will be repugnant to 
many ; to some because of anticipated additional remunera- 
tion to those who assume official responsibilities, even if, in 
the end, owners are benefited many times the cost ; and to 
others, and especially those who are liable to be unruly, 
because they feel there will be less chance for them to do as 
they wish. But these objections should have no weight ; they 
are undeserving of any consideration, if the continuance of 
ocean fishery on a satisfactory basis is a matter of much 
moment. The important point is to prevent an industry — in 
which most of the men are peace-loving and respectable — 
from being injured or destroyed by a few drunken insubordi- 
nates, who may have brute strength enough to terrorize their 
shipmates, and practically take unlawful command of the 

A remarkable event of this year was the action of the federal 
government in sending the United States revenue marine 
steamer " Seminole," in midwinter, to the north-west coast of 
Newfoundland, to attempt the release from the ice-beleaguered 

* "The Fishery Industries of the United States," section 4, " The Fishermen of 
the United States," pp. 99, 100, by George B. Goode and Joseph W. Collins. 

80 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

harbors of that region — notably the Bay of Islands — of the 
fleet of Massachusetts fishing vessels (chiefly from Gloucester) 
which had suddenly been overtaken by extremely cold weather 
while seeking cargoes of herring somewhat later in the season 
than it is safe to remain in that region. The attempt was a. 
bold one, and one that deserved success ; one also that evinced 
the praiseworthy disposition of the government to brave 
great dangers to aid the fisheries. It Avas, however, doomed 
to failure, for the grip of the ice king on that semi-arctic coast 
was so strong that it was found impossible for the rescuing 
ship to reach the place where the fishing vessels were held 
helpless, and where they were compelled to remain until 
released by returning spring. Meantime, the " Seminole "^ 
escaped with difiiculty from the dangers that beset her, and 
returned to the United States battered and worn with her 
brave struggles, and with only the glory of a determined efibrt 
to overcome obstacles that proved insurmountable. 

The defeat of the so-called Hay-Bond treaty, which was 
vigorously opposed by the fishing interests of this State, was^ 
an event of large consequence to our sea fisheries, and undoubt- 
edly is scarcely second to any other of the period covered by 
this report. It is far within probabilities, however, that this 
will not end the efforts to secure free entry into our markets 
for provincial fishery products. The recent conclusion of the 
Alaska boundary dispute seems to make possible early attempts 
to open negotiations for reciprocitj^, in which provincial fishery 
products will doubtless be a factor of importance. However 
this may be, the hope is cherished that the present era of good 
feeling and mutual benefit resulting from the modus Vivendi 
in force since 1888 will not be disturbed as a preliminary to 
any other anticipated settlement. Under this our fishermen, 
by the payment of $1.50 per ton of their vessel as a license 
fee, can buy supplies, bait, ice, and reship cargoes, also ship 
men, etc. 

Nothing associated with the sea fisheries of this Common- 
wealth is more out of the ordinary than the transportation of 
cargoes of frozen squid from Cape Cod to the island of St. 
Pierre, off the Newfoundland coast, where they were quickly 
disposed of to be used as bait by French fishermen on the 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 81 

off-shore oceanic banks that are resorted to for fares of cod in 
spring and summer. In view of the importance of the bait 
question and the part it has plaj^ed in international relations, 
as well as the assumption that New England is almost wholly 
dependent for bait on supplies secured in foreign ports, this 
episode of supplying the fishing fleets of a friendly power with 
the surplus bait taken in Massachusetts waters is instructive 
and impressive ; especially so when consideration is given to 
the fact that bait was supplied to a fleet at a Newfoundland 
island port. Now that large refrigerating plants are estab- 
lished along our coast, and it is easily possible to preserve 
fresh and savory large quantities of bait species, such as squid, 
herring, etc., for an indefinite time, the fishery for these assumes 
proportions of national importance, besides supplying material 
for international commerce. It also forcibly ilhistrates the 
resources of modern methods, whereby the wealth of the seas, 
which may abound at certain seasons, is made available to our 
citizens , throughout the year. 

The supplying of our cod fishing fleet with bait carried from 
home to the banks, thus obviating the loss of time in seeking 
bait in foreign ports, may seem a rather startling proposition ; 
but stranger things have happened, and it may be one of the 
changes which are liable to occur in the effort to pursue the 
bank fisheries in the most profitable way. 

A noteworthy departure from well-worn custom has been 
the utilization of a naphtha engine on a mackerel seine boat. 
Captain Jacobs of the fishing steamer ''Alice M. Jacobs" was 
responsible for this innovation, as he has been heretofore for 
the introduction of many other attempts to improve the fish- 
eries. We understand that the object was to have the pursing 
of the seine done by motor power. Thus greater speed in 
capturing a school of fish is assured, for the circling purse net 
can be gathered in by a five-horse-power engine much quicker 
than by hand. 

For many years, if not always, our fishermen have experi- 
enced much loss and annoyance from dogfish, Avhich during the 
summer months swarm on the fishing grounds in enormous 
numbers. Insensible to fear, ferocious as wolves, armed with 
sharp spines and lancet-like teeth that cut clean when they bite, 


they destroy much fishhig gear, and allow no other fish to 
bite, thus making fishing unprofitable where they occur in large 
numbers. Having no market value, they are unprofitable to 
catch, and have always been considered a pest, notwithstand- 
ing their livers yield a considerable quantity of an inferior 

We have tried to discover some method by which the dogfish 
could be utilized for commercial purposes, so that its abundance 
at certain seasons may be turned to good account, and the 
ocean be relieved somewhat of an oversupply — notably large 
this year — of an extremely voracious species of the shark 
family that preys upon other fish which are valuable to com- 
merce. We have talked with several persons who are in a 
position to conduct experiments as to the feasibility of making 
oil and fertilizer from dogfish, and thereby giving them a 
market value. The difficulties to overcome are much greater 
than one unfamiliar with the species might think, but it is 
probable they can be surmounted. We understand that ex- 
periments are now being conducted by competent persons, to 
determine if it is possible to utilize the dogfish profitably. If 
this year's experiments are successful in this particular, the 
result will be most noteworthy. The important thing is to 
find some cheap, effective method to completely separate from 
the flesh a small amount of oil that is found in it, the presence 
of which makes it impracticable to satisfactorily prepare the 
material for a fertilizer. Simple as this may appear to be, all 
efforts to accomplish it have so far proved failures, so far as 
we are informed ; hence hundreds or thousands of tons of dog- 
fish which might annually become available are not utilized or 
even saved, — there is no market for them. While we are not 
in a position to speak positively of what is going to be done, 
we have reason to believe that the year 1904 will see a well- 
thought-out effort made in this State to utilize the dogfish and 
to make it an object of commerce. 

The introduction of the otter trawl at Cape Cod for flounder 
fishing is an event that may have a large influence on our sea 
fisheries. The commission has been glad to exercise its good 
offices, so far as giving information, etc., is concerned, to bring 
about the introduction of this form of apparatus, which is 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 83 

believed to be far superior in eflectiveness to the beam trawl 
heretofore in use. 

The otter trawl has entirely superseded the beam trawl on 
the fishing steamers of Great Britain, and in other countries of 
western Europe it is used to a greater or less extent by sailing 
craft as well as by steamers. Its superior efficiency has become 
widely recognized wherever net trawling is practised. In 
Southern Europe, however, the parenzella, a modification of 
the otter trawl, requiring two boats to tow it, is extensively 

If the otter trawl proves to be as profitable and popular here 
as in Europe, there is reason to anticipate that it may ulti- 
mately be widely utilized in our fisheries, especially if the 
demand for flatfish develops, as it may in time, and it is found 
desirable to engage in a fishery in which the bait question is 
not a factor. 

The year is remarkable for some earnings of vessels and crews 
that would be noteworthy under the most favorable circum- 
stances : but thev are deservino^ of laro^er attention now because 
these records have been made despite generally unfavorable 
meteorological conditions during some of the summer months, 
and a scarcit}" of fish of some species that gave rise to many 
complaints. In view of the extraordinary records made in 
some branches of fishery in recent years it is little short of 
marvellous that they should have been equalled or excelled in 
a season more or less noted for unfavorable conditions. 

As early as 1651 the General Court of Massachusetts 
* ' ordered that in every town within its jurisdiction officers 
should be appointed whose duty it was to see that the barrels 
of fish be properly packed," and from that time forth it is 
probable fish were officially inspected in this Commonwealth. 
It is certain that a record of the inspection of mackerel since 
1804, including that year, is available. But this year not a 
fish has been officially inspected in Massachusetts, so far as we 
can learn, and for the first time in a century, and possibly two 
and one-half centuries, the purchaser of fish, which are the 
result of fisheries of this Commonwealth, is utterly dependent 
upon the honor and integrity of the producer or dealer for a 
guarantee of their quality and proper care, unless special 

84 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

request for inspection is made. Apparently the present 
arrangement is satisfactory, for we learn that no one has indi- 
cated a desire to have fish officially inspected this year ; but the 
abandonment of a guarantee that has been thought necessary 
and desirable since the early settlement .of New England is a 
fact worth}^ of record. 

Shore Weir and IN^et Fisheries. — Another season has passed, 
and still the mackerel has unaccountably absented itself from the 
in-shore waters of this State, and particularly has it kept away 
from Cape Cod Bay, where it has generally been found in 
greater or less abundance ; if it occurred there at no other 
time, it usually appeared when migrating south in late autumn, 
at which time the schools of fish, often of large size, swept into 
the bay formed by the long, hook-shaped sandy arm of Cape 
Cod that reaches out into the sea. Why it has kept away or 
when it will return no one knows ; the wisest can only con- 
jecture. The fishermen are uncertain, or fear it will not soon 
return. Capt. Atkins Hughes of North Truro, one of the most 
observant of them, writing on October 12, said: "You will 
notice that mackerel are a fish of the past with us, and that 
their place has been partially taken b}^ weakfish, of which we 
have caught the past season about 140 tons, valued at |4,500." 

It is the belief of many fishermen, or possibly of all of them, 
that the remarkable abundance of the weakfish or squeteague in 
Cape Cod Bay in recent years is the cause of the mackerel 
keeping away, for it is thought the instinct of the latter warns 
it from entering waters filled with an enemy so predaceous and 
destructive as the weakfish is. However that may be, the 
absence of the mackerel is enou^'h to mve color to the belief. 

An examination of the returns of this year shows that there 
has been the usual fluctuation in the catch of fish, this beino^ 
generally due to the greater or less abundance of some species, 
but in some cases it is ascribable to changes in the amount 
of gear in operation. Thus there was a decrease of 734 
seines, gill nets, etc., the apparatus by which alewives are 
principally taken ; and the catch of the latter species fell off 
more than one-half, — from 1,546,313 pounds in 1902 to 
771,362 pounds in 1903. On the other hand, there has been a 
decrease, as compared with the catch of 1902, of d^^2QQ pounds 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 85 

of bliietish, 134,578 pounds of mackerel, 1,219,501 pounds of 
sea herring, 1,09(3,688 pounds of squid and 3,879 pounds of 
tautog, solely because of a less abundance of these species. 

At the same time there has been an increase in the catch of 
301,575 pounds of flounders, 406,255 pounds of menhaden 
(these are usually sold for bait or food), 130,858 pounds of 
pollock, 265,409 pounds of scup, 30,860 pounds of sea bass, 
14,290 pounds of shad, 117,871 pounds of squeteague, 7,807 
pounds of striped bass, 2,281,614 pounds of edible or bait fish 
not otherwise specified and 13,757 pounds of refuse fish. It 
will thus be seen that the actual net increase in the catch of 
this year, as compared with 1902, was 282,386 pounds, but 
13,757 pounds of these are classed as "refuse fish," and are 
supposed to have no value, therefore the increase of salable 
fish is only 268,629 pounds. These figures are, of course, 
exclusive of lobsters, and represent the catch of the weirs, seines, 
gill nets, etc. It will be seen that there is a very larg^ in- 
crease of those species classified as * ' edible or bait, " the catch 
this year being 3,725,300 pounds, while in 1902 it was 
1,443,686 pounds. The whiting, or silver hake (Merlucius 
biUnearis) , is included in this class ; and we are informed that 
7,000 barrels of this species, which formerly was a refuse fish, 
have been marketed, generally as a salted product, but it is 
reported that some were put in cold storage. 

Because we have done what we could, verbally and other- 
wise, to promote the utilization of this species, the commission 
has much satisfaction in what has been accomplished in the 
profitable use of a fish which has been so abundant at times 
that it proved an actual nuisance to the fishermen. The 
Gloucester " Times " of Nov. 23, 1903, says of them : — 

Until a couple of years ago they were considered a nuisance and a 
plague by the weirmen of the Cape, for they were not only unsalable, 
they not only came annually to the waters at the hook end of the 
Cape, but they came in legions, fairly clogging the weirs by dint of 
numbers, to the exclusion of desirable species, and making weiring 
profitless during the period of their stay. . . . Masses of dead and 
dying whitings, frequently as much as two hundred barrels in a lot, 
would then go floating away to leeward from the weir to furnish food 
for gull, crab or other hungry sea denizen, or drift upon adjacent 

86 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

beaches to wash to pieces in the surf. A few barrels were iced and 
sent to market, but no business was done with them to amount to 
anything until two years ago. 

Horse mackerel, which also come into this class, were much 
more plentiful than for two or three years, and these added 
to the increase of " edible or bait " fish taken. 

In writing of the weirs at North Truro Capt. Atkins Hughes 
remarks : — 

Whiting and horse mackerel, which a few years ago were not yield- 
ing us much money, this year we have sold, of whiting, 215 tons, 
value about $1,900; horse mackerel, 65 tons, value about $2,000. 
Horse mackerel started in at a very good price, but they became so 
plentiful that they would not net more than 50 cents per 100 pounds. 
One day our boats brought on shore over 1,300 small fish of this 

In the spring months our boats did well on herring sold for bait 
and on ground fish [chiefly pollock], and the [weir] crews made the 
most money up to the first of June they have ever made. We sold 
about 370 tons of bait, and probably we did not take more than one- 
third of what was caught in this vicinity. 

The Boston boats [market fishing schooners] could not have fished 
last spring without [the bait obtained from] these traps, as I think 
they were getting about all of their fresh bait from them. 

The fall fishing of the weirs appears not to have been good. 
"When Captain Hughes wrote on October 12 he stated : — 

At present we are not getting any fish ; all of our boats the past 
two weeks have not stocked $100. 

The small tunnies, which some designate as albicore, are 
probably the young of the horse mackerel ( Orcynus thynnus), 
which are often called by this name. They -were taken in such 
large numbers that the attention of the press was attracted 
to the captures. The Boston "Herald" of Aug. 16, 1903, 
remarked : — 

Every day during the past week numbers of these ravenous fish 
have been shipped in ice to the city markets, or gone into the zero- 
temperatured freezing rooms of the three cold-storage concerns at the 
tip of the Cape to await a period of fish scarcity and a rise in price. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 87 

Says the Cape Ann ''News" of Sept. 16, 1903 : — 

A catch of over 1,000 albicores, the largest in ten years, according 
to the recollection of the T wharf fishermen, is one of the interesting 
incidents in fishing circles this week. 

Some of the horse mackerel were large. One that was taken 
in a fish trap off Magnolia was alleged to be more than 10 feet 
long, and to weigh 1,180 pounds. This is the maximum size 
for this species. One that was reported to weigh 1,000 pounds, 
and to have a length of 9 feet, was taken at Provincetown, after 
it had pulled one man overboard and came near dragging two 
others out of the boat. 

It is a matter of scientific interest that a mackerel ( Scomber 
scombrus) taken in a Cape Cod weir, according to the Glouces- 
ter ''Times" of Aug. 2, 1903, "weighed 5 pounds and 10 
ounces." It was a little less than 2 feet long. 

It appears that neither weirs nor floating fish traps can be 
successfull3^ operated on the west side of Barnstable Bay. 
The writer was told by Mr. Eugene W. Haynes, one of the 
selectmen of Sandwich, who is a fisherman, and uses both lob- 
ster pots and nets, that it is not practicable to use a floating fish 
trap at Sandwich or anywhere along that shore, owing to the 
strong tide. He said he had made the experiment thoroughly, 
and had failed. The sweep of the tide as it set into the bay 
along the Sandwich shore caused the floats to sink so that any- 
thing caught in the trap could pass over its upper edge, and 
on some occasions the nets were tangled up and torn. 

On May 18 he stated that he had caught some large mack- 
erel in gill nets during the spring, but had been compelled to 
take up his nets and bring them on shore because of the abun- 
dance of dogfish, which had been so plentiful that they had 
proved a nuisance to the fishermen. 

The increase in the abundance of the striped bass is a matter 
of some interest, for its capture by weirs or pounds has been 
believed destructive, by some. It also appears to have been 
caught to some extent for commercial purposes by other forms 
of apparatus in numbers that would indicate an unusual abun- 
dance of the species. 

According to the Boston "Herald" of July 5, 1903: — 

88 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

On July 3 the sloop '' Nancy" made a catch of 156 large striped 
bass off Provincetown, which were estimated to weigh a total of 
more than 1,200 pounds. 

The increase of the catch of scup, from 176,143 pounds in 
1902 to 441,552 pounds in 1903, indicates that this species 
was in much greater abundance on our coast during the fishing 
season of this year than during the previous summer. This 
fluctuation in the abundance of the migratory species of fishes 
appears to be a marked characteristic, the reason for which is 
yet unknown by man. It has been notable in the case of the 
scup, which had been so long absent from the New England 
coast in the eighteenth century that when a specimen was 
caught at Newport about 1794 the oldest fishermen failed to 
recognize it. 

The bluefish is equally uncertain, and in some respects it is 
a puzzle to those most familiar with its habits. As a rule, it 
has been less numerous on the coast of Massachusetts this year 
than it was last season, although it was exceptionally abundant 
about Nantucket. The strange thing about it is that it was 
almost entirely absent from Buzzards Bay, where it has special 
protection, and its occurrence and movements were as unac- 
countable and erratic as they usually are. 

Stillman C. Cash of Nantucket, writing October 2, says that 
four fishermen, including himself, caught 1,781 bluefish on 
hand lines between June 14 and September 29. Another boat 
caught 385 '^ blues," making a total of 2,166. He says, 
" This is more fish than have been caught by the same number 
of men in twenty years." 

The press was full of accounts of big catches at Nantucket, 
which substantiated the statements of Mr. Cash, and some of 
which were much more remarkable. Thus a despatch from 
Nantucket of July 28, that was published in the Boston 
*^ Herald " the following day, represented that four fishermen 
had broken "all previous records for bluefishing" in that 
locality, by catching on that date 412 bluefish in four hours ; 
the total weight of the lot was 3,914 pounds. At the same 
time the steamer "Petrel" took 329 bluefish, the weight of 
which ranged from 7^ to 16| pounds each. Again, on August 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 89 

3, the " Petrel" caught 446 bluefish. Her fish were taken in 
a seine several miles from the shore, but catboats fishing 
in shore with hand lines did well at the same time. 

Statements like these might be multiplied, for, from the 
time when the bluefish struck on early in July, and when it 
was said ' ' The waters off Siasconset are fairly alive with 
them a half mile from shore," until the close of the season, 
they appear to have been present in large numbers. 

On September 14 it was reported that four fishermen took 
into Xantucket 356 bluefish, which weighed a total of 4,270 
pounds, with a net value estimated at $400. These fish were 
caught that day ofi" the southern side of the island. 

Deputy Otis Thayer of Quincy, who has been in command 
of the launch "Scoter," cruising along the coast and more 
particularly working in lower Boston harbor and vicinity, 
reports that bluefish made their appearance in considerable 
numbers in Quincy Bay during the summer. He says that 
he has not seen any bluefish there for a number of years until 
this year. It is possible that the bluefish have followed men- 
haden into Quincy Bay, since the latter have been abundant 
there this summer for the first time in several years. Mr. 
Thaj^er says that he has not seen menhaden in Quincy Bay 
since 1895 until this year. 

The shore flounder fishery from Provincetown , Wellfleet 
and possibly other coast towns has assumed considerable pro- 
portions, as will be noted in the chapter on sea fisheries, and 
has grown from an industry in which only boat fishermen 
engaged to one employing a number of decked vessels of 
considerable size, in addition to boats, launches or other 
unregistered craft. This fishery has been prosecuted with the 
beam trawl, which has been found more eflfective than any 
other form of apparatus that has been employed at Cape Cod. 
It is, however, inferior to the otter trawl. 

There does not yet appear to be any marked disposition to 
introduce naphtha engines into the boats used for flounder 
trawling, but, as the power-driven boat is becoming so com- 
mon, this may soon appear. 

No special change in the shore cod fisheries has been brought 
to our attention, so far as boats or apparatus are concerned. 

90 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

There is still a tendency to utilize the naphtha dory where it 
has not already been adopted, and the boat builders have 
turned out many of these. 

We learn that the Italian fishermen have added naphtha 
dories to their fleet ; but these are said to be employed in 
the herring fishery, and the}^ have not as yet engaged in the 
flounder industry. The flounder fishermen still use the old 
sail dories, which every day gather about T wharf, or can be 
seen running up or down Boston harbor, with their high-clewed 
leg-o'-mutton mainsails that have something of a foreign look, 
especially if they are colored brown or red. 

Clams. — On several occasions we have invited attention in 
our reports to the desirability of cultivating and protecting the 
common clam {My a arenaria), but for a year or two have 
made no allusion to this species or to the subject of its culti- 
vation and protection, because of the apparent hopelessness of 
securing legislation which will admit of a betterment of the 
clam industry, either by private ownership of flats, the leasing 
of flats by the towns, or the cultivation of clam-producing 
areas by the State. Meanwhile, evidences are accumulating 
of the deterioration of our clam industry, both as regards the 
productiveness of the clam flats or as to the size of the clams 
marketed. In many cases the clams, so far as size is con- 
cerned, are unfit for sale or consumption. But, aside from the 
results of the scientific cultivation of the clam in other States, 
there are occasional occurrences which clearly indicate the 
influence of incidental protection on the growth of clams, — 
accidental straws which go to show what might be accom- 
plished if legislation should be guided in this particular by 
advanced ideas for the improvement of our clam industry. 
For instance. Deputy Thayer reports on a case which has come 
under his observation as the result of building at Houghs 
Neck a boat float, which is erected every spring for the accom- 
modation of small yachts and boats. This float is of consid- 
erable area, and, being securely anchored, rests in a definite 
place from spring until fall, thus preventing the digging of 
clams under it durino' the months when it is in use. Thus the 
clams under it, which cannot be disturbed during the summer, 
are much larger in size in the fall than those in surrounding 
areas of flats. Mr. Thayer says : — 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 91 

Jason Harvey of Houghs Neck builds a float some 200 feet long, 
which he puts out during the summer season at low water. This float 
lies on the flats, and clams are dug on the flats about it. This fall, 
when the float was taken up, John Nelson in a very short time dug a 
bushel of clams that would average three inches in length, where the 
float had laid on the flats, and where no digging of clams could be 
carried on until it was taken up. 

Lobster Culture and Lobster Fishing, — We present here- 
with the reports of the superintendents of the fish-Latching 
stations of the United States Bureau of Fisheries at Gloucester 
and Woods Hole. These give detailed sStatements of the arti- 
ficial propagation and distribution of the lobster by the federal 
government on the coast of this State. 

Gloucester, Mass., Sept. 11, 1903. 
Capt, J. W. Collins, Chairman, Board of Commissioners on Fisheries and 

Game, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — I submit herewith a brief report of the propagation of 
lobsters at Gloucester, Mass., station during the current year. 

The latter part of March arrangements were made to collect egg 
lobsters from the fishermen from Cape Ann to Cohasset, Mass. ; but 
active work did not begin till late in April, owing to the occurrence 
of a heavy storm early in the month, which destroyed the greater por- 
tion of the lobster pots, and it was several weeks before the fishermen 
jvere equipped for fishing again. A similar storm in June also proved 
very disastrous to the fishermen. Happening during the collecting 
season, these storms seriously affected the receipts from the fishermen. 

The collections within this State aggregated 1,062 egg lobsters, 
which yielded 18,301,000 eggs. From these were hatched 16,946,000 
fry, which were planted at various points along the shore from Essex, 
Mass., to Salem, Mass. There were also planted in these waters 
4,624,000 fry from eggs taken outside the State. 

As in past seasons, collections were also made along the coasts of 
New Hampshire and Maine, the total collections from these amount- 
ing to 45,123,000 eggs. 

Very respectfully, 

C. G-. Corliss, Svperintendent. 

Woods Hole, Mass., Oct. 16, 1903. 
Capt. J. W Collins, Chairman, Board of Commissioners on Fisheries and 

Game, Boston, Mass. 

Sir: — In accordance with the usual custom, I beg to submit the 
following brief report of the work done in propagating lobsters at this 
station during the past year. 




The work has been practically on the same line as in the past few 
years, and the territory covered has been the same as last year, with 
the addition of Sandwich. As only four or five men are engaged 
there in lobstering, the receipts in eggs were not large, about 700,000, 
but were nearly 15 per cent, of the total number collected from the 
waters of the State. 

None of the different fishing centres yielded the usual number of 
eggs, with the exception of Scituate. The receipts from there in- 
creased over 100 per cent, over last year. Reports from this point 
are that lobster fishing the past season has been better than for 
several years. 

In all, 261 egg-bearing lobsters were received from Massachusetts 
waters. These yielded 4,682,000 eggs, — an increase of about 7J- 
per cent, over last year. There were 4,181,000 fry hatched from 
these eggs and planted in the waters of the State. 

In addition to the eggs received from the waters of this State, col- 
lections were made from Connecticut waters, which made the total 
number of eggs received at the station 11,099,000. 
Very respectfully, 

E. F. Locke, Superintendent. 

The foregoing official reports show that, as compared with 
last year, there was a decrease in the number of egg-bearing 
lobsters collected of nearly 44 per cent., notwithstanding Mr. 
Locke reports that Sandwich has been added to the territory 
on which the collectors operated, and the section about Scit- 
uate yielded a much larger number of gravid lobsters than 
ever before. The output of fry fell off upward of 33 per 
cent., as compared with 1902. 

The relative results of the work done in the coast waters of 
Massachusetts alone are shown for four consecutive years in 
the following table : — 

Tahle showing Comparative Statistics of Lobster Culture by the United States 
Fish Commission at the Massachusetts Coast Stations in 1900-03. 





Number of egg lobsters, 





Eggs obtained, 





Fry hatched, . 





1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 93 

This tabulated statement speaks for itself, and seems to 
render unnecessary any extended discussion. Throwing aside 
the intervening years, and especially 1902, when favorable 
conditions caused a temporary increase in the collections for 
breeding purposes, we find a falling off since 1900 of more 
than 53 per cent, in the number of egg-bearing lobsters it has 
been possible to collect, even with the exploitation of new 
regions, and a decrease of nearly 43 per cent, in the fry 

If these figures have the significance that seems to belong to 
them, they show unmistakably that the possibilities of fish 
culture, as applied to the lobster on the coast of this State, 
have decreased nearly one-half in the short space of four years. 
From what we gather, they are practically exhausted in the 
Buzzards Bay region, including the Elizabeth Islands in par- 
ticular. While this apparent condition may be partially due 
to the alleged disinclination of the fishermen in that section 
to furnish egg-bearing lobsters for the purpose of artificial 
propagation, the evidence of lack of satisfactory reproduction 
among the lobsters off the southern shores of the Common- 
wealth is sufficiently great to indicate that the long-threatened 
commercial extinction is near enough there at least to cause 
grave apprehension. If it means anything, it means a grow- 
ing dependence on artificial propagation ; and we have seen 
that fish culture is growing less and less able to deal with the 
problem, even when Massachusetts is getting more than her 
share of its benefits, — a condition that can scarcely be expected 
to last longer to the same degree, for the new hatchery estab- 
lished this year on the coast of Maine may naturally be 
expected to utilize all the egg-bearing lobsters obtainable 
along the shores of that State. 

The statistical returns of the lobster fishery show an in- 
crease of 63 pots and a decrease of 6,664 lobsters, or about 
two-thirds of one per cent. It is believed by some that the 
catch would have equalled or exceeded that of last year except 
for hard storms that destroyed more or less gear, and tempo- 
rarily interrupted fishing. As an instance of the effect of the 
summer gales, Mr. Stillman C. Cash, a lobster fisherman of 
Nantucket, returned unfilled the blank that was sent him, with 

94 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the following statement, dated October 20, under the head of 
" Eemarks : " — 

I am sorry to make this report on lobsters, nevertheless, it is cor- 
rect. W. F. Brownell, A. Dunham, George Buckley and I got ready 
to put into the water 20 traps.* The cost of these traps, with ropes 
and anchors, was $54. We put them into the water, and a gale came 
up about June 20. We lost everything, and have not seen any part 
of them since. 

Deputy W. W. Mxon of Gloucester reported on May 10 that 
the prevalence of storms during the spring had been very severe 
on the lobster fishermen, and had caused some of them to lose 
many of their pots. As a matter of fact, some of them lost 
nearly all they had set. He cites an instance where a fisher- 
man lost 39 out of 40 pots, which he had in the water in one 
storm about the last of April or the first of May. In his 
annual report he alludes to the influence of storms on the 
fortunes of the fishermen. He says : — 

This has been a poor year, fishermen say, owing to the frequent 
and long-continuing storms, which have caused the loss of, in some 
cases, all the pots. Fishermen are in favor of a close season and a 

At an earlier date, — August 30, — and while the weather 
was normal, he stated that : — 

Lobsters are reported very scarce in this vicinity at present, and 
all the fishermen with whom I talk are in favor of a close season, as 
that is the only way to save the lobster from being exterminated. 

From this it will appear that there were other causes for a 
* ' poor year " in the lobster fishery than storms, although the 
damage done by them along many sections of this coast w^as 
often severe, and was frequently alluded to by the fishermen 
in their reports, in wdiich they also took occasion to express 
their opinions concerning the protective laws. The following 
is a good example. Eobert F. Swift, a lobster fisherman of 
Chilton ville, writing on October 22, says : — 

* Presumably he means 20 traps each. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 95 

The fishermen have had a successful season this year, barring the 
severe storm of last week, which wrought much damage to their gear. 
It has practically put some of the men out of the business for this 
season. On an average, they have lost one-half of their gear. 

Lobsters are quite plentiful now, and of good size. 

The lOJ-inch law is all right. As a general thing, it is respected 
and lived up to here ; would rather have it 11 inches than less than 
lOJ. We are in the lobster business here for our bread and butter, 
and realize that unless they [lobsters] are protected we are the 

As a rule, the fishermen seeni to favor a close season, as 
reported by J\lr. Nixon. The followmg is an example of a 
fisherman's opinion along this line. Philip M. Brown of 
Houghs Neck, Quincy, in submitting the returns of his lobster 
fishery for the current year, wrote substantially as follows : — 

If the opinion of an old fisherman regarding the protection of 
lobsters is worth anything, I think there should be a uniform close 
season, as a law of that kind is the only one that can be enforced. 
To comply with the lOJ-inch law, 18 lobsters out of every 28 taken 
must be thrown away ; and a fisherman is a very good man or a very 
great fool to throw away two-thirds of his catch, that the coming 
generation may have a luxury. So the lobsters are slaughtered the 
same as if no law existed. 

Statements might be multiplied which would indicate the 
feeling of the fishermen and the status of the fishery. They 
can, however, be summarized by saying briefly that the expres- 
sions most frequently heard were in favor of a close season — 
term usually unstated — and a permit system, b}^ means of 
which those engaged in the fishery can be known, and the in- 
dustry can be more eflectively controlled, whereby the fisher- 
men can be benefited, as the more intelligent of them can see. 
Although there always will be many who, like him who has 
been quoted, look only to the present moment, and object to 
any action or restriction which may preserve for " the coming 
generation " what he terms a " luxury," it is gratifying to know 
there are some of the fishermen holding vastly broader views, 
and who, like Mr. Swift, are wise enough to clearly see that 
unless the lobster is properly protected, the fishermen, of all 
men, will be " the suiferers." 

96 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

It is, however, scarcely worth while to add to this discus- 
sion here, for various reasons, chief of which is the fact that 
the lobster question will be rather fully dealt with in the special 
report on the lobster convention which met at the State House 
September 23 and 24, for the purpose of reaching some com- 
mon basis of action for the better preservation of the lobster 
by the lobster-producing States. This will be printed as a 
separate report. 

In view of the anticipated action of the Legislature in 
authorizing the commission to call a convention of the com- 
missioners of the lobster-producing States and Provinces, and 
realizing that the lobster fishery on the coast of Maine is the 
most important left to the United States, the chairman availed 
himself of the courtesy of Capt. E. E. Hahn, commanding 
the United States Fish Commission schooner '' Grampus," to 
accompany that vessel on a cruise to the coast of Maine dur- 
ing the latter part of April, where she went to collect egg- 
bearing lobsters with which to carry on the important work of 
artificial reproduction, which the national commission has been 
engaged upon during a series of years in its attempt to check 
or delay the decimation of our most valuable crustacean. The 
chairman also embraced this opportunity for a much-needed 
rest from exacting and wearing official duties. He joined the 
''Grampus" at Gloucester on the afternoon of April 22, and 
sailed on her the next morning to the eastward. He left her 
at Portland, Me., on the evening of April 30, and returned 
to Boston. Meantime, the vessel had visited all the leading 
lobster centres from Kennebunk and "The Beach," just west 
of the entrance to that port, to Kockland, and at every place 
the utmost zeal and diligence were exercised to carry out 
the purposes of the cruise. Just previous to this trip the 
weather had been exceptionally severe for the season, with 
fierce easterly and north-easterly gales and high seas, result- 
ing in the destruction of a lot of lobster-fishing apparatus that 
venturesome fishermen had set. This result had the effect 
of deterring the fishermen from engaging as heavily as usual 
in the fishery at the time of our visits, notwithstanding the 
weather was unusually fine and moderate. As a consequence, 
it was difficult for Captain Hahn to obtain more than a few 
' ' seed " lobsters. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 97 

The important thing, however, that came under the observa- 
tion of the chairman was the fact that not alone were ' ' seeders ' 
very small and scarce, but that there was a general complaint 
of the scarcity of lobsters along the coast ; while observation 
showed clearly that over-fishing was having the same effect on 
the size of the lobster in Maine that is so painfully apparent 
along the coast of Massachusetts. It is, therefore, evident 
beyond the point of successful refutation, that, if the lobster 
is to be preserved from ultimate destruction in this country, it 
is high time that some effective action should be taken which will 
have equal application to all the lobster-producing sections. 

Sea Fisheries. — The importance of the sea fisheries of this 
State has always been recognized, for, since the beginning of 
American history, Massachusetts has held a premier position in 
the fishing industry. She is the foremost State to-day in sea 
fishery. There are not, however, any recent statistics available 
which show comprehensively the present status of the fisheries 
from the shores of this Commonwealth. An idea of them can 
be gained, nevertheless, from a consideration of the food prod- 
ucts landed by fishing vessels at Gloucester and Boston, as 
shown by bulletins published by the United States Bureau of 

During the year ending Oct. 31, 1903, 162,758,830 pounds 
of fish products, with a value, at prices paid the fishermen, of 
$4,443,383, were landed at those two ports by the fleets mar- 
keting their catch there. 

. During the calendar year of 1902, according to the same 
authority, 167,954,875 pounds of fishery products, having a 
value of $4,379,082, were landed at Boston and Gloucester. 
These figures show a less value than for the present year, 
although there was a slightly larger quantity of products ; this 
indicates higher prices in 1903. 

Of the fish landed in 1902, 62,932,349 pounds, valued at 
$1,694,259, came from the fishing grounds east of QQ^ west 
longitude; and 105,022,526 pounds, with a value of $2,684,- 
823, were the product of areas west of that meridian. 

Of the fish landed at the two ports in the year ending Oct. 
31, 1903, more than two-thirds, or 112,865,267 pounds, were 
fresh, and 49,893,563 pounds were salted. While the tendency 
is to market an increasing percentage of fish fresh each year. 

98 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the fact should not be lost sight of, that, under the system now 
in vogue for selling fares of fish, considerable quantities that 
are landed fresh from so-called " shack trips," or surplus lots 
of fresh fish from over-stocked markets, are subsequently 
salted, and some are also smoke-cured, and they go into the 
country's markets as salted or smoked products. 

The enhancement of value of fishery products at the receiv- 
ing ports by curing, packing, refrigeration and other forms of 
preparation is material, and often reaches a large percentage, — 
100 per cent, or more. Thus the figures given do not convey 
a fair idea of the fish trade of the two leading fish markets of 
Massachusetts. A few years ago Boston alone had an aggregate 
wholesale fish trade little short of $11,000,000 annually ; it 
may be larger than that now ; and the value of the fish products 
that go out from Gloucester, after curing, packing or other- 
wise preparing them for use, must be largely in excess of the 
sum paid to the fishermen for what maj^ be termed raw prod- 
ucts, — the fares from its fishing vessels. 

The prosecution of various fisheries in the open ocean, often 
far from land and frequently in semi-arctic regions, under all 
the varying meteorological conditions of the changing seasons, 
unavoidably exposes to great hardship and peril the brave and 
hardy men trained in these industries. It thus follows that 
each year the fisheries pay a ghastly tribute of drowned men, 
who, despite professional skill in the management of boats or 
vessels, meet an untimely fate. The very daring which is so 
necessary for the successful prosecution of sea fishery is some- 
times too excessive, and disaster results. 

As usual in recent years, the fatalities in the fisheries have 
been chiefly due to the stranding of schooners in thick weather, 
and to accidents to dories going out from vessels on the banks 
to attend to trawl lines. Happily, the horrors of other years, 
when it was common for fishing schooners to go down at sea 
with all hands, — sometimes several foundering in a single gale, 
— are seldom repeated, and it is comparatively rare now that 
the fateful word ' ' missing " is written against the name of a 
fishing vessel. Occasionally, however, a schooner of an old 
design, perhaps otherwise unfitted to encounter hard weather, 
is caught in the embrace of a fierce gale, and succumbs ; or she 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — ^"o. 25. 99 

may meet disaster in some other unknown way, and disappear 
without the faintest trace remaining of her or her crew. Such 
an event has occurred this year, but there is occasion for grati- 
tude that disasters of this kind are not more frequent. 

Two of the saddest and most disastrous shipwrecks on record 
in the history of the fisheries happened this year, Avhen the 
vessels were stranded while running in bad weather, and nearly 
all the men of their crews perished. The schooner ' ' Gloriana" 
of Gloucester, while running in from Sable Island bank in a 
dense fog, ran on shore early in the morning of May 6, on the 
cliffs at Whale Cove near the eastern part of Nova Scotia. 
Fifteen of her crew of eighteen were drowned, and the sur- 
vivors had a narrow escape. They spent the appallingly long- 
hours of darkness, after they reached the shore, upon the wild, 
spray-drenched cliff, against which their vessel w^as being 
ground to atoms. Daylight brought them assistance. 

A similar disaster took place about the middle of September, 
when the mackerel fishing schooner "George F. Edmunds," 
also of Gloucester, while running for Boothbaj'^ harbor at night 
on the approach of a storm, and wdiile the weather was thick, 
struck on Pemaquid, and only two of her crew of seventeen 
men were saved. 

These sad events — startlingly sad in their details — were 
out of the ordinary, for the crews of stranded vessels are usually 
rescued, and the communities where they belong are thus saved 
the horrifying shocks that come when such terribly fatal ship- 
wrecks occur. 

There were the usual narrow escapes from death by going 
adrift in dories, and meeting with other mishaps incident to 
the iisheries. In one case two men, who went astray June 14 
from the schooner "Monitor"' of Gloucester, while attending 
their trawls on the fishing banks off Newfoundland, were adrift 
for eight days without food or water, and barely escaped with 
their lives by being picked up by the men on a boat from the 
Newfoundland schooner " Gleaner," after those adrift had be- 
come exhausted from exposure to cold and lack of sleep, food 
and w^ater. Their hardships were so extreme that they had 
become insensible, — after they laid down to die, — and their 
boots had to be cut from their swollen feet and legs after they 

100 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

were taken on board the " Gleaner." Many narrow escapes 
resulted from the sudden drive of a fierce snowstorm that swept 
down upon the market fleet fishing ofi^ Cape Cod in late Decem- 
ber, and two fishermen who were not fortunate enough to be 
rescued froze to death in their dory, and were found later stark 
and stifi' in their boat. 

Interesting as these adventures are, however, of which 
details could be given, the space available does not permit of 
more than a passing notice of the more remarkable, since we 
can scarcely venture beyond the bare mention of the loss of 
life in the fishery, and consequent bereavement of wives and 
children . 

Aside from the fatalities incident to the stranding of vessels, 
to which allusion has been made, and the deaths of fishermen 
from disease or by being killed by accidents that might not be 
strictly considered by some as coming within the classification 
of deaths as a result of fishing, the loss of life for the year has 
been remarkably small ; in some particulars, and especially in 
the matter of being lost or drowned while out in dories on the 
fishing banks, it has been almost phenomenally so. From the 
records we find that 72 men, not including those who died in 
hospitals or from accidents not directly connected with fish- 
ing, were lost. It is stated that the fishermen who were lost 
or died left 20 widows and 54 children, — a sad record, even 
if it is in a degree less distressing than in other years of the 

Of those who can be considered as having lost their lives 
while engaged in fishing, 30 men were drowned as the result 
of the stranding of two vessels ; 14 were on a schooner that 
foundered at sea, going down with all hands, without any 
information reaching the home port of the time and circum- 
stances of her loss ; 12 men were washed overboard in gales 
from the decks of vessels ; 10 men were drowned in conse- 
quence of the capsizing of dories, etc. ; 4 men went astray 
in dories and were not subsequently heard from, and 2 men 
froze to death in a dory while astray, and were picked up 
afterwards. Those not found probably died from hunger and 
thirst, unless a Divine Providence vouchsafed to them a more 
merciful departure from life. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 101 

It is noticeable that only a little more than half the fatalities 
occurred in the open ocean, as a result of the foundering of 
vessels, dories going astray or capsizing, etc. ; and, except 
for the unusually sad results incident to schooners running on 
shore, this year might have been one in which the loss of life 
would have been remarkably light. 

The single vessel lost with all her crew was built in 
1885, before the marked improvement in designing fishing- 
schooners, due to the building of the United States Fish Com- 
mission schooner "Grampus," which was designed by the 
writer ; and it is not uncommon for crafts of the old, shallow 
type to be lost at sea, although so few are now used, especially 
in winter, that it is comparatively rare for a schooner not to 
return, and be listed with the " missing." 

The loss of fishing vessels from the Gloucester district for 
the eleven months ending October 1 was reported to have 
been 6, with an aggregate tonnage of 527.01 net tons, and 
valued, with their cargoes, at a total of $66,500. Since then 
there have been at least 5 vessels lost by stranding from that 
district, 4 being sailing schooners, and the other the. nearly 
new steamer "Alice M. Jacobs," reported to have been 
wrecked the middle of December, on the Newfoundland coast. 
The former were probably valued, with their cargoes, at about 
$54,000, and the estimated value of the latter has been given 
at $25,000. It will thus be seen that the total property loss 
from the wreckino^ of fishino^ vessels of the Gloucester district 
alone reached a total of about $145,000 for the year. Fortu- 
nately, the stranding of the vessels last mentioned involved no 
sacrifice of life. 

The drain upon Gloucester from the fatalities in its fisheries 
may be judged from the fact that the records show that, since 
1830, the ghastly tribute exacted from these industries has 
been 5,122 men, who have left to mourn their loss 1,019 
widows and 2,034 children. Is it necessary to discuss the 
courage of those who, in the face of such well-known facts, 
go out to sea unflinchingly to meet the perils that have caused 
such a loss of life ? Perhaps in no other community can such 
a record be found. 

In addition, 5 fishing vessels, of 225.96 net tons, from other 



Massachusetts ports, were lost by stranding, but without loss 
of life. This makes the aggregate losses of property about 

Considered from a meteorological point of view, and the 
influence of weather upon the fishery, 1903 has been a remark- 
able year, and may perhaps be placed in the categor}^ with the 
worst fishing seasons of a century. The Avinter months at 
the beginning of the year were characterized by fierce gales, 
that often were so continuous as to prevent fishery for days or 
weeks at a time. In this regard they were extraordinary even 
for the wild, wintry regions of the north Atlantic, frequented 
by our fishing fleets. But severe as the winter was, even to 
the point of establishing a record for unfavorable fishing 
weather, it was not so remarkable — certainly not so unseason- 
able — as the weather during a part of the summer. 

The spring opened fairly well for fishing, from a meteoro- 
logical point of view ; and May was especially fine, having 
many warm, summer-like days, which were favorable for all 
kinds of sea fishing, particularly for catching mackerel. But 
at the very close of May the weather changed, and for the 
whole month of June it was cold and rainy, with fresh to heavy 
north-east gales most of the time. Its severity for midsummer 
was unparalleled for many years ; since careful records of the 
weather have been kept, nothing like it has been seen at that 
season, and it probably had not been equalled in summer for 
nearly a century. 

Fishing of all kinds was interfered with materially, and 
some branches could scarcely be prosecuted for several weeks. 
This was especially true of the mackerel fishery, for the season 
which should have been the most favorable was disastrously 
severe, being almost a continuous succession of gales, storms 
and rough seas, during the prevalence of which it was better to 
lie in harbor and avoid mishap. 

The spring mackerel fishery opened about as usual. As 
early as the latter part of February incoming vessels reported 
schools of mackerel as having been seen ofi" Cape Hatteras. 
Xot long after that some of the fleet began to fit for the south- 
ern fisher}^ and two schooners, the vanguard of this fleet, were 
reported to have sailed on March 19. At that time some fifty 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 103 

sail more were getting ready, and they were soon at sea. 
There were later additions to the fleet, which had about the 
usual proportion of seiners and drifters. The latter use long 
ofano's of o'ill nets fastened too'ether end to end, that are set 
ahead of a vessel, which is connected by a hawser to the lee 
end of the nets, and drifts along slowly, dragging the nets 
after her, as she .lies quietly, with only sufficient sail set aft to 
keep her steady and head to the wind. This drift-net fishery 
employs a number of small vessels, and has grown in favor 
in recent years. 

The first schooner to bring in a catch of mackerel was the 
••'Ealph Hall" of Gloucester, which landed 10 barrels at 
Fortress Monroe, Ya., on April 9. The takes throughout the 
early spring were generally small, and at times the arrival of 
numbers of the small drifters, with fares ranging from 300 to 
5,000 or 6,000 fish in number, were the most frequently 
noticed in the press. 

There was an absence of the extraordinarily large catches 
which have been made by the seiners in other springs. These 
did not occur to any noticeable degree until late in spring, and 
for a while the outlook was discouraging. Even toward the end 
of April fares ranging from 100 to 300 barrels of mackerel 
were considered good ; and the spring months appear to have 
passed without any startlingly large takes, the nightly catches 
of the little netters seemingly being much in evidence in sup- 
plying the market. Thus the Boston "Globe" of May 21, 
1903, recorded the fact that there were only two seiners reported 
at Xew York that morning. One of those had 200 barrels and 
the other only 20 barrels, — a quantity that would scarcely 
have received notice in those seasons when mackerel were 

At the very end of May and during June the schools of 
mackerel "showed up" better than earlier in the season, and 
whenever a day occurred that was suitable for fishing, a good 
catch was generally made. Meantime, the fleet had scattered 
somewhat, and a part of the vessels were off the south coast of 
Xova Scotia, — usually termed the "Cape shore," — while 
others remained farther south. 

On June 4 it was reported that the fishing steamer ' ' Alice 

104 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

M. Jacobs "had stocked $8,000 on a fare of fresh mackerel 
that she brought to market from the Cape shore, and this was 
said to have been the largest stock ever made on a single trip 
up to that time. The men of the crew shared $158 on this 
cruise of only a few days. It would appear that several good 
fares were caught at about the same time off the Nova Scotia 
coast, for two days later it was reported that the sailing 
schooner '' Bertha and Pearl" of Gloucester landed a catch 
that sold for $7,725, her crew sharing $186.12 each. The 
schooner ' ' Kentucky " was reported the same day to have 
brought in a fare that sold for $5,000. 

A few other vessels were fortunate at this time, or some days 
later ; but the bulk of the fleet did poorly, so that the general 
average of the catch on the Cape shore was not large. Some 
of the vessels that were lucky got more than one good fare, 
but most of them got comparatively few fish. Thus the 
steamer '' Alice M. Jacobs" was reported on June 23 to have 
landed a fare which sold for $5,860. On June 19 the Boston 
' ' Globe " reported the arrival of the schooner " Constellation " 
with 100 barrels of fish which had been caught and brought to 
market within twenty-four hours after the vessel sailed from 
home. A similar event was reported June 27. The schooner 
"Agnes E. Downs " sailed from Gloucester in the morning 
and returned to port before night with a catch that gave her a 
stock of $1,400. 

During July the weather was better than for the previous 
month, and some fine catches were made. The ^' Cape Ann 
News" of July 7 reported that the ''Alice M. Jacobs" had 
just landed a catch of mackerel that gave her a stock of $3,400, 
and brought her total stock for the season, to that date, up to 
$19,700. The same paper reported the arrival of the schooner 
"Marguerite llaskins " of Gloucester at Newport with a fare 
of 700 barrels of mackerel. On July 21 it reported the arrival 
at Newport of the schooner " Nourmahal," and that she had 
stocked $3,566.84. 

During August, and especially near the close of the month, 
some large stocks were secured. The " Cape Ann News" of 
August 29 records the fact that the steamer ' ' Alice M. Jacobs " 
had just landed a fare that sold for $10,200, her crew sharing 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 105 

$220.50 each for a five weeks' trip. The auxiliary schooner 
" Constellation," as the result of a week's trip, had a stock of 
$8,000, the crew sharing $176.86 each; and several other ves- 
sels had arrived with good fares, but of less magnitude than 
those we have mentioned. 

In September some large catches were also made. One of 
these established a record that may not easily be surpassed. 
Strange though it may appear, this fare was brought into 
Gloucester and subsequently taken to Boston by the steamer 
"Alice M. Jacobs," whose previous big fare was reported in 
the press only eleven days earlier. 

The Boston " Herald " of September 10 reported her arrival 
at Gloucester the day before with about 300 barrels of salt 
mackerel and 55,000 fresh fish, approximately 700 barrels, 
making a total of about 1,000 barrels. The steamer had been 
only nine days from home. It is stated that she took the first 
mackerel — nearly 700 barrels — at one cast of the seine. She 
was credited with a stock from the sale of these fish of $11,000 
in round numbers. 

The schooner ' ' Kentucky " arrived at Gloucester the same 
day with a fare of 552 barrels of salt mackerel, which sold for 
$14 per barrel, giving a stock of $7,728. 

Other large catches could be cited, but those mentioned are 
sufficient to show that extraordinary fares were made by some 
of the vessels, and, notwithstanding the season as a whole was 
not notably a prosperous one, the earnings of some schooners 
were greater than in 1902. The fact that within two weeks 
one vessel landed exceeding 2,000 barrels of mackerel and 
stocked more than $20,000 might be considered no less than 
remarkable under the most favorable conditions ; but that this 
record should have been made in the season of 1903 is a sug- 
gestion of what may be possible of accomplishment by a 
steamer in a year when mackerel are as plentiful as they have 

The mackerel season ended early, as far as good catches were 
concerned, for, although a few of the fleet continued in the 
fishery until November, the fishermen hoping that migrating 
schools might be found in abundance late in the year, compara- 
tively few fish were taken after the middle of September. A 

106 FISH ANP GAME. [Dec. 

large number of the fleet abandoned the pursuit of mackerel 
in late September and early October, and engaged in other 
branches of fishery, or hauled up for the winter ; others 
dropped out of the fishery from week to week, as the season 
advanced, and mackerel could not be found in paying numbers ; 
and those that cruised until late met with poor success or abso- 
lute failure. This indicates an unusual early departure of the 
mackerel on its fall migration, for there was much fine autumn 
weather, and consequently ample opportunity for fishing, if 
there had been any fish to catch. 

Among the most notable stocks earned in the mackerel fish- 
ery daring the season of 1903 the following may be men- 
tioned : — 

The steamer ''Alice M. Jacobs" stocked $43,000 mackerel 
fishing; her gross stock for eight months and nine days, from 
March 10 to Nov. 19, 1903, was $56,000. It was $48,500, in- 
cluding only the net earnings from a trip to St. Pierre in March, 
before starting in the mackerel fishery, and a salt herring trip to 
Newfoundland during November, after the close of the mackerel 
season. She had the record stock in the mackerel fishery, and 
also the record stock for eight months in the Atlantic fishery. 
Compared with the high-line stocks of forty years ago, in the 
days of abundance of mackerel, when it was extraordinary for 
a schooner to stock $12,000 or $15,000 in the mackerel fishery, 
this stock of $43,000, reported by Captain Jacobs, for a mack- 
erel season that was not especially a favorable one, can be con- 
sidered little less than marvellous. The fact that this steamer 
earned a stock in nine days this year that compared favorably 
with the highest season's stocks of the sixties seems almost 
like a fairy tale, yet it is true. The efficiency of steam is thus 
demonstrated and its earning capacity once more established, 
regardless of the expense attending its use. 

The auxiliary schooner '' Constellation " stocked $29,000. 

The sailing schooner " Bertha and Pearl" stocked $23,000; 
the crew shared $540 each. The catch of this vessel was made 
in about six months' fishing, for she was one of those that quit 
the mackerel fishery early. The stock, which under any circum- 
stances was a remarkable one for a sailing vessel, was all the 
more so because the master, Capt. Joseph Smith, is approach- 

Fig. I. Auxiliary Schooner " Constellation " under Sail and Power. 

Photographed by H, W. Spooner. 

Fig. 2. Mackerel Fishing Steanner "Alice M. Jacobs. 


1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 107 

ing three score and ten years of age ; it is worthy of record 
that one should retain at that age the vigor and endurance 
necessary to carry him successfully through a season of heavy 
fishing, which was sufficient to tax to the limit the strength of 
a hardy young man. 

The schooner " Kentucky" stocked $22,000 in the mackerel 
fishery, or $32,000 as a total (including the haddock fishery), 
for nine months' fishing, from Jan. 1 to Sept. 29, 1903. 

The schooner " Navahoe " is credited with stocking above 
$20,000, her crew sharing $462 each. 

Among the interesting incidents of the year's mackerel 
fishery was the trip of a single vessel — the old schooner 
''F. W. Holmes" — to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where for- 
merly it was customary for a fleet of s.everal hundred sail to go. 
She fished with drift nets, but was not very successful. The 
former great mackerel fishery in the Gulf is a matter of his- 
tory ; at present the fishery there is of little consequence. 

As will be seen, the two highest stocks were made by power- 
driven vessels. That of the steamer ^' Alice M. Jacobs" is a 
record in the mackerel fishery, and exceeds the record she made 
in 1902. With her, as with nearly all of the other vessels that 
got large stocks, the money earned in the mackerel fishery 
represents only a portion of the year's stock. For instance, the 
" Alice M. Jacobs " was actively at work in the early part of 
the year before she entered into the mackerel fishery, and early 
in December, 1903, brought home a cargo of salt herring from 
Newfoundland, and was soon ofi" on her second trip of the 
winter, during which she was lost. 

According to the Boston Fish Bureau, the total catch of 
mackerel by the New England fleet during 1903 was 114,658 
barrels, of which 44,012 barrels were salted and 70,646 barrels 
were marketed fresh. The catch exceeded that of 1902 by 
6,000 barrels, as given by the authority referred to. Prices 
were high this year, however, both for salt and fresh fish, and 
gave remunerative returns for the fishery. 

So far as we are informed, no large auxiliary schooners with 
naphtha engines have been added to the mackerel fleet during 
1903, and we have not heard that there is a disposition to build 
any new vessels of this type in the immediate future. It seems 

108 FISH AND OAME. [Dec. 

probable that there is a disposition on the part of the owners 
of this class of vessels to give those they now have a thorough 
trial before venturing farther in the same direction, while others 
may likewise be awaiting results before changing from sailing 
schooners. It is also possible that, in view of the remarkable 
success met with by the steamer "Alice M. Jacobs" and 
the greater reliability of steam, many may be hesitating in 
their choice between steam and naphtha engines. However 
this may be, so far as the mackerel fishery is concerned, the use 
of power other than sails will doubtless ultimately come into 
vogue in the deep sea fisheries ; and, when properly built and 
engined power-driven craft are introduced into the market fish- 
ery, the change to them from sailing vessels is liable to be 
rapid. Some small auxiliary fishing vessels have been added 
to the fleet. 

The current year has generally been a very unsuccessful one 
in the salt cod fishery on the banks, and it has seldom happened 
that the vessels engaged in this branch of fishery have done so 
poorly. A scarcity of fish, but especially a remarkable scarcity 
of bait at !N"ewfoundland ports, — schooners sometimes being 
compelled to wait days and weeks for a supply of bait, — made 
it difficult for the majority of the vessels to secure full fares 
in a reasonable time, and some returned from their voyages 
with only partial fares. . 

One experienced master, who was more than five months 
securing a fare, reported that he had cruised over all the banks 
from Sable Island to the Flemish Cap, and fish had been found 
scarce wherever he went. There were frequent occasions 
when scarcely a single fish was caught on the trawl lines. On 
the Flemish Cap, the north-eastern of all the great cod fishing 
banks, it had formerly been customary to catch fish on what 
is known as "shack bait," — sea birds, fish roe, etc., — but 
the cod would not bite at it this year, and no fish could have 
been caught in early summer except for the salt capelin he had 
supplied himself with. After the capelin was used, no bait 
could be secured on the fishing grounds nor along the coast 
for a long time. The whole of August was lost in searching 
for bait. No similar condition had been previously known, for 
squid usually are very certain and regular in their visitations 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 109 

to the coast. But they could not be found. Fishing vessels 
were everywhere along the Newfoundland coast searching for 
them. They cruised a distance of 600 miles, without result. 
Finally, after weeks of fruitless search, squid were found ; a 
supply was obtained, and the captain ran off to the Grand Bank, 
where, even with good bait, only a small catch of cod could be 
secured. Later he fished farther to the south-west, not far 
from Scatari Island, off the south-eastern point of Cape Breton 

Experiences similar to the foregoing, or worse, were common, 
and accounts of them could be multiplied. They caused a 
shortage of the fish supply from the banks. As a result, prices 
ruled high ; consequently, the schooners that were fortunate — 
and some were extremely lucky — earned large stocks ; they 
were more successful financially than would have been possible 
with the same quantity of fish in a season of normal abundance 
of cod and bait species, when earnings would have been more 
equally distributed. 

Among the high line stocks reported were the following : — 

The schooner ' ' Elector " of Gloucester made three successful 
trips, — the only vessel of the bank fleet to make three trips, 
— and landed about 750,000 pounds of salted cod ; she stocked 
$23,012. This stock was nearly a record, for, so far as can be 
learned, it has been equalled but twice in the history of the 
bank fishery. One year, some time ago, the schooner " Bessie 
M. Devine" was credited with stocking more than $23,000 in 
the bank cod fishery; and in 1901 the schooner "Aloha" of 
Gloucester made three trips dory hand lining, and earned a 
stock of about $24,000. This is still the record. 

The schooner ' ' Mabel D . Hines " of Gloucester stocked 
$16,712 ; her crew shared $606 each. 

The schooner '' A. E. Whyland " of Gloucester earned a stock 
of $12,112.44 from a single fare of 318,044 pounds of cod. 
The trip continued about five months, much time being lost in 
waiting for bait. Her crew of 18 men each shared $311.57. 

The schooner "Essex" of Gloucester stocked $7,253.49 on 
her first trip and $9,206.56 on her second fare, making a total 
stock for the season of $16,460.05 ; her crew shared $394.70 

110 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

About October 20 the schooner " Independence " of Glouces- 
ter landed a fare of salt cod that weighed 313,267 pounds. 
She stocked $12,153.17, and her crew shared $330.50 each. 

Among the early trips to the banks, one of the most 
successful was that of the schooner ' ' Maggie and May " of 
Gloucester. She was reported on July 20 to have landed a 
fare of 305,916 pounds of salt cod, which sold for $9,304.38; 
the crew shared $315.38 each. 

About the same date the schooner "' Valkyrie " of Gloucester 
landed a bank fare of 299,000 pounds offish, that gave her a 
stock of $8,764.33. 

The schooner "J. J. Flaherty " of Gloucester, which made 
an extraordinary catch last year, was high line of the dory 
hand line banking fleet from Gloucester. She landed 450,000 
pounds of cod in two fares. 

The schooner " Arcadia" of Gloucester landed a single fare, 
about November 18, that weighed 297,000 pounds. She 
stocked $10,524 ; the men averaged a share of $250 each. 

In recent years the so-called " shack" fishery has grown in 
importance as a branch of the cod fishery on the banks. The 
fishing grounds usually resorted to are not distant, they are 
seldom as far as Sable Island ; and the purpose is to catch 
various species of the gadidea, — cod, haddock, hake, cusk and 
pollock, — eviscerate them, and bring them home unsalted. 
Because the fish are mixed, and generally mostly of the 
cheaper grades, they are called " shack," and the fishery for 
them is known as '' shack " fishing. These trips are generally 
short ; they vary from two to perhaps six weeks in length, the 
time usually depending largely upon how" long it takes to get 
bait, as well as how long the catch can be kept fresh in ice fit 
for splitting ; generally only a small percentage are suitable 
to be sold for consumption as fresh fish. 

The fishery is prosecuted with trawl lines, similar to those 
used in the haddock fishery. Fresh bait is carried, and large 
quantities of gear are used. The catch is correspondingly 
large, and sometimes the vessels, which are generally smaller 
than those that go to the distant banks, are loaded in a few 

As indicated, the fish are as a rule eviscerated and packed in 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. Ill 

ice. They can be rapidly handled in this way, and large 
catches are stowed away in a brief time. When the vessel 
arrives, the fish are sold ' ' round ; " they are then split and 
salted on the wharves, and thus become a part of the salted 
product, except as far as some are sold fresh for immediate 
consumption. Some fares are salted on the vessel, in part. 
The fishery is carried on chiefly or wholly during the warmer 
months of the year. Sometimes the vessels make good stocks 
in a few days, or for the season. These earnings, combined 
with those in other branches of fishery, notably the market 
fishery, often reach large totals. A few of the most notable 
stocks, taken at random, follow : — 

Near the last of September the schooner '' Slade Gorton " of 
Gloucester landed one of the largest fares of mixed fresh fish 
ever taken into a New England port. These fish weighed 
183,000 pounds, and she stocked $4,200; each of the crew 
shared $101. The trip occupied six weeks, but a large por- 
tion of this time was used in hunting for bait, the search being 
carried on the entire length of the Nova Scotia coast. 

The schooner ' ' Olga " landed a shack trip at Gloucester, 
about June 20, of 79,000 pounds of fresh and 25,000 pounds 
of salted fish, which sold for $3,106 ; the crew shared $102.10 
each. She was absent three weeks. 

The schooner " Yera " of Gloucester arrived home on July 
11 from a " shacking" trip with a fare of 130,000 pounds of 
fish that were caught on St. Pierre bank, with capelin bait 
that had been obtained in a Newfoundland port, — the first 
time in the history of this fishery, so far as we are aware, 
when bait for a shack trip had been procured so far east. It 
is also unusual to fish so far from home on a trip of this 

Between August 8 and 11 two remarkable shack fares of fresh 
fish arrived at Gloucester. One of these was brought in by the 
schooner '' Fannie A. Smith " of Gloucester ; she was reported 
to have 190,000 pounds of fish. The schooner " Pinta " of the 
same port had 160,000 pounds. The '' Smith" made her trip 
in less than three weeks, and the large fare of the "Pinta " was 
caught in less than ten days. 

On June 29 the schooner " Fanny Belle Atwood" landed a 

112 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

shack fare at Boston that sold for $3,800. This was the first 
trip made after the vessel was launched. 

The ' ' Rip fishing " difi'ers from the shack fishery chiefly in 
the fishing gromid resorted to, and in the fact that a large per- 
centage of the fish taken on the Nantucket Rips are cod. 
Comparative!}^ small schooners engage in this. The schooner 
*' Thalia" of Gloucester was reported to have stocked $9,000 
in this fishery between May and November, during which 
time she landed four fares of fresh fish and six fares that were 

The bait question in connection with these secondary bank 
fisheries — the shack fishery and the Rip fishery — is an impor- 
tant one ; and at times the fishermen have resorted to the use 
of cockles for bait, and have found them very desirable as a lure. 
Strange as it may appear, the claim is made that cockles, as 
well as other bait species, were extremely scarce ; besides 
which, it has been alleged in the press that the fishermen claim 
that those who furnish cockles for bait have formed a trust. 

We are not aware that mussels have been utilized as a bait 
supply by our fishermen. Those bivalves are largely used in 
Great Britain ; and, in view of the extensive beds of them 
available in New England, they will constitute a bait resource 
of large consequence, if it is found here, as in Europe, that 
they are attractive to fish. We suggest that a trial of this kind 
of bait be made, to test its usefulness. 

The Georges cod fishery appears to have been more or less 
unfavorably affected, as the other branches of the cod fishery 

The result of all this has been a shortage in the supply of 
fish, and a consequent seeking of additional supplies in the 
British Provinces, especially Newfoundland, from whence car- 
goes have been imported to meet the demand. 

A few matters of interest in connection with the cod fishery 
have occurred which deserve mention. The Boston " Globe" 
of Oct. 27, 1903, says: — 

The water about Hull, especially in Hull Gut, off Pemberton, is 
teeming with cod. . . . Natives standing on the beach, casting lines 
into the tide, baited with clams, have caught large quantities, some 
weighing over twenty pounds each. . . . One old resident, who has 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUIVIENT — No. 25. 113 

caught several twenty-pounders, says he remembers when he was 
a boy large quantities were caught from the shore of Hull Gut. . . . 

Cod were also reported in abundance in the estuary at the 
mouth of North River, and along the coast off Marshfield and 

Many have surmised that the presence of cod in such large 
numbers in -shore was due to the hatching operations of the 
federal government on the coast of the State, and such belief 
should be very comforting. Except for the fact that a similar 
condition has occurred here and elsewhere in other years, long 
before the artificial propagation of cod was attempted, — prob- 
ably before it was thought of, — and the additional fact that the 
cod is sometimes erratic, to the extent of gathering in great 
numbers where least expected and then being absent or scarce 
for years, this appearance of cod in our in-shore coast waters 
might be unhesitatingly credited to the effect of fish culture. 

The capture of a cod off Race Point, which was reported to 
weigh 104 pounds, shows that fish of this species of extraordi- 
nary size are occasionally taken near the land. The claim that 
this was the largest cod ever taken was grossly erroneous. 

The market fishery for haddock, cod, etc., which is pros- 
ecuted chiefly on some of the outer fishing grounds, — mostly 
from 75 to 300 miles from the ports where the fish are sold, — 
has been generally successful ; and, as usual, some large stocks 
have been made in this industry, despite the fact that the fish- 
ery has sometimes been severely handicapped by long-continued 
periods of bad weather. Among the extraordinary stocks were 
the following : — 

The schooner ' ' Olivia Dominoas " of Gloucester was launched 
in March, 1903, and previous to November 10 she had stocked 
$19,205.43 and her crew had shared $780 each as the result of 
fishing seven and a half months. The vessel's earnings were at 
the rate of nearly $32,000 per year. 

As an instance of remarkable success in the market fishery, 
the Gloucester "Times" of May 19, 1903, notes that the 
schooner " Catherine and Ellen " of Boston had stocked $49,100 
in less than a year. Her year ended May 11, but a week later 
she had arrived with a large fare which would carry her earn- 

114 FISH AND OAME. [Dec. 

ings for fiftj^-three weeks beyond $50,000. This is a record 
for a sailing vessel that is truly remarkable and one not easy 
to surpass. This vessel stocked $44,000 during 1903. 

The schooner ' * Manhasset " stocked $46,000, the schooner 
'^Benj. F. Phillips" $40,000, and the schooner "Mary 
Cooney" $25,000. 

The schooner '' Philip Manta " of Provincetown was reported, 
on Oct. 26, 1903, to have stocked $27,000 since the beginning 
of the year, her crew sharing $835 each, — a good result for 
less than ten months' work. 

The schooner '''Navahoe" of Gloucester, whose stock in the 
mackerel fishery has been mentioned, was reported on March 
19 to have stocked $15,000 in the winter market fishery. 

The largest fare of fresh fish brought in by a market schooner 
during the current year, and probably the record fare in this 
fishery, was 170,000 pounds, which were landed June 8 by the 
Boston schooner " Metamora." 

Other vessels have brouoiit in laro'C fares, and several have 
earned stocks deserving of mention, but lack of space precludes 
their consideration here. 

The year's market fishery was notable for a record high price 
for fish, caused by a dearth of ground fish in the market about 
the middle of October. The long-continued prevalence of 
gales and storms prevented fishing for such an extended period 
that the market was stripped of a supply of fish ; consequently 
a small catch that arrived on October 17 was reported to have 
been sold at prices higher than ever were paid before. A had- 
dock that weighed 17^ pounds, after evisceration, was said to 
have been the largest fish of the species ever landed at T wharf. 

A remarkable innovation is the sale of sharks for food. 
These are eaten to a considerable extent by natives of southern 
Europe now resident in the United States, and are in demand 
in the markets of distant cities, as well as those nearer. A 
considerable number of them are brought in, and to the extent 
that they yield a return to the fishermen the industry is bene- 
fited. The Boston "Globe" of Oct. 6, 1903, in its reports 
upon arrivals at T wharf with fish, says : — 

Several of the schooners brought in small sharks, which are now 
caught, and bring a price for the markets supported by the foreign 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 115 

If the dogfish, which is a small species of shark, could be 
disposed of in like manner, much benefit would result, — to the 
consumer in getting an inexpensive article of food, and to 
the fishermen in the profitable utilization of a species which 
has become so numerous that it is a dreaded scourge of 
the fishing gi'ounds. Whether the dogfish can be utilized for 
the manufacture of a fish meal for food, similar to the fish meal 
produced in Norway, which can be used for animals, poultry, 
etc., as well as for men. is a matter that should receive the 
earnest and careful consideration of those engaged in the prep- 
aration of fishery products. 

The pursuit of the swordfish is becoming a feature of the 
market fisher}^ of some consequence, employing a number of 
schooners that are now reckoned as " small," although many 
of them would have been rated as large vessels forty 3^ ears ago. 
Some of the vessels also engage in the trawl line fishery, 
the catching of swordfish being secondary ; others may catch 
mackerel, as well as swordfish. For this reason it is difficult if 
not impracticable to give special figures for the swordfish fish- 
ery. As bearing on the importance to which the fishery has 
attained, the Boston " Globe" of July 13, 1903, published the 
following : — 

Swordfish had the call at the wharf this morning, as there is a 
demand for the fish at this season. There were six trips in, bat nearly 
all the fish were only of average weight, the largest being not over 
400 pounds. The total catch was 235 fish. 

The season closed early in October. At that time the fish 
have generally left the grounds where they are found in sum- 
mer to migrate farther south, besides which, swordfish can be 
caught only during fine weather, and the frequent storms of 
autumn make this fishery impracticable. 

Space does not permit the discussion of many interesting 
incidents that have occurred in connection with this fishery. 
All that can be done is to note the leading commercial facts. 

A branch of the market fishery that has heretofore gone 
unnoticed is the beam trawl fishery for flounders at Cape Cod. 
This industry was begun in a modest way ten or a dozen years 
ago, as a result of the publication by the writer of a treatise 




on beam trawling in Europe.* At first it was carried on 
with sail boats, and in that way it was continued for years. 
Kecentl}^ it developed into larger proportions, and now we are 
informed that the fishery employs about 30 schooners and 120 
men, besides smaller craft, among which steam or naphtha 
launches may be included. Some of the schooners engaged in 
this fishery are as large as 60 or 70 tons, and the writer has 
personally seen one that was about 40 tons. It may inciden- 
tally be remarked that no rig, perhaps, is more unsuitable for 
beam trawling than that of the schooner. However, this is 
not apparently of consequence at this time, for it is fair to 
assume that power-driven craft will soon supersede sailing ves- 
sels in this fishery. Indeed, we are informed that some of 
the launches, which are used at other times for the manage- 
ment of pound nets or weirs, have been utilized for beam 

trawling in winter. 

"T ft AWL 




Short- winged trawl, with otters and trawl warps attached. 

There is a strong probability that a material change may 
soon be made in the trawl net fishery, both in the apparatus 
employed and in the motive power for operating it. In recent 
years the otter trawl has superseded the beam trawl in Europe, 
and steamers have taken the place of sailing craft. The change 
has been vastly advantageous to the market fishery. Fleets of 
iron steamers of great value and of wonderful productiveness 
have been built, and net trawling has assumed an importance 

* " The Beam Trawl Fishery of Great Britain, with Notes on Beam Trawling in 
Other European Countries," etc., hy J. W.Collins. Washington: Government 
Printing Office, 1889. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 117 

never before known. In the single port of Grimsby the steam 
fishing fleet has grown in twenty years, from 1882, when 2 iron 
steamers were built, to the close of 1902, to 473 iron and steel 
vessels, having a value of at least $11,825,000. So completely 
have they taken the place of sailing vessels that only 41 of the 
latter are left of a fleet that numbered about 800 sail two 
decades ao-o. The reason is found in the fact that one steamer 
is said to have the productive power of five sailing vessels, 
besides which, she can go farther afield for fish and can land 
her catch in better order, thereby enhancing the demand for the 
product and increasing the trade. 

Whether Boston or Gloucester will ever emulate Grimsby 
in the employment of a steam fishing fleet to supply fresh 
ocean fish remains to be seen ; but that there are many reasons 
why steam trawling may prove successful is evident to one 
thoroughly conversant with our deep sea fisheries. Following 
are some of them : — 

(1) At no period of American histor}^ has the bait question 
been more troublesome than in 1903. Such a scarcity of bait 
may not often occur, but the use of a trawl net entirely elimi- 
nates the question of bait supply. 

(2) In addition to various species of flat fishes, including 
the halibut, the European markets are chiefly supplied with 
haddock, cod and other bottom-feeding free-swimming species 
taken in the otter trawl. There seems to be no reason why 
similar results cannot be secured here. 

(3) A power-driven craft can use two otter trawls, instead 
of a single beam trawl, as now operated by sailing vessels ; 
and, inasmuch as one trawl can thus be put down as soon as 
the other is up, much time is saved and the catch is largely 

(4) It may be found practicable to prosecute a profitable 
fishery at times when the dogfish are so abundant that fishing 
with baited hooks is impracticable, and vessels using trawl lines 
are driven from the banks. 

(5) It is feasible to fish with a net trawl in any weather 
except the fiercest gales, consequently time is seldom lost. 

(6) We are informed that the English steamers that fish at 
Iceland in summer, and formerly carried trawl lines only, have 

118 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

now abandoned the use of the latter, and rely on the otter trawl 
for taking halibut and cod. 

Whether anj^ or all of these reasons, and many more that 
can be advanced, will lead to the larger use of the trawl net in 
our fisheries in the near future, remains to be seen. At any 
rate, through the enterprise of Capt. L. D. Baker, a native and 
prominent summer resident of Wellfleet, the otter trawl is being 
tested in a small way ; and there is reason to hope for good 
results, despite the inexperience of our fishermen in handling 
such an apparatus or in building and rigging the otters, upon 
the proper working of which the success of the trawl depends. 
We shall watch this venture with much interest, and already we 
have given considerable personal attention to it ; for, although 
it is not an experiment in the sense that this method of fishing 
has been untried, it is, nevertheless, new to our fishermen, and 
those most expert in certain forms of fishery to which they may 
be accustomed are liable to fail utterly at first in attempting 
methods new to them. 

The numerous naphtha dories at Provincetown are usually 
employed in the winter cod fishery at the time the flounder fish- 
ery is being prosecuted, hence there is little chance that they 
will enter the latter industry. It is possible, however, that 
power-driven boats may be built for this fishery, or such craft 
may go to Cape Cod to engage in it if they cannot do as well 
at or near home. The possibility of steam vessels of consider- 
able size attempting trawl net fishery in the open sea on the 
outer banks is not so remote as it might appear to be. Because 
of this, the chairman spent two days in trying to instruct the 
crew of the oyster dredger ' ' Cultivator " of Wellfleet how to 
use an otter trawl that had been made for her. The weather 
was inclement, and unfortunately the otters were too heavily 
weighted and not properly rigged. For this reason nothing 
was accomplished the first day. It took a large part of the 
second day to reduce the weights on the otters and to tempo- 
rarily rig the bridles so that they would work more satisfactorily. 
After that the trawl appeared to work well, and the brief trials 
gave good results in the catch of fish. 

The ' ' Cultivator " is a broad launch, about 50 feet long, with 
a naphtha engine of 25 horse-power. She seems well adapted 




to the purpose of trying the otter trawl off Wellfleet and 

As soon as circumstances permit, we expect to give further 
personal attention to this matter. In the meantime, we have, 
in response to our request, received from Mr. O. T. Olsen of 
Grimsby, Eng., the following directions for using the otter 
trawl, these having been specially prepared for us by an expe- 
rienced smack master, by Mr. Olsen's request, as there is 
nothing published on this subject in Great Britain, so far as 

This matter of properly managing an otter trawl is of such 
consequence that we venture to publish the instructions we 
have received, and also illustrations of an otter trawl and of 

Scott's patent otter or wing board : front and sectional views. 

Scott's patent otters or trawl boards. The instructions have 
been slightly revised, and we hope they may prove useful and 
valuable to our fishermen. 

In Grimsby two flexible steel wire warps are used on a 
steamer operating otter trawls, and two steam drums or winches 
— one for each warp — to heave them in. When rigging trawl- 
ing gear, great care is required in determining the exact length 
of both warps. 

Each warp is made up in lengths of 20, 25 or 30 fathoms, 
and these sections are shackled together, each end having an 
eye splice and thimble to receive a shackle. The shackles serve 

120 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

as marks to determine the length of the warp that has run out, 
— a very miportant matter, and possibly the most important 
in shooting a trawl, for the warps must be veered out evenly to 
avoid fouling the trawl ; therefore, if it is found that a shackle 
on one warp has run out before the other, that warp must be 
checked until the hawsers are '' levelled up." 

With these leading facts in mind, the act of shooting a trawl 
is as follows : — 

With engines stopped and ship laid dead, proceed to pay 
away the trawl over the weather side, taking care not to pay away 
too smartly, but to allow it time to sink, as throwing it out too 
quickly is often the cause of a fouled net. 

One of the best methods of doing this is to pay over the fore 
and after wings first, till you come to the quarters, — the 
sections of the body of the net next the wings, — then put 
over the cod end, the extreme end of the net bag or trawl, 
followed by the belly and baitings, till the net comes tight to 
the bosom of the ground rope ; then lift the ground rope on to 
the rail and drop it over the side, when, as a rule, your trawl 
will be found to flow out quite clear. 

In the event of the trawl being new and light, you will find 
it an excellent plan to weight the cod end with an old fire bar, 
or something else of no value, fastened to the cod line with a 
single part of twine, so that it will break adrift when on the 
bottom, and will not retard the towing of the net. 

With the trawl away clear and the quarter ropes securely 
fastened, each man should take up his respective position, 
which in a Grimsby trawler is generally as follows : captain on 
the bridge ; mate and No. 1 deck hand attend the winch ; third 
hand at after derrick; No. 2 deck hand at fore derrick; trim- 
mer amidship, ready for the messenger, which is a wire hawser 
that is long enough to reach from the winch to the stern of the 
vessel, around the after derrick or gallows, — also called a 
davit, — thence outside the rigging to the fore derrick. The 
messenger is passed over the after trawl warp and taken 
forward, where the stout hook at its end is put over the for- 
ward warp, down which it is allowed to slide. Meantime the 
winch is started and the messenger is hove in, bringing both 
warps together on the quarter, when a strong slip chain is 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 121 

passed around both warps and secured, while the messenger is 

Setting up taut on the Avarps, the dogs * should be unhooked, 
and, everything being in readiness, the order is given to lower 
away. This is done by lowering away the fore board about 8 
or 10 fathoms, and then slacking down the after one well 
below the propeller. It is a good plan to mark the warps in 
this position, as it is very difficult to guess the lengths Avhen 
lowering away at night. 

There are several other ways- in vogue, notably where the 
steamer is fitted up with a single-l^arrelled winch ; but, as those 
are mostly out of date, it is not worth while going into details. 

Everything being ready, the engines are started full speed 
ahead, and as soon as the ship has sufficient headway the order 
is given to slack away. This is part of the work that requires 
care and judgment on the part of the men at the winch, for, if 
the warps are not run out evenly, or as near so as possible, 
then the error is sure to result in fouled gear. 

The best and surest way is to watch for the marks or lengths 
of warps as they are running out, and check up the one which 
has run out fastest, so as to level them at each mark or length ; 
they cannot then get very much out of line. 

During the time the warps are running out, the man at the 
after part of the ship will have passed the hook end of the 
messenger out around the after side of the after derrick, then 
over the top of the after warp and into the hands of the trim- 
mer, who will take it along the deck (always being very care- 
ful to keep the bight of it inboard) and hand it over to the 
man forward. The trimmer then goes aft abreast of the engine 
room skylight, and stands by for the word of command to 
throw the bight of the messenger over the rail and overboard, 
so that it will go clear of the ship and screw. 

When sufficient warp has been run out, breaks are screwed 
down, and the order is oiven to hook the messeno^er over 
the fore warp and let go, when, by its own weight and the 
ship's headway, it runs along aft on the fore warp. The trim- 
mer then flings the bight overboard, while the man aft hauls in 

* A dog is an iron claw with two stout teeth that is shackled to an eye bolt in 
the deck and is used for slipping over a chain as a stopper. 

122 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the slack as much as possible and places it in the hawser roller 
aft ; the trimmer, assisted by the deck hand No. 1, puts turns 
round the end of the winch barrel, and the mate proceeds to 
heave away on it. As the fore warp is being hove up aft, 
the hook of the messenger picks up the after warp also, thus 
bringing both warps together up to the after quarter. 

Having hove the warps up within a foot of the toller, a 
patent slip hook or block is put around them, attached to a 
strong chain ; the messenger is then slacked up and unhooked, 
and then the vessel proceeds to tow along. While the snatch 
block just referred to holds the two towing hawsers together 
at one side of the stern of a steamer, the strain of towing comes 
on two heavy swivel blocks, of which there is one hanging 
beneath the centre of the arch of each derrick.* Each of the 
steel-wire towing hawsers passes over the block, thence around 
or through a guide or fairleader to the drum of the steam winch, 
which heaves in or veers out the hawser, as circumstances 

In the management of a trawl the so-called quarter ropes 
play an important part. These are two ropes which are used 
to assist in getting in the net. Each of the ropes is bent to 
the footrope at the quarter of the net, and leads to its respec- 
tive otter board, where it is made fast so that it will tow 
loosely. After the trawl has been hove up alongside of the 
vessel the quarter ropes are cast off from the boards and led to 
the winch, when they are hove in evenly until the bosom of 
the footrope is over the rail. This saves a lot of hard labor 
for the crew in getting the trawl on board ; but the rest of the 
net must be gathered in by hand until the " cod end," where 
the fish are, is at the surface of the sea, when a strap is passed 
around it, and it is hove on board with the fish tackle. The 
lower end of the trawl is then unloosened and the fish fall on 

Although the fresh halibut fishery is still actively prosecuted 

* A derrick is a stout iron device, shaped like an inverted U ; it is strongly- 
bolted to the vessel's deck near the rail, but far enough from it for the otter board 
to easily go between it and the rail ; it is commonly called a gallows by the fisher- 
men, but is also spoken of as a davit. There are four of these derricks, two on 
each side, one being well aft on each quarter and one forward. They are high 
enough from the deck so that the warp running through the block at the top of a 
derrick will lift an otter board clear above the rail, so that the board can be readily 
swung in or out, as circumstances demand. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 123 

in the North Atlantic, it is evident to one who is observant, 
that, notwithstanding the bravery and hardihood with which it 
is conducted, it has fallen behind in the competition with the 
Pacific halibut industry, and now holds second place. How 
much longer it may be profitably engaged in no one can foresee 
Avith certainty ; but the reports that have come to us indicate 
a gradual decline of the halibut on the Atlantic fishing grounds 
that are sufficienth^ near the great markets of Gloucester and 
Boston to make it feasible for sailing vessels to seek fares of 
fresh halibut on them. At times they go beyond Newfound- 
land, on grounds that lie east and north-east of it, and even 
off the ice-beleaguered coast of Labrador, far up toward Hud- 
son's Bay ; but this is the limit for fresh halibut fishing, which 
can be prosecuted there only for a brief time in summer, 
when all the conditions are most favorable. From the nearer 
grounds, which are the chief reliance for the greater part of 
the year, small fares of halibut mixed with more or less cod 
are the rule. 

One of the largest fares reported for the year was that of the 
schooner " Anglo Saxon," taken in latitude 55^ 20^ in 200 
fathoms of water off the Labrador coast. She was reported to 
have arrived with 53,000 pounds of halibut on the evening of 
September 9. 

The salt halibut fishermen, who pushed their way into the 
icy seas of the far north, met with fair success, and some of 
them, because of the high prices, secured large stocks. 

The schooner "Puritan" of Gloucester anived home about 
the last of September, and was reported to have landed a fare 
of 140,000 pounds of flitched halibut, which gave her a stock 
of $11,172 ; her crew shared $333.64 each. 
. The schooner " George Parker" landed 184,400 pounds of 
flitched halibut, and stocked $15,185 ; the crew shared $388.72 
each. With one exception this is claimed to be the largest 
stock ever made from a single fare in the north Atlantic salt 
halibut fishery. 

These fares were obtained in Davis Strait, off the west coast 
of Greenland, where a number of vessels fished, some going far 
north. One of them, the " Oregon," was reported to have 
caught a halibut in 380 fathoms that was estimated to weigh 
upward of 500 pounds. Several schooners that went to Ice- 



land at first subsequently went to Greenland because the fisli- 
ing at Iceland was poor. 

Prolific as the Pacific halibut fishery has been in other years, 
so far as the Massachusetts-owned vessels are concerned, it 
seems to have gone beyond established records this year, in 
some particulars at least. 

A correspondent of the Gloucester ' ' Times " wrote to that 
paper a letter which was published on April 24, 1903. He 
avers that the Boston steamer '' Xew Enoiand " landed a fare 


of fresh halibut on April 10 that weighed 145,500 pounds, 
exclusive of heads, which, according to the rule adopted by 
halibut buyers in Xew England, would weigh 20,370 pounds. 
This would make her fare aggregate 165,870 pounds if weighed 
with heads on, as is generally customary ; they would weigh 
upwards of 190,000 pounds as they came from the water. 
The startlingly remarkable thing about this great catch of hali- 
but is that it was taken in one day. The correspondent 
wrote : — 

The trip was caught on April 8, off Goschen Island, about 400 
miles north of Vancouver, and was taken by 12 dories, fishing 50 
fathom lines to each dory. It was a fine, calm day, the quantity 
being so great that some 40,000 [pounds] were stowed in the hold 
without being dressed, and the balance taken on deck. When the 
deck load was dressed and iced, the fish stowed in the hold were 
hoisted out and dressed. 

It is difficult to comprehend the possibility of a single crew 
catching nearly 100 tons of fish in one deiy, l^othing approxi- 
matins: such a catch in a similar time has come to our knowl- 
edge from any part of the world. The nearest approach to it 
that we have known of occurred in the same fishery this year, 
when the Boston fishing steamer '^Kingfisher" caught more 
than 100,000 pounds of halibut in one day, and, as a result of 
less than three days' fishing, she was reported to have landed 
a cargo of more than 250,000 pounds of halibut. This is the 
record to date, and probably will remain so for a long time, 
unless vessels of greater capacity are employed, and that is not 

On April 22 the "New England" was reported to have 
arrived with a second fare of 135,000 pounds of halibut that 

Fig. I. Fishing Steamer " New England," with Fare of Halibut on Board. 

1 • 1 ^ 

1 \ K'UB^^^^M^M^^^W ^_— — ■ _«,.^-t.i_S i ^, -ai|ffy^ 

_: .- ^^pt f """WJUHJI^B^HIBi rv — "* ~<»-t.m. Hfe^t^dflrililflSElbifUH 

Fig. 2. Halibut Fishing Steanner " Kingfisher. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 125 

were caught in a single day, and she might have equalled her 
former catch except for a squall that interfered materially with 

The results of this fishery for halibut off the north-west 
coast of America are of a character that borders on the mar- 
vellous. For instance, it is stated by competent authority 
that the year's catch of the little fleet of three steamers owned 
in this State has been about eight and a half million pounds, — 
a truly wonderful record. 

The Boston " Globe" of Sept. 26, 1903, in an article deal- 
ing with the Pacific halibut fishery, said, among other 
things : — 

The amount of fish brought here for distribution is enormous. 
Averaging a car a day and 30,000 pounds to a car, there are in the 
neighborhood of 9,000,000 pounds of halibut brought here annually 
from the Pacific Ocean. This will bring at wholesale an average of 
over 10 cents a pound, or in gross the business done in this fish alone 
is nearly $1,000,000 a year. 

The company that owns the ''New England" and "King- 
fisher" added another steamer to the fleet during this year, 
which began fishing the last week of 1903. This vessel, we 
understand, is a wooden steamer that was purchased and 
fitted up for the trade, but of course is not so suitable for the 
halibut fishery as the iron steamers built expressly for the 
business. Indeed, it is not easy to find a steanier which will 
answer the purpose well ; and one who has visited the princi- 
pal fishing ports of England informs us that the British fishing 
steamers are wholly unsuitable for fishing off the north-west 
coast ; they are too small, and are not suitable in other par- 
ticulars, because of having been built for a fishery so entirely 
different from that under discussion. Presumably for this 
reason a Massachusetts corporation is reputed to be building a 
steamer which will be launched before this year closes. 

There were only three Massachusetts steamers engaged in the 
halibut fishery on the north-west coast during 1903, but the 
fleet is likely to number five vessels in 1904. 

The work of the three boats running in 1903 has been 
remarkable, and for two of them it has been phenomenal. It 
has been estimated, by one in a position to know, — with 

126 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

accurate knowledge of the catch of two of the vessels, — that 
the three steamers landed an aggregate of 8,450,000 pounds of 
halibut during the year, this weight being for fish eviscerated 
and headless. In order, however, that a fair comparison may 
be made with halibut landed from Atlantic coast vessels, it is 
necessary to add the weight of the heads, since the Atlantic 
halibut are never decapitated until after they are weighed, and 
all weights given for them include the heads. On this basis, 
then, the three steamers landed 9,633,000 pounds of dressed 
fish, and two of them averaged 3,819,000 pounds each. It 
is certainly wonderful that one vessel should secure a catch 
equalling that of many schooners fishing in the Atlantic. 

We learn from the same authority that the largest fare landed 
by any steamer was 230,000 pounds of headless, eviscerated 
halibut. This amount of fish would equal 262,200 pounds as 
landed from a halibut catcher in the Atlantic fishery. 

No accurate figures of the crews' share for 1903 are available, 
but the men probably earned as much as in 1902, when the 24 
sharesmen on the "New England" received an aggregate of 
$41,989.79, or an average for each man of $1,749.57. The 
crew of each dory, however, receives pay according to the 
halibut caught by that particular boat, so that two men in each 
case have the same share. The two men in the high line dory 
on the "New England " each earned about $2,000 for 1902. 

It is not remarkable, in view of these facts, that the best 
fishermen eagerly seek berths on these vessels, for in no other 
fishery has the share been paralleled. 

It may be noted in passing, that, whereas it was customary 
at the beginning of this fishery to prosecute it only for about 
seven or eight months in a year, — from fall to spring, — it is 
now continued throughout the year, with only such intermis- 
sions as may be necessary for repairs, painting, etc. 

The fall herring fishing along the coast has been pursued 
with the usual ardor. The principal change in it has been the 
utilization of an increased number of large dories propelled by 
naphtha engines and specially adapted to this fishery. These 
dories are usually more than 30 feet long ; the majority recently 
built range from 33 to 35 feet in length or more. They 
generally have a small trunk cabin aft, wherein the crew can 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 127 

sleep and cook when necessary, and where also the engine 
is located. The dory is decked forward and aft, and a strip 
of the deck about a foot wide runs along on each side of the fish 
room, around which are vertical washboards 4 to (3 inches high. 
The engine is commonly a single cylinder type, of about 5 to 
6 horse-power, but may some tunes be more powerful. 

A boat of such a type is a vast improvement over the old- 
fashioned rowing dory, especially for torching herring; and 
her larger capacity and facility of management makes practicable 
increased catches and prompt delivery of the herring at the 
markets. Such crafts are also efficient in other branches of the 

It is also true, it appears, that the scope of the autumn her- 
ring fishery has been enlarged somewhat by the wide adoption 
of the power dories ; since, because of their size and the facility 
with which they can run around, also the fact that they have 
power to safely face heavy off-shore winds that may spring up 
suddenly, fishing can now be safely and successfully prosecuted 
on grounds not heretofore resorted to, or at least not fished on 
to any extent. Thus it is reported that the power dories have 
met with success. 

Herring fishing in the fall of 1903 was prosecuted along 
the so-called south shore, that stretches away to the south- 
ward of Boston toward Plymouth and Sandwich. Along this 
shore the harbors are infrequent and sometimes difficult of 
access when the wind is blowing on the land, and the in-run- 
ning waves break heavily at the entrances of barred, narrow 
outlets of creeks or rivers, which serve as boat harbors in some 
places. However, it has been feasible to meet these obstacles 
with the swift, buoyant power dories, and good catches are 
reported from off' Sandwich, Marshfield and other points where 
herring occur, but where fishing for them in row boats was 

But, while this shore fishery serves its purpose in supplying 
bait to the market fleet, and it also furnishes more or less food, 
the salt herring fishery at the north-west coast of ]Nevvfound- 
land, which employs a fleet of the finest of our fishing vessels, 
is a branch of the fish trade of large and growing importance. 
In recent years this trade has developed from comparative insig- 

128 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

nificance until now the cured product as it goes to the con- 
sumer probably sells for not less than half a million dollars. 
It has been stated that a fleet of 42 vessels eno^ao;ed in this 
fishery in the winter of 1902-03 ; but the fact that some of 
these were ■ frozen in for all winter, and consequently made 
"bad voyages," may account for the fact that a less number 
ventured to brave the dangers of such a trip in the fall of 1903. 
Reports received early in December were to the eflfect that 
the vessels engaged in the trade had either arrived home with 
full cargoes, ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 barrels, or were 
loaded and on their homeward passages. Nevertheless, so 
great is the demand for '* bloaters " made from these fall her- 
ring from Newfoundland, that there was apprehension of a 
shortage in the supply. 

The following notes in reference to the salt herring industry 
are extracted from an article that appeared in the ' ' Cape Ann 
News," Nov. 18, 1903: — 

The introduction of smoked bloaters in the market, which com- 
menced a few years ago, has had the effect of increasing the demand 
throughout the country. 

The article produced from the herring at Newfoundland, and espe- 
cially on the west coast, is not equalled by any in the world. . . . 
The attractive manner in which it is put up with utmost care is, in 
itself, an incentive to consumers to use double the quantity heretofore 
disposed of. 

Dealers in this commodity are receiving unlimited orders, which it 
will be impossible for them to fill, owing to the short supply. If 
every vessel now at Newfoundland is fortunate in securing a full 
load, it will not be one-half of what will be required. To say that 
this business has grown by leaps and bounds is putting it mildly. 
The herring consumers, and especially consumers of this delectable 
article of food, will have it, if it can be procured, at any price. 

It is fair to assume that the profitable returns secured by the 
vessels which eno^ao-ed in this trade near the close of 1903 will 
have a tendency to induce a larger fleet to enter the business 
another year, when the hardship and loss that were experienced 
in the winter of 1902-03, on account of some of the vessels 
remaining too long at the Bay of Islands and being frozen in 
until spring, will be less of a dread than now. 

1903.] PUBLIC D0CUMP:NT — No. 25. 129 

It is regrettable that the herring season at the Bay of Islands 
is so short and so full of danger and hardship, and especially 
that a vessel which may be detained a few hours longer than 
she ought to stay may be as tightly frozen in harbor, and held 
there until spring is well advanced, as if she had been caught 
in the grip of the frost king of the far north. A mild period 
of weather may suddenly be followed by a fierce northerly 
gale and biting frost, and before it is possible to get to sea 
again a wild, chilling blast drives in against the land and 
congeals the sea, the surface becomes thick and slushy-like, 
but soon is more rigid : and those thus caught know that 
human effort is unavailing to change the result, for the helpless 
vessels thus imprisoned must lie in icy fetters until they are 
released the next spring. 

As the best season for the big, fat herring is late in the year, 
— in November and December, — the most strenuous effort is 
made to get a cargo on board and sail the vessel away into the 
open ocean on the homeward passage. 

Nothing can exceed the rush and drive of the work when 
herring are abundant. The fish, which are piled on deck from 
the boats as fast as they can be thrown over the vessel's side, 
are hastily tumbled into the hold, salted and stowed in bulk 
with the greatest expedition, layer following layer, as fast as 
possible, while the sleep-hungered men toil on wearily through 
the long night, adding to the pile below and wading around 
knee-deep as best they can in a mass of slippery, yielding fish, 
that are scarcely yet dead, the silvery scales of which cover 
vessel, spars and fishermen in a sheen that glows with a dull 
brilliancy in the glare of lamps, but passes unnoticed in the 
struggle to complete the lading and get away to sea. 

As an instance of what may be done, the steamer "Alice 
M. Jacobs" made a trip to the Bay of Islands in the fall of 
1903, and returned home in eighteen days with a cargo of 
about 2,000 barrels of herring in bulk. When it is stated 
that she had to sail a total of some 1,200 or 1,400 miles of 
rough, wintrj^ sea, it will be seen that the time occupied in 
getting on board that vast bulk of fish and curing it was limited 

Practically all the herring brought from the Bay of Islands 

130 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

are salted in bulk ; very few are carefully cured in barrels. 
The rush to get loaded and sail away for home leaves little 
time for the careful cure of pickled herring; and so far the 
demand for bulk herring for smoking has caused quantity to 
take precedence of quality, especially as a demand for Ameri- 
can pickle-cured herring has not yet been developed as it 
ought to have been. What has been accomplished in the 
bloater trade in a short time indicates unmistakably what may 
be done in the pickled herring business, if the proper methods 
are adopted. If we can increase the former, — and that seems 
perfectly feasible, — and at the same time build up a traffic in 
pickled herring that should be worth $1,000,000, the herring 
fishery would assume the importance that it is entitled to. 
There is reason for believing it is entirely practicable to have 
a herring industry here in Massachusetts that will yield an 
income approximating $1,500,000, — an industry that would 
be more valuable than any other fishery now is ; and the fact 
that about one-third of this has already been attained is reason 
for the hope that the full measure will be secured within a 
reasonable time. 

As we have previously stated, the American market for 
pickled herring has been occupied by foreign goods, and 
American cured fish cannot force out foreign brands without a 
long, hard struggle. But no eflbrt should be spared by our 
fishermen to get control of the market ; the fight for it should 
be waged persistently and unflinchingly, for once the battle 
is won the field oflfers possibilities second to none. Even in 
the turmoil and haste of loading a cargo of bulk herring 
at Bay of Islands, it seems possible to cure a few barrels 
properly of packed pickled herring. In this way they could 
gradually be worked on to the market, until confidence was 
established in the goods. If it can be accomplished, the ques-^ 
tion of supply would then be the chief matter of consideration. 
And if the day ever comes that American caught herring can 
sell for $10 to $14 per barrel, as European herring do, why 
will it not pay to fish for them in summer, either ofi^ our own 
shores, where they are large and fat, or in the harbors of Lab- 
rador, where they were sought by our vessels forty or fifty 
years ago ? 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 131 

We understand that Capt. Solomon Jacobs, who commanded 
the steamer " Alice M. Jacobs," was particular this fall to use 
only the finest quality of salt, consequently his cargo of fish 
was exceptionally clean, hard and white, — so superior, in 
fact, that it is surmised his example, which has often been 
potent for the benefit of the fisheries. in various directions, will 
be followed by others in the future. He has been quoted as 
saying : — 

The people of New England appear to me to look upon herring as 
worthy of no consideration, and so put them up for shipment in a 
hap-hazard sort of a way. 

While at Bay of Islands I saw the way herring were put up for 
the Canadian trade by merchants down there, which method our 
people would do well to copy. One consignment of 2,000 barrels for 
Canada was cured in a most practical and marketable form, and 
commanded a high price. 

The people in western Canada, who have lately immigrated to that 
section of the Dominion from northern Europe, know what good 
herring are, will have none other, and are willing to pay a good 
price for the same.* 

Statements like these from such a well-known veteran of the 
fisheries have an important significance, since they are liable to 
have a laro^e influence in securino- the action we have uro^ed for 
several years. And it can be said that those who mostly con- 
sume herrino; in the United States are like those of western 
Canada, to the extent that they " know what good herring are, 
and will have no other ; " also that they ' ' are willing to pay 
a good price " for them. This is a fact that cannot be consid- 
ered too seriously, for the market is an immense one, and one 
thsit pays well,- 

It has been stated that never before in the history of the 
herring fishery have the vessels all loaded and got away for 
home so early in the season as this year ; for it was anticipated 
all would have arrived or been on the way before the close of 
]N'ovember. This is said to be due to the increased number 
of fishermen who engage in the capture of herring, and also to 
the fact that they are better equipped than ever before, and 

* Gloucester "Times," Jan. 1, 1903. 

132 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

have the fishery reduced to '^ a science." As early as Novem- 
ber 21 the "Cape Ann News" reported the "whole fleet 
loaded and on the way home." This announcement is, how- 
ever, believed to have been somewhat premature, since we are 
informed that all of the herrino^ vessels had not arrived three 
weeks later, although the first arrivals, bringing 5,760 barrels, 
were noted as early as November 21. 

The schooner " Senator Gardner " of Gloucester went to the 
north-east coast of Newfoundland after a cargo of salt herring. 
Herring were scarce at Notre Dame Bay, at the extreme north- 
eastern point of the island, and she then went to White Bay, 
Avhere there were a few fishermen. She secured about half a 
cargo there of fine, large, fat herring, but the near approach 
of winter would not admit of a longer stay. She then went 
to Bay of Islands and quickly completed her fare. This ven- 
turesome innovation in the pursuit of salt herring is interesting, 
and may ultimately lead to other voyages to that part of the 
Newfoundland coast, where a herring fishery may be estab- 
lished if the local fishermen once learn that they can sell their 

The recent decision of the United States Board of General 
Appraisers, — announced in the press Oct. 21, 1903, — whereby 
it is held that cargoes of herring landed from American vessels 
are duty free, notwithstanding they are " caught with the assist- 
ance of men, boats and gear hired for the purpose in the Bay 
of Islands," is a very important one, and, if it stands, will have 
a tendency to build up this trade by the employment of vessels 
of this State . This decision related to the cargo of the schooner 
"A. E. Whyland," that was landed in 1902, and upon which 
a duty was at first assessed at Boston. 

The fishery season of 1903 is interesting because of the great 
abundance of menhaden in our waters, — an indication that 
their absence at times heretofore was due to those unexplain- 
able terms of periodicity that so frequently aff'ect the presence 
of migratory fish, especially those of the herring family. 
Large catches by the steamers engaged in this industry have 
been reported from the regions north of Cape Cod, and in 
some instances these have been made close in shore. We 
are informed that in one day during September 4,500 barrels 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 133 

of menhaden were taken off Long Island head, in Boston 

The whale fishery has been about as usual. The vessels 
fishing in the Arctic, north of Behring Sea, have experienced 
varying fortunes, some having made good catches, but the 
majority having met with only fair or poor success. The 
whaling steamer ' ' Gay Head " was reported to have arrived at 
San Francisco late in October, with a valuable cargo taken in 
the far north. The steamer " Alexander" arrived at the same 
port about November 9, with a catch of 12,000 pounds of 
whalebone, estimated to have a value of $75,000. On the 
other hand, the steam bark "William Baylies" of New Bed- 
ford, one of the Arctic fleet, was reported as having taken no 
whales, and to have made a " losing voyage " to the extent of 

The Atlantic fishery for sperm whales appears to have been 
more successful than for some years, with the possible excep- 
tion of 1902. 

Several dead whales have drifted ashore on various parts of 
the Massachusetts coast, and in some cases the stench arising 
from the decaying carcasses has proved a severe annoyance to 
local residents. We are not informed that their death was 
probably due to the prosecution of whaling operations off our 
coasts, and it is possible they may have been wounded a long 
distance off, but still have been able to make their way here 
before dying. 

It is a fact well known to all students of fisheries that the 
supply of caviar made from the roes of the sturgeon is only 
a fraction of what the market demands ; consequently, as has 
been pointed out by the writer, in his report on the Bergen 
exhibition of 1898, a large percentage of the caviar made in 
Eussia is prepared from the roes of the pike perch, Caspian 
roach and the bream, and is known as scaled fish caviar. 
Indeed, the roes of many species of fish are utilized for the 
manufacture of caviar. In Norway the cod roe is used for the 
same purpose. This is subjected to slight fermentation, and is 
then packed " in tightly sealed one-pound glass jars." 

It has occurred to us to suggest the use of the halibut roe for 
making caviar, both because the eggs are nearly the size of 

134 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

those of the sturgeon, and because the ovary sacks are so large. 
At certain seasons, particularly in the fall and early winter, 
the roes are generally in good condition to use for the prepara- 
tion of caviar, and if they are properly handled no doubt good 
results might be secured. The excessive demand for caviar and 
the high price paid for it maybe sufficient reasons to make it 
worth while to utilize a product now thrown away, for, to the 
extent that we can make waste products valuable, the industry 
is benefited. 

Inspection of Fish. 

The official inspection of fish has been utterly abandoned this 
year by the single packer who was the only one to inspect fish 
in 1902, and, for the first time in a century, the annual record 
of ''mackerel inspection in Massachusetts" will not appear. 
We are informed that not a purchaser of mackerel or ot 
other fish has requested that they should be officially inspected ; 
and, inasmuch as there is no legal obligation to inspect them 
unless a request is made by the buyer, there was no reason 
why the dealers should incur the expense and trouble incident 
to inspection that was not required. 

Whether the omission of inspection this year indicates that 
the State guarantee of fish is to be abandoned altogether or not, 
remains to be seen. The outlook, however, is apparently in 
favor of the non-resumption of fish inspection in the immediate 
future, unless some ' ' pure food " law of the federal government 
makes necessary an official guarantee of quality that must stand 
unchanged in every State. Something of that kind may come 
in the not distant future, for the mutual benefit of producer 
and consumer. But so long as the State inspection has no 
significance outside of State boundaries, and can be changed or 
discarded at will, there appears to be little if any advantage in 
official care of fish or other food products. 

How the Hunting of Game may benefit the State, — It requires 
no carefully prepared statement to convince one who has ever 
engaged in hunting of the physical benefit the pursuit of game 
will confer on a person who participates in it ; nor is it neces- 
sary to seek far to find ardent and zealous advocates of the 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — JSTo. 25. 135 

theory of the public benefit of huntuig. This feeling is not 
confined to those who have been enthusiastic sportsmen from 
boyhood, and whose love for the chase, the sweet fragrance of 
pines or balsam-scented firs has grown with their growth and 
become intensified with passing years ; but often it is found 
most highly developed in those who, as a last resort, have 
' ' taken to tlie woods " in an almost hopeless endeavor to regain 
lost health, which pills and plasters had failed to restore. 
After a few weeks' contact with nature in the wilds, with gun 
and guide as companions, they have found strength and an enjoy- 
ment of and zest in life not previously felt for a long time. 
When this occurs, as it often does, is it wonderful that he who 
feels he has gained a new hold on life, whose theretofore sluggish 
blood bounds through his veins with renewed impulse, whose 
eyes glisten and whose cheeks glow with the bloom of regained 
health, should become an ardent convert to the doctrine that it 
is both desirable and necessary for man to occasionally get near 
to nature's heart, and to gratify the inborn instinct to hunt, — 
that wonderful natural desire to pursue and kill wild birds and 
beasts that was one of the most pronounced in primitive man, 
and which has come down to us through long ages as an inherit- 
ance in almost undiminished force ? We have met those who 
have had such experiences, and some of whom have frankly 
declared that at one time they had believed the fondness for 
hunting expressed by some persons was simply a fad, — one of 
those half-silly hallucinations of the human mind that some- 
times affects one as a sort of harmless lunacy, but which is 
entitled to no special consideration on the part of more sensi- 
ble people, beyond perhaps a polite endurance of their talk, 
until it is possible to get with others who have not been simi- 
larly afflicted. But the change in those who fortunately have 
had their health restored by hunting is usually radical, and 
thereafter they are the most pronounced advocates of this form 
of recreation, and most condemnatory of the views held by 
them before knowing the benefits to be derived from such 

The very fact that so many go into the wilds of Maine and 
Canada to hunt each recurring season is evidence enough that, 
aside from the enjoyment they derive from the sport, they feel 

136 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

that their physical condition is improved, and they are better 
fitted to carry on their life \York for the rest of the year. The 
fact that one is willing to temporarily lay aside weighty busi- 
ness cares that need his attention, leave office and the comforts 
of home behind, and go off into the heart of a wilderness to 
rough it for weeks, beside paying a good, round sum for the 
privilege of tramping through unbroken, snow-covered wood 
roads, is seemingly sufficient evidence that there is a physical 
exhilaration in hunting that impresses its devotees in a manner 
to make them thorough believers in the beneficial effect upon 
their health. 

It is not, however, practicable for all who desire to enjoy 
this sport to get away for weeks to hunt big game, Avhile the 
attendant expenditures of going into northern Maine or into 
the distant wilds of Canada might prove a serious drain upon 
the financial resources of many whose salaries are limited, but 
who, of all men, most need the renewed vigor that open air 
exercise briiigs. One of these recently remarked to the 
writer : ' ' I cannot get away from my office for more than a 
day or two at a time, but by care I can go often. It would 
not be practicable for me to go to Maine or New Brunswick ; 
my hunting must be near home. K I can get out and shoot a 
fair lot of birds or other game in some cover that I can reach 
in an hour or two after leaving the city, there is ample induce- 
ment for me to hunt, and take the active, out-of-door tramps 
that fill my lungs with God's pure air, and benefit me so 
much that I am better fitted for days thereafter to carry on my 
work. I really long for the open season to come, and, while 
I rarely can get out for more than a day at a time, the frequent 
repetition of these outings during the hunting season restores 
my vigor to such a degree that I can go on for the remaining 
ten months of the year, and do better work than otherwise 
would be possible. But when the hunting season is near 
again, the longing for the woods comes on me, and I am as 
eager for the first day's hunt as a boy is to be let out of 

It would be easy to multiply individual statements like this, 
but they would simply be a repetition of the same experience, 
and all would go to emphasize the fact that the effort to pro- 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 137 

vide recreation of this order for the hundreds and thousands 
of our citizens who enjoy hunting, and cannot get far away 
from home, is really a very important work of the State gov- 
ernment. To the extent that, through protection or otherwise, 
the means can be supplied to offer fair inducement to hunt 
within our borders, we shall not only be furnishing the oppor- 
tunity for healthful and invigorating recreation for our citizens 
near their homes, but we shall retain within our borders con- 
siderable sums of money that otherwise might be expended 
elsewhere. Many are now fully contented with hunting small 
game, such as our covers afford, who otherwise would surely 
go to the Provinces or into neighboring States if g-ame was 
unavailable within our own borders. 

It is not practicable to present statistics showing the benefits 
accruing to our citizens thi'ough hunting, for this matter is not 
one that can be very readily reduced to mathematics ; we simply 
know from general testimony that thev are beyond estimation. 
It is for this reason that we have striven to produce conditions 
within our own boundaries which, primarily, will enable many 
who otherwise could not hunt to get out for a greater or less 
time to near-by covers for shooting, and also to provide suffi- 
cient inducement in the way of game to keep within our borders 
many who might otherwise go somewhere else to spend money, 
which, in the ao^o^re^rate, would be no inconsiderable amount. 
We believe this is a practical benefit to the State, the importance 
of which is far beyond any estimate that could be placed upon 
it. Because of the opportunity to hunt, our boys grow up into 
vigorous manhood, better fitted, perhaps, for the exacting 
duties required of them in later years in the strenuous effort of 
developing a great State and nation. The vigor of mature 
manhood is thus much longer retained, and the wisdom that 
experience brings is made more efficient. Who will say that 
the proud position held by Massachusetts in the business, lit- 
erary and scientific world is not in some measure due to the 
vigor resulting from the health-giving recreation of hunting? 

In previous reports we have suggested that, if we can 
secure desirable conditions within the limits of our State, the 
citizens of other States may be attracted within our borders to 
hunt, as, indeed, they are, and the Commonwealth will thereby 



be benefited. It is true that the abnormal scarcity of the par- 
tridge this 3 ear, due to natural conditions that could not be 
controlled, made the cover shooting much less attractive than 
otherwise it would have been ; but the sea-coast shooting has 
seldom been so good in recent years, and this is not only a sport 
much enjoyed by our citizens, but one which brings to us many 
non-resident sportsmen, who are attracted here to participate in 
the pleasures of hunting to be found along our beaches and on 
the borders of our inland lakes and ponds. In this respect sea 
and inland waters furnish as powerful a magnet to draw the 
hunter as they do to invite the angler in those seasons when 
the latter can indulge his passion for fishing. 

Need of Protective Legislation. — During the past four years 
various desirable and highly important laws for the better pro- 
tection of game have been enacted ; and sportsmen have much 
occasion for satisfaction with the wisdom of the Legislature in 
this regard, and the large appreciation shown of the value to 
the State of throwing legal safeguards around the wild denizens 
of our covers and coasts, in order that they may be preserved 
to us as a perennial enjoyment, and transmitted to generations 
yet to come. 

But, while there has been a distinct advance in wise and 
helpful legislation, the fact remains that many of the laws must 
necessarily remain partially non-eflective until they are vital- 
ized by the enactment of a law giving the right of search, under 
certain conditions, to those having the responsibility of enforcing 
the fish and game laAvs. Any one who is at all familiar with 
the difficulties attending the enforcement of this class of laws 
cannot fail to recognize that it is beyond the possibility of 
human endeavor to fully and satisfactorily enforce them, unless 
a general right of search is given. Provision of law should also 
be made whereby it ma}^ be possible for officials to get a search 
warrant in case of need. It seems an anomalous condition of 
afiairs for a commission to be given the grave responsibility of 
enforcing a certain class of laws for the purpose of securing 
better protection from the illegal acts of those who are lawless, 
and then to deny to that department the right and authority 
which alone will enable it to do what mast be done, if the laws 
are to be as valuable as the public have a right to expect they 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 139 

should be. At the present time we are officially informed that 
there is no law on the statute books which gives a right to 
secure a search warrant for fish and game, however urgent the 
case may be, or however demoralizing to the cause of protect- 
ing fish and game this lack of legal power may prove. The 
following letter presents clearly the facts in the case : — 

Capt. J. W. Collins, Chairman, Fish and Game Commission. 

Dear Sir: — In reply to your letter of December 5, I advise you 
that there is no law at present under which a magistrate is authorized 
to issue warrants for fish or game held in violation of law. Fish and 
game are not included in the search warrant statute (R. L., c. 217, 
par. 1), and there has been no special act authorizing the issue of 
search warrants for that purpose, as in case of intoxicating liquors 
(R. L., c. 100, par. 12). It is settled that search warrants are to be 
issued only in cases expressly authorized by law. (See Cooley's 
Constitutional Limitations, p. 368.) 

Very truly yours, 
Frederick H. Nash, Assistant Attorney- General, 

The foregoing-described condition should not longer exist. 
It surely cannot be wise to multiply laws that cannot be 
enforced, because the State is left helpless for the lack of an 
act that can give validity to them. To our minds there is no 
legislation for the protection of fish and game so much needed 
at the present time as a law which will give the right to search, 
with or without a warrant. There are many reasons wh}^ such 
a law should be enacted, the strongest of which, perhaps, is 
the pressing necessity of securing better protection for our 
inseci^eating birds than is now possible. 

The destruction of insectivorous birds is going on at a rate 
that threatens their extermination in the not distant future, or 
at least their serious decimation, to that degree that they can 
be of little practical value in checking the depredations of the 
numerous insect pests, prominent amongst which are the gypsy 
moth and the brown-tail moth. 

For several years, recently, natives of southern European 
countries and Asia Minor have come to this State in large 
numbers. There is often a colony of them in the larger cities, 
and, in cases where extensive industrial operations are being 
conducted in some of the country districts, as building railroads, 

140 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

reservoirs, etc., men of this class are often brought together; 
sometimes there are camps containing hundreds of them. 

Wherever they are, these men generally develop a remarka- 
ble tendencj^ to hunt when they can get away from their work, 
— to hunt regardless of law, as a rule ; and especially are 
they noted for killing insectivorous birds. It is true they 
sometimes catch small birds in traps, or by the use of bird 
lime, but the usual thing is for them to get possession of a 
cheap gun, some powder and shot, and then to go into the 
pastures and covers and shoot at anything that moves, although 
song and insectivorous birds are the special objects of their 
pursuit. It is not difficult to imagine the slaughter done by 
the groups who go out from the large cities, or by those who 
are temporarily assembled in the country towns ; but it is a 
conservative estimate that, if this destruction goes on much 
longer, practically unrestricted, the effect upon the numbers 
of our small birds will be seriously evident. 

Occasionally these men are caught in the act of shooting or 
trapping birds, and are brought into court, perhaps to be fined 
to the limit of the law if convicted, but more commonly with 
some other result. But, as the law now stands, one of these 
men may have all his pockets stuffed with birds, and boldly 
walk by one authorized to enforce the law against shooting ; 
and the latter, though he suspects the true condition, must 
stand helpless in the face of one of the most injurious and 
least excusable violations of the fish and game laws. 

It will readily be seen that the chance of actually witness- 
ing a violation of the law by shooting small birds is remote ; 
and when there are so few active salaried deputies, little can 
be done to repress this illegal work until proper and necessary 
authority is given to the officers charged with the enforcement 
of law. 

This extensive killino' of sono^ and insectivorous birds is a 
matter of far greater consequence to the State than at first 
might appear. The farmer and horticulturist are particularly 
dependent upon the small, insect-eating birds. Except for 
them, crops would be practically impossible. Competent 
scientific authority has declared that a country in which the 
birds have been exterminated would become uninhabitable in 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 141 

fifty years. The value of birds to the farmer, in the matter of 
destroying noxious insects, has been forcibly set forth in the 
annual reports of the Massachusetts department of agriculture. 
Enough could be quoted on this subject, from those reports 
and other publications, to make a volume several times larger 
than this report ; and there is good reason why everv available 
statement of fact should be placed before the public at this 
time, in order that there should no longer be an}^ question as 
to what is needed. But we will content ourselves with a single 
extract, which deals chiefly with the birds that destroy the 
brown-tail moth, that exceedingly objectionable pest, which 
not only defoliates our fruit and shade trees within a wide 
radius of the centre of Boston, but becomes nearly an unbear- 
able torment to those who are unfortunate enough to come 
within the limits it frequents, and are thus subjected to the 
dreaded " caterpillar itch." 

Massachusetts has expended millions of dollars on its metro- 
politan park system, and hundreds of thousands have been spent 
in an ineftectual fight to subdue the troublesome moths, which 
have wrought such havoc in places with foliage and fruit trees, 
and threaten to extend their devastations still further, unless 
they can be checked. In view of this public peril, can it be pos- 
sible that the destruction of insect-eating birds shall be allowed 
to go on almost unchecked for lack of a law that will save them, 
and permit their increasing numbers to become powerful allies 
in this battle for the preservation of the beautiful parks which 
we cannot justly see become barren wastes without an eflfort, 
and also for the preservation of our farming interests through- 
out the State ? 

As an instance of Avhat the birds can do to assist in repressing 
the moths, we venture to quote the following from a recent 
publication of the agricultural department of the State : — 

Birds play an important role in checking the spread of the brown- 
tail moth. While their attacks are perhaps more conspicuous while 
the insect is in the moth stage, it is probable that the greatest number 
of insects are destroyed in the larval form, at which time many species 
of birds not only consume the caterpillars, but carry them to their 
young. Armed as these larvae are with an abundant growth of net- 
tling hairs, it would seem that they would prove distasteful morsels 

142 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

for the birds, and be largely protected from their attacks. This, 
however, is not the case ; the same species of birds that feed on other 
hairy caterpillars, such as the tussock moth, forest tent caterpillar 
or gypsy moth, readily adapt themselves to the brown-tail moth 
caterpillars. Of the birds feeding on the caterpillars, the yellow- 
billed and black-billed cuckoos and Baltimore oriole are worthy of 
special mention. Tbey are common visitants to infested trees, feed- 
ing particularly on the insects, and carrying them to their young. 
They arrive in their summer migration when the caterpillars are 
about two- thirds grown, and make repeated visits to the infested 
trees, feeding particularly on the masses of insects clustered for 
molting. As is well known, the cuckoos are formidable enemies of 
hairy caterpillars. Their services in destroying the common tent 
caterpillar of the orchard are of highest value, and alone should 
entitle them to the good-will of the farmer or property owner ; and 
this statement is also true of the Baltimore oriole. Of the other birds 
which feed on the larvae, the yellow-throated vireo and blue jay are 
worthy of special mention. 

It is, however, when the moths are emerging that the layman 
notices more particularly the work of birds in checking the increase 
of this insect. The white moths leave their cocoons and remain in 
situations more or less exposed until their wings have developed. As 
a result of the habit of the caterpillars in spinning their cocoons in a 
common mass, there will often be a large number of moths within 
a small area on a fence, house wall or other sheltered locality. The 
birds soon locate these favored spots, and often consume the moths 
even before their wings have expanded. In this work of moth 
destruction the kingbird and some of the flycatchers figure to a lim- 
ited extent, but the most formidable enemy of the mature moths is 
the notorious English sparrow. That this bird, whose evil habits in 
driving out native insectivorous birds are so well known, should show 
this distinctly beneficial trait, may be a matter of surprise to many 
students of nature ; but the fact remains that the English sparrow, 
with its numerous progeny, exerts a great and beneficial influence in 
checking the moth in our thickly settled districts, — places where 
natural checks are often most deficient. 

July 16, 1897, the time when the moths were notably thick at 
Somerville and Cambridge, Mr. Kirkland observed whole flocks of 
English sparrows following along the line of fences and carefully 
searching for the moths, which when found, were greedily devoured. 
The sides of the pickets and even the bottom of the rails were care- 
fully examined by these sharp-eyed moth hunters, and all moths of 
either sex found were consumed. 

The sparrows do not confine their attention to hunting for live 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 143 

moths, but also act as scavengers in removing from the arc lamps the 
masses of moths which accumulate in the globes over night. At 
10.30 P.M., July 14, 1897, an arc lamp at Maiden around which the 
moths were swarming was from one-fourth to one-third full of the 
dead bodies of the moths. Wishing to make a count of the number 
of moths thus destroyed by the lamp, Mr. Kirkland visited it at 5.30 
the following morning ; but at that hour the sparrows were actively 
feeding on the moths in the lamp globe, and also carrying them to 
their young. July 16 other arc lamps were examined at 4.30 a.m., 
but even at that time the birds had anticipated the observer, and 
were carrying off the moths in large numbers. At 5.30 the sparrows 
had emptied the globe of moths, and also consumed the insects on the 
ground beneath it. It was observed at 4.30 that there were sixteen 
male and two female moths on the lamp pole, but at 6 a m. the birds 
bad consumed all of them. 

On the afternoon of July 16, at a time when the moths were still 
emerging, a drive through the worst infested district showed only 
three brown-tail moths on lamp poles or tree trunks. There were 
plenty of moths in sheltered places in the trees and under the leaves 
of rank herbage on the ground, but those in conspicuous places had 
been destroyed. 

Below is given a list of birds known to feed upon the brown-tail 
moth in any of its stages : — 

Yellow-billed cuckoo. Red-eyed vireo. 

Black-billed cuckoo. Yellow-throated vireo. 

Kingbird. Black-and-white warbler. 

Blue jay. Chestnut-sided warbler. 

Baltimore oriole. American redstart. 

Rose-breasted grosbeak. Chickadee. 

Indigo bird. American robin. 

Scarlet tanager. English sparrow. 

It is certainly interesting to the public to learn that so many 
species of our small birds will destroy the detested and dreaded 
brown-tail moth, providing, of course, the birds are allowed to 
live to do the work nature intended them to do, and which is 
so vitally necessary and important. Even the despised, out- 
lawed English sparrow is doing his share. 

So far as other species of insects are concerned, nearly all 
forms of birds, including game birds, make incessant war upon 
them. It is well known that no species is more destructive to 
the potato beetle than the quail, — our common bobwhite ; 

144 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

while the pheasant feeds extensively upon the cut worm and 
other noxious insects that trouble the farmer ; and even the 
partridge or rufied grouse is by no means to be despised as an 
insect eater, although he gets little credit as such from the 
majorit}^, who think chiefly of him as a target to shoot at, — 
he really is the king of game birds, — and a most delicious 
dainty when properly served on a table. 

These facts, which could easily be supported by a multitude 
of evidence drawn from the highest authority, should be suffi- 
cient to emphasize the necessity of taking all available means 
to give reasonable protection to our avifauna ; and especially 
do self-preservation and the protection of our dearest interests 
point unmistakably to the need of a search law such as will 
vitalize other laws to an extent that nothing else can. 

We are conscious of the fact that there may be strong oppo- 
sition to a search law ; such has been pronounced unconstitu- 
tional, and a menace to the rights and liberties that have been 
guaranteed to us by our forefathers more than a hundred years 
ago. This may be correct. If it is true, it is regrettable that 
those who were conspicuous in building this nation and creating 
this State were not gifted with sufficient foresight to provide 
a means of escape from the present conditions, which are so 
threatening, so that the respectable, peace-loving, law-abiding 
citizen would not have to suffer injury, and the State be com- 
pelled to endure loss, for no other reason than because it is 
impracticable to control the lawless and reckless. 

We confess, however, our inability to understand why such 
a search law as we need can be a serious menace to the liberties 
of any one except a law breaker ; and no one can assume there 
is any disposition to do otherwise than to repress crime and 
evil, and to give the widest scope to every effort and impulse 
of the discreet, law-observing person. The liberties and well- 
being of the worthy can only be promoted and preserved by 
laying a heavy repressive hand upon the lawless. 

Our method of observing laws marks us as worthy of the 
privilege of enacting them for ourselves or otherwise ; and 
the laws enacted indicate progress and the ability to govern, or 
the opposite. 

Massachusetts now has on her statute books one of the most 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 145 

drastic fish and game search laws — section 77, chapter 91, 
Ke vised Laws — that has ever been enacted in any State of the 
Union. And who has ever heard that this law led to danger- 
ous encroachments upon the rights or liberties of any citizen ? 
Is the State any the worse because, occasionally, a reckless, 
greedy law-breaker has to pay the penalty for his misdeeds ? 

It is also true that many of the northern States have more or 
less drastic search laws for fish and game. Such laws are in 
force from the Atlantic to the Pacific ; they are not uncommon. 
They have been found necessary for the welfare of the States 
where they exist. Is it not true that those States have consti- 
tutions that insure to their people the fullest liberty consistent 
with protection from the lawless? Have those States lost or 
abridged their liberties because of the laws referred to ? Is it 
not a confession of weakness to fail to provide legal safeguards 
where they are needed ? 

Does any one conjecture that the old patriots, who unhes- 
itatingly deposed a government and established another in its 
stead, and who risked their lives and fortunes to defend and 
maintain the change, would fail to make all possible provision 
for the suppression of illegal acts , and to vigorously maintain 
the dignity and majesty of the State, as provided by law? If it 
is true that no man is superior or inferior to the law, that laws 
are made to be obeyed, and that no people can disregard them 
or neglect to compel obedience to them without a sacrifice of 
liberty, why can there be objection to enacting a law such as 
we have suggested ? Will it be perilous to follow the well- 
worn pathway of our sister States in this regard ? 

We are aware that this matter is the concern of the people ; 
but, it being our special duty to study closely all matters that 
relate to the welfare of the State within the limitation of our 
efforts and observation, it would be disloyal if we failed to 
invite attention to the conditions set forth, and to plead that 
something be done to remedy them. 

Status of Game. — The scarcity of the partridge during the 
hunting season of 1903 has been the most pronounced game 
feature this year. From all sections of the State, and practi- 
cally from all parts of New England, there comes a universal 
report of the marked absence of this species, or at least a 

14(3 FISH AXD GAME. [Dec. 

marked absence of former abundance. It is true that here and 
there one can hear of localities where the decimation was less 
noticeable than elsewhere ; indeed, some hunters may claim to 
have taken fair bags of birds, and they feel in consequence that 
the general story of scarcity is probably somewhat exaggerated, 
not to say pessimistic, and the outlook for the immediate 
future is far less gloomy than is generally believed. No one 
we have met or heard from has asserted that partridges were 
plentiful as expected, or as much so as last year. Without 
exception, the feeling has been that there has been a material 
change since 1902, but yet it is maintained by some sportsmen 
that "there was pretty good shooting." ISTevertheless, the 
conditions at the close of this year were far from alarming. 

On the other hand, the nearly unanimous consensus of 
statement and opinion is emphatically to the eifect that the 
partridge has not been so scarce for many years ; that most of 
those secured in the hunting season were old birds ; and that 
every observation tends to confirm the feeling that the birds 
have been overtaken by some unfortunate natural disaster that 
has nearly exterminated them ; at the best it has left scarcely 
any j^ouiig birds ; and the drain upon the flocks incident to 
hunting has nearly destroyed those which successfully weathered 
the winter, leaving few at the close of this year's hunting sea- 
son upon which to depend for the continuance of the species. 
It cannot be denied that those who are depressed concerning 
the present, and fearful of the future, are largely in the 

Many causes have been assigned for the present condition 
of the partridge, and as many remedies are suggested whereby 
it may the sooner regain its status of last year. The abnor- 
mally cold, wet weather of June is the cause almost universally 
assigned for the destruction of the young partridge. There 
is a very wide range of statement to the efl'ect that the young 
broods came out plentifully, strong, and with every prospect 
of thriving. The outlook was excellent as the fine days of late 
May passed by ; it had not been so promising for many years, 
for ' ' a good bunch of birds " had wintered well ; they were in 
splendid condition for breeding, and the warm weather of May 
had caused earlier nestins^ than usual. A sudden chano-e came. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 147 

The weather became cold and continuously wet to a degree 
that was extraordinary ; a winter or early spring month was 
abruptly launched into mid-summer, with tlie attendant conse- 
quences. The little chicks, not yet sufficiently grown to be 
hardy, were exposed to drenching rains and a temperature 
below the normal for the season ; the result being that, with 
few exceptions, they became chilled, soaked with cold water, 
and lay down and died by thousands. A few that were well 
grown lived, and perhaps there were others, hatched after the 
worst of the weather was past, that grew up and were well 
developed by October 1, when the shooting season opened. 
But there was a great slaughter, and the bereaved mother birds 
submitted to the inevitable, and did not attempt to hatch a 
second brood. 

We give the following as an example of how the weather 
affected the young birds : — 

Eight partridge eggs were secured by Superintendent Mer- 
rill, and chicks were hatched from all of them. Unfortunately, 
the day when this occurred was one of those severely cold, 
rainy days of June ; consequently, the chicks all died imme- 
diately from the chill. There is no doubt that a similar disaster 
overtook thousands of other young partridge. 

We believe the above is a correct statement of the actual 
facts. There are those who think the scarcity has been caused 
by the numerous foxes and skunks ; others believe the majority 
of the birds have migrated, temporarily, at least, to better feed- 
ing grounds, — perhaps beyond the State, — and thus are scarce 
at home ; and others still assign various other causes, such as 
shooting out of season, etc. There is, however, little differ- 
ence of opinion as to the scarcity. 

It has been claimed that large bevies of young partridge 
were seen in August, more than a month after the inclement 
weather of June ; that those were not affected by cold or wet ; 
but, just the same, they could not be found during the shooting 
season. The question is asked, " Where did they go ? " That 
a certain number of young partridges survived is beyond ques- 
tion, but, at the best, those were only a bagatelle to the great 
mass that died, and there are doubtless less old birds left over 
at the close of this year than for a long period. 

148 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The woodcock is evidently increasing in a satisfactory man- 
ner. It breeds in Massachusetts to a considerable degree, — 
to a much larger extent than for several years. The native 
woodcock added to the migratory birds made better autumn 
shooting in some localities than is common. It is also stated 
that some of these native birds, and possibly others that have 
been bred farther north, are hardy, and stay later in the fall 
than they have been accustomed to. 

The quail is generally reported abundant in the regions 
where it occurs to any extent. It did not suffer to the same 
degree that the partridge did. The claim is made that many 
nested so earh^ that the young, which grow very rapidly,, 
were large enough before June to endure the weather. Then, 
too, if the first brood of young quail succumbed, the mother 
bird lost little if any time; she immediately filled her nest 
with eggs a second time, and hatched out a second broody 
which, though small at the beginning of the hunting season^ 
were still in evidence, and soon grew big enough for game. 

Aside from the partridge and the gray squirrel in Berkshire, 
where the food for it was scarce, game appears to have been 
more plentiful than usual; a condition due, no doubt, to the 
better observance of law, for many of the illegal practices that 
were rampant four years ago, and were potent in limiting the 
supply of game, have recently been almost abandoned. 

Sea birds have been more than usually abundant along the 
coast of this State, and good duck shooting has been reported 
from manj^ of the ponds and lakes. The presence of sea fowl 
in larger numbers than common is believed to be due in part 
to the influence of a heavy north-easterly gale early in Octo- 
ber, which drove shorewards many flocks of birds that found 
it necessary to seek shelter and feeding grounds in harbors, 
sounds and lagoons during the prevalence of the storm, after 
which most of the ducks remained. 

A notable incident of the year has been the occurrence of 
the wild pigeon in suflScient numbers to suggest that, if proper 
protection is furnished this species throughout the range of its 
migration, there may still be a possibility of staying its exter- 
mination. It is improbable it will ever "darken the sun" 
again with its innumerable millions ; but there is a chance that 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 149 

it may some time be plentiful enough for it to become an 
object of the sportsman's skill, providing the self-restraint 
exercised is now broad enough in its scope to prevent present 

Rabbits, according to all statements, are more uniformly 
plentiful. While the lack of a search law has been a serious 
hindrance in stopping the illegal use of ferrets for hunting mb- 
bits, much has been done to limit it, consequently there has 
been a gain in the abundance of rabbits. 

There is frequent mention of ' ' hares " in the annual reports 
of the deputies, but the term has always been unexplained. 
The animals referred to may be Belgian hares, so called, or 
they may be the large, white hare, which possibly has become 
sufficiently plentiful to be noticed. 

The gray squirrel is reported to be in reasonable abundance 
except in sections of Berkshire County, where there was a 
strange scarcity of nuts on the forest trees. Mam^ of the 
squirrels were compelled to go elsewhere in search of food. 

Deer are increasing, and are reported from all sections of 
the State. Occasionally one gets into a city. In some sec- 
tions deer are quite numerous, herds of four to a dozen or 
more being seen. 

We are introducing notices of song and insectivorous birds 
into this chapter, for the reason that it seems highly important 
that public attention should be invited to them. In a preced- 
ing chapter, and also immediately preceding the notices about 
small birds, detailed reasons are given why they should be 
better protected. 

The extracts from the press, reports from the deputies and 
information from other sources, which follow under their 
respective heads, will give, by localities, a rather comprehensive, 
condensed idea of the status of game in various sections of the 

jSea and Shore Birds. — For convenience, the wood duck 
and other species more or less closely related to the duck 
family or to the so-called shore, marsh and beach birds maybe 
included under this head, so far at least as mention of them 
has been made. 

The following extracts from the press and from the reports 

150 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

of deputies or others will supplement what has been written 
about sea fowl, shore birds, and ducks which frequent inland 
ponds, like the black duck, wood duck and other species. 

The Boston correspondent of " Forest and Stream," of Nov. 
14, 1903, states: — 

Our south shore gunners have been getting good bags of coot, 
ducks, yellow-legs, etc., of late, due largely to the storm. The sea- 
son, they tell me, has been eccentric, with now and then a few good 
days, followed by very poor ones. 

ChatJiam, — A despatch to the Boston "Herald" from 
Chatham, dated Nov. 28, 1903 (published the following day), 
stated : — 

The shooting at Monomoy continues good, and the sportsmen who 
go to the grounds invariably find excellent sport. The flocks of coot 
are remaining inside of Monomoy at Gull Point, and it seems as if 
they would remain there all this season, instead of bedding outside 
at the Bend, as has been their habit for many years. 

He reported the largest bag made by two men was ' ^ nearly 
fifty-six birds in two hours ; " also that many ducks had been seen 
in Chatham Bay, including the eider ; and that good black 
duck shooting was anticipated at Orleans and Chatham on the 
meadows, flats and ponds. 

Beverly. — Beach birds were quite abundant this summer. — G. W. 

Wenham. — We have had the best duck shooting this season we 
have had for years, the birds being very plenty and in fine condi- 
tion. — F. S. Knowlton. 

Gloucester. — The shooting of water fowl at Ipswich Bay and 
Squam and Essex rivers has been fine for the sportsmen. Some of 
them have had bags of forty or fifty birds after an early morning's 
sport. Marsh and beach birds have been fairly plentiful ; some good 
bags were brought in. — William W. Nixon. 

Sea bird shooting in this locality has been fair. — A. Rogers. 

Wakejield. — Black ducks and other ducks have been more abun- 
dant this year. — Samuel Parker. 

Hopedale. — There are more wild ducks than there have been for 
several years. — W. F. Durgin. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 151 

East Norton. — Black ducks have been very plenty ; wood ducks 
are scarce ; snipe have been abundant. — E. C. Pike. 

Upton. — Ducks are plentiful. — J. A. Bastovv^. 

Gardner. — Ducks are seen very often. — F. S. Casavant. 

Ludlow Centre. — A few ducks. — C. A. White. 

Pittsfield, — Ducks are plentiful on Onota Lake. — W. R. Stearns. 

West Tishury. — There is a decided increase in all kinds of 
game. — James Look. 

Inasmuch as sea and shore birds, and especially the former, 
are the chief game species on Marthas Vineyard, it is assumed 
that the reference to increase of game by Mr. Look has special 
reference to sea fowl. 

West Quincy. — Wild sea fowl have been abundant, and the sports- 
men are taking good bags every day. — Otis Thayer. 

While this statement applies more specifically to Quincy 
Bay, the lower section of Boston harbor and contiguous 
waters, it also has a general application to the coast from Cape 
Ann to Plymouth. 

Boston, — Wild fowl have been plentiful this year. — F. Serrilla. 

This report, by one of the deputies who has been continu- 
ously on the launch " Scoter," applies to the coast from Cape 
Ann to Plymouth, but more especially to lower Boston harbor, 
Quincy Bay and vicinity. 

Have seen a great number of wild fowl about the harbor. — D.J. 


Essex County. — The black duck has bred in large numbers on 
meadows bordering the Ipswich River, in Middleton and Topsfield. 
Compared with other seasons, there was a small flight of shore 
birds. — T. L. Burney. 

The Pittsfield "Eagle " of Aug. 8, 1903, says : — 

Ducks are coming later and later every year to the lakes in the 
vicinity of Pittsfield, the number of cottages which have sprung up 
and the lengthening of the cottage season keeping the birds away 
from these waters until late in October and November. 

152 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Again, on October 3, it stated : — 

Duck shooting on the lakes about the city has already begun, 
although as yet but few ducks excepting wood duck have put in their 
appearance, the weather being too warm. 

Partridge, Woodcock and Quail. — The extracts from the 
reports of deputies, etc., given under this head are reduced to 
the limit, in order that they may cover a wider field of obser- 
vation without being too voluminous. An efi'ort has been 
made to give the gist of what has been expressed by every 
writer, but using the fewest possible words of those he has 
written. The interest in these three species of game birds is, 
however, so great, and has been so intensified because of the 
scarcity of the rufi'ed grouse, that we feel the information pub- 
lished should have a wide range. Following are the deputy 
reports : — 

Nantucket. — There are a great many quail. — W. C. Dunham. 

Game is about the same as last year. — E. F. Snow. 

Plymouth. — Quail are not as plenty as usual. — Freeman Manter. 

Swansea. — Partridge have not held their own ; either they did not 
breed, or the young birds were killed by the cold, wet storms of 
June. Quail are plentiful. — R. W. Buffington. 

Owing to bad weather in early summer, partridge are very scarce ; 
quail quite plentiful. — E. D. Young. 

Raynham. — Game has increased in the past year, especially quail. 
— Henry S. Wilbur. 

Berkley. — Quail and partridge are quite plentiful. — Charles 

Franklin. — Partridge are very scarce in Bristol and Norfolk coun- 
ties ; quail are plentiful. — Herbert A. Bent, 

Sherborn. — Quail have increased wonderfully, but there are some 
not more than half grown at present (November 17). Ruffed grouse 
are not as plentiful as last year. Woodcock have been more numer- 
ous this season than I have seen in this State for fifteen years. — 
James T. Smith. 

Medjield. — Partridge are very scarce, — nothing but old birds; 
quail quite plentiful, but small ; a few woodcock, — all flight birds. — 
A. D. Kingsbury. 

East Norton. — Quail are very plenty, — more so than last year ; 
partridge and woodcock are scarce. — E. C. Pike. 

Pembroke. — Partridge and quail very scarce. There are no young 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 153 

partridges ; I think the cold weather in June killed all the young 
ones. Quail have raised their second litter. I started three coveys 
the other day ; they were about the size of an English sparrow, none 
of them large enough to shoot. Woodcock are quite plentiful, — 
more than for many years at this season [November 4] . — Otis 

Hingliam. — Quail have been numerous this year, but partridge are 
not as plentiful as in other years. — W. I. James. 

Weymouth Heights. — Quail are very plentiful ; partridge not so 
numerous as last year. — B. F. Richards. 

Braintree. — Partridge in our section of the country seem to be on 
the increase, and I account for it by the protection afforded them by 
the new law. — F. R. Smith. 

I have seen large numbers of quail ; there are also lots of par- 
tridges. A. T. HOLLINSHEAD. 

Qaincy. — The sportsmen have killed some birds, but they are 
nearly all old ones. — Otis Thayer. 

Partridge are scarce. — David L. Gordon. 

Quail and partridge are very scarce. — C. N. Hunt. 

East Dedham. — Partridge are scarce, and quail are not very 
plentiful. . . . Sometimes I think partridges are increasing, and 
again I don't think they are. — Samuel Harris. 

East Foxborough. — Partridge are not more numerous here and in 
Sharon than last year, but there are quite a number in Walpole and 
Wrentham. Although an old fox hunter, from the New England 
point of view, I feel that for the welfare of game birds and the 
poultry interests it is absolutely necessary for Norfolk and Bristol 
counties to offer a bounty on foxes. There will not be any first-class 
shooting in these counties until they do. Quail are more abundant 
here in the summer than for many years ; they don't seem to be 
more so now than at this time last year. — William H. Leonard. 

Needham. — Game of all kinds is not as plentiful as last season. 
Probably the forest fires are a cause of the scarcity of game in this 
section. — A. Crowell. 

Boston. — I have seen more quail in my back yard in Brighton 
than in all places visited, although last spring and summer the call of 
the quail could be heard everywhere. Partridge seem to be very 
scarce. I have not seen a woodcock in this district for a number of 
years. — Horace W. Jordan. 

Wohurn. — A few quail have been shot; partridge have been 
exceedingly scarce, and there have been no woodcock. — F. J. 

Medford. — Quail and grouse seem to hold their own. — Harry L. 

154 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Arlington. — Partridge are as scarce as for several years ; quail 
are fairly plenty, but not so much so as last year. — John W. 

Burlington and Lexington. — Partridge, quail and woodcock have 
decreased ; same result in South Weymouth. They have increased 
in Milton. — C. A. Besse. 

North Lexington. — Game is scarce in this vicinity. — Charles E. 

Stoneliam. — Partridge are about the same as last year ; woodcock 
are scarce ; quail have increased. — R. S. Rhuland. 

Wakefield. — The most noticeable fact in this vicinity in the fall of 
1903 is the scarcity of partridge. No cause can be found for this 
except the continued wet weather during the breeding season, for 
the number of old birds that survived the winter was greater than 
usual. Several large broods of newly hatched chicks were seen on 
the day before the wet weather began, but practically no young birds 
were to be found this fall. It is at this time that the value of the 
law against the sale of partridge is most apparent in keeping out of 
the market the few old birds that are left. A few flights of wood- 
cock have been seen, but their number is lessening every year. A 
serious factor in the destruction of woodcock seems to be the masses 
of telegraph wires that cover the sides of our streets and railroads. 
From the number of birds that are found dead under the wires, it 
seems to the writer that not enough importance has been ascribed to 
the apparently innocent telegraph wire as a destroyer of birds, espe- 
cially the woodcock, whose flight is generally on a level with the 
wires. Quail have done well, and ought to increase more next year, 
if the [coming] winter is not too hard. — George M. Poland. 

Partridges are not so plentiful as last year. — Samuel Parker. 

Reading. — Partridges are not so plentiful as usual. The old 
birds brought out large broods, but something happened to them 
when about half grown ; I think it was foxes, as they were unusually 
plenty this year. Quail are very abundant, and are fine and fat; 
woodcock are scarce. — H. E. McIntire. 

Lynnfield. — Quail are abundant, but partridge are very scarce ; it 
has been too wet for them this year. — George Williams. 

Salem. — Woodcock are more plentiful than I have ever known ; 
partridges have not increased. . . . The young birds must have 
been killed by the cold, wet weather of last June. This also applies 
to quail. — T. B. Ballou. 

Wenham. — Partridge are not as plenty as last year, — only old 
birds are found ; quail are not as plenty as in early summer ; wood- 
cock are very scarce. — F. S. Knowlton. 

Beverly. — Woodcock came early last spring ; I started one on 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 155 

March 2. More have bred here this season than in the past. Par- 
tridge are not so plentiful as last year ; those I have seen are old 
ones. There are plenty of . . . quail, but they are small. — Hiram 
A. Young. 

Quail are as numerous as last year, but birds are small. Partridge 
and woodcock are few in number. — F. G-. Lefavour. 

Quail have increased very much ; woodcock seldom seen. — G. W, 

Manchester. — Partridge, quail and woodcock can be seen in small 
numbers. — H. Thiemann. 

Andover {Ballardvale P. 0.). — Gunners report game birds very 
scarce. — E. H. Shattuck. 

North Andover. — Partridge and quail seem to be on the increase. 

— William J. Toohey. 

Georgetoion. — Partridge are very scarce, — no young birds. Quail 
are scarce; late birds are very small. A few woodcock, — flight 
birds. It seems the early birds got killed by the cold, wet spring. 

— H. L. Brown. 

Gloucester. — There are not so many quail as last year. — A. 

Ayer. — Partridge are scarce ; forest fires and wet June killed most 
of the young birds. There is a decided increase of quail. — J. I. 

South Acton. — All kinds of game are increasing except partridge ; 
there are plenty of quail. — L. E. Reed. 

South Sudbury. — Partridge decidedly more plentiful, and quite 
tame ; quail not so abundant. — Parker H. Kemble. 

Hudson. — Partridge are quite plentiful. — George A. Dudley. 

Marlborough. — Partridge scarce, but quail quite numerous. — H. 
C. Hudson and H. A. Snow. 

There are no young partridges this season ; I heard of a few wood- 
cock in flight time ; there were flocks of quail. — L. Hapgood. 

Northborough. — Partridges are nearly exterminated ; owing to 
heavy rains in the spring, the young birds were destroyed. There 
are only few quail, — very small and poor. — Ethan Bothwell. 

Milford. — Quail are very plentiful, and larger than usual. Wood- 
cock — mostly flight birds — reported numerous. Partridges were 
unusually abundant up to August. ... I never saw more young 
birds in summer — in the byways and cart roads of the woods — than 
during the past one. When the hunting season opened, the cry went 
up of " No partridges." Evidently something happened to the birds 
after they were half grown. — W. D. Prentiss. 

Partridge are very scarce ; quail are small, and we have only few 
woodcock. — J. L. Martin. 

156 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Grafton. — I don't think there are many partridges ; ... the 
season was bad ; too much rain in . . . Jane, the time when the 
young would be hatching or just hatched. Then the enemies of 
the bird have bred well this year, — I mean foxes and skunks, etc. 
Quail are plentiful ; woodcock have a little more than held their 
own. — George Pogue. 

Upton. — Partridge seem to be getting scarce. . . . There do 
not seem to be any young birds. Quail hold their own. — P. 

Partridge and quail are as plentiful as in other years, and are of 
large size ; woodcock scarce. — Joseph A. Bastow. 

Partridge and woodcock have been very scarce this year ; quail 
are more plentiful. — D. A. Warren. 

Uxbridge. — Partridge are scarcer than they have been for a num- 
ber of years ; quail and woodcock are more plentiful. — Robert F. 

Millbury. — There seem to be as many opinions as hunters as to 
whether birds are plenty or scarce. I know one man who bagged 
fifteen birds in one day, — seven partridge and eight quail ; in 
three hours I found four partridge and nine quail. — G. E. White- 

West Millbury. — Partridge are beginning to be a bird of the past ; 
quail reported as usual. — S. F. Stockvtell. 

Sutton ( Wilkinsonville P. 0.). — Partridge and woodcock are very 
scarce ; quail are plentiful. — G. H. Brown. 

Worcester. — Not one-quarter the birds there were two years ago. 
Hunters say shooting should be stopped two years, at least. — 
George M. Anderson. 

Princeton. — It is my opinion that game is on the increase in this 
vicinity, as I have seen many . . . partridges and quail. — Guy H. 

Leicester. — Game is about the same as last year ; some nice flocks 
of quail and quite a few partridge. — Timothy McCarthy. 

Spencer. — This season bids fair to be the best we have had in 
Worcester County for a number of years. Young partridge hatched 
by the thousand, but . . . the cold, wet weather of June killed them. 
. . . When the hunting season opened, they could not be found. 
Quail are more plentiful than ever before. — A. D. Putnam. 

Birds t are scarce this year, on account of the wet weather in June, 
which killed the young chicks. — James A. Hall. 

* Mr. Chase is superintendent of the Wachusett Mountain State Reservation , 
"but holds an appointment as a deputy of this department. 

t The term " birds," as used by sportsmen in the central and western sections of 
the State, usually is synonymous with partridge. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 157 

Charlton. — Not as many partridge this year as before ; the cold, wet 
weather last spring killed the young. Quail are increasing greatly ; 
I am surprised that there are so many. — Charles H. Baldwin. 

Southbridge. — Partridge and quail are not very plentiful this fall. 
— Augustus Loomis. 

Webster. — Birds are very scarce. — Joseph P. Love. 

Partridge are scarce; quail are more plenty than usual. — R. C. 

Palmer. — Partridge promised well in the spring, but have been 
noticeably scarce, which almost every one attributes to the wet 
weather in June — when it rained for about twenty-one days — kill- 
ing the young birds. Quail are quite plentiful, but woodcock are 
scarce. — J. F. Luman. 

Belchertown. — Partridge and quail very scarce, — caused by 
unusual climatic conditions. — A. L. Pratt. 

Thorndike. — Partridge scarce; quail plentiful. — M. C. Healey. 

Ware. — Woodcock and quail have been quite numerous, but 
partridge not as plentiful as in past years. In my travels I have 
seen several flocks of young partridge, and have found both quail 
and woodcock very plentiful. — Dennis Shea. 

Reports indicate an increase of partridge in some sections, and a 
decrease in others. I attribute this to the hawks and foxes being 
more plentiful in some places than in others ; the tendency of hawks to 
catch young partridge, and of foxes to destroy eggs besides catching 
young birds. If the State would pay a small bounty on foxes and 
hawks, — sufficient to encourage the farmers' boys to hunt and trap 
them, — it would be a move in the right direction. — A. H. 

Royalston. — Game is scarce. — George E. Carkin. 

Athol. — Birds are scarce. — A. H. Jefts. 

Partridge and quaii about the same as in the past. — W. H. Frost. 

Gardner. — Partridge are more plentiful this fall than last, and 
quail seem to be on the increase. — F. S. Casavant. 

Lunenburg. — Partridge were scarce the first of the season, — 
more plentiful now that the leaves have fallen ; quail are numerous. 

— Clarence H. Cooke. 

Fitchburg. — Partridge are scarcer than in preceding seasons, but 
quail are increasing. — Fred J. Proctor. 

Quail are holding their own ; partridge are very scarce. — C. O. 

Lancaster. — Partridge, quail and woodcock are not very plenty. 

— A. J. Kennedy. 

Ludlow Centre. — Partridge, woodcock and quail are not plentiful, 
yet there are a few. — Charles A. White. 

158 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

In the western central section of the State and Berkshire 
County birds appear to have been slightly less affected than 
farther east, and consequently are more numerous, even if not 
abundant. The writer knows personally of several good bags 
that were taken at Ware and vicinity by Mr. T. S. Horrigan 
of the Brighton district of Boston, who, on the first day he 
hunted there, thought he flushed about forty partridge. Antic- 
ipations were not, however, realized, for the result of the 
June weather was scarcely recognized until after October 1, 
when the hunters found birds were less abundant than ex- 

The Springfield " Republican" of October 2, in referring to 
the previous day's hunt, said : — 

Many hunters went out early in the day. . . . Quails are reported 
as more plenty than for several years, and the birds are of good size. 
Partridges are not found in large numbers. ... A few woodcock 
were also killed by those who know where to find them. 

The Pittsfield ^' Eagle" of October 3, in discussing the 
opening of the hunting season, mentioned the names of per- 
sons who got from six to nine partridges, which were referred 
to as "excellent bags." It stated that "All report the 
birds as being very plentiful, although few woodcock or quail 
have been reported." A Westfield item in the Springfield 
' ' Republican " of same date indicated that the hunters gener- 
ally had "fair luck" at the start, "although some returned 
without a feather." One bagged " eight woodcock and one 

The following brief extracts from reports of the deputies give 
a clear view of the local conditions in the western section : — 

Chesterfield, — Partridge and woodcock very scarce. — A. W. 

Haydenville. — Partridge and woodcock are scarce. — M. L. Sorn- 


Northampton. — Partridge and woodcock not very plentiful ; quail 
more abundant than last year. — Wm. G. Nicholl. 

Buckland. — Ruffed grouse are not so plentiful as last year. There 
were many birds left over last fall [1902], and lots of young birds 
were hatched, but June was unusually cold and wet, and nearly all 
the young birds were killed. — E. C. Hall. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 159 

Partridge very scarce. — M. J. Cranson. 

Berkshire County, — Partridge and woodcock were plentiful in 
some sections. — A. M. Nichols. 

On November 1 — the middle of the shooting season — Mr. 
Nichols wrote : — 

The hunters are getting good bags of partridge and woodcock ; 
they are getting more woodcock now than they did at the opening of 
the hunting season. 

Florida. — Grouse are fairly numerous, although the cold weather 
soon after the birds hatched depleted the flocks of young. — L. E. 


Mr. Kuberg, writing under date of June 24, said : — 

Birds are doing well, and I have seen several flocks. I know of 
nine that wintered together that were not shot into last fall at all. 

New Lenox. — Unfavorable weather and a severe hail storm at a 
time when young partridge were unable to stand it were enough 
causes why partridge are so scarce here. — Harvey H. Dewey. 

Lee. — Partridge hunters are well pleased with conditions. — C. H. 

Becket. — Woodcock have been plentiful. Partridge hatched well, 
but I think the cold rain in June killed many of them, as they are 
reported as in small broods, and decidedly scarce. — W. J. Cross. 

The Wild Pigeon. — The occurrence of the wild pigeon is a 
matter of public and scientific interest, and for this reason, and 
not because it is a game bird, reference to it is introduced here. 
Deputy Samuel Parker, who is perfectly familiar with the wild 
pigeon, makes mention of its appearance at Wakefield this year 
as follows: "In September a flock of wild pigeons, twenty- 
five or thirty in number, came over Crystal Lake." This notice 
of the presence of a species believed to be extinct is interest- 
ing, and must be important to ornithologists. 

Pheasants. — The information that comes to us from all 
sections of the State emphasizes the fact that the pheasant is 
doing well ; that it is hardy, and able to successfully endure 
the rigors of our winters ; also that it is a prolific breeder, 
and, if treated intelligently, is liable to thrive to such a degree 
that it will become the most important land game bird in the 
Commonwealth, — barring the partridge. It is quite possible 

160 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

it may become more plentiful than the partridge, and thus 
attain to the position it has reached in Oregon, — that of 
being " the game bird of the State." But this can occur only 
as a numerical consideration, for, bird for bird, no one will 
expect it to rival the partridge in those particulars that place 
the latter in a class by itself. The position the pheasant can 
fill, while secondar}^ perhaps, is that of a fine game bird, — 
one that will probably develop desirable qualities when hunted 
that do not show now, — which will ultimately afford much 
sport : while its food qualities are so excellent that it probably 
has no superior in that particular. 

In certain parts of the eastern section of the State the 
pheasant has increased wonderfully. This is especially true 
of the region which embraces West Gloucester, Manchester, 
Essex, Wenham, Danvers, Boxford, Topsfield and Hamilton. 
In some of these places it is reputed to be more abundant than 
the partridge has been for some years. Farmers complain that 
the pheasants are bold, as well as plentiful ; that they pull up 
newly planted corn, peck the corn in the ear so as to ruin it, 
and in winter rob the hens of their food. Exactly how much 
of this is true, and how much imagination and suspicion, it is 
now difficult to determine. It is known that the Mongolian 
pheasant feeds voraciously on the cut worm and other insects 
that are injurious to growing crops, and its fondness for grains 
is also a matter of common knowledge. It is not, however, 
known to us whether the alleged pulling up of corn was due 
to an effort to secure the corn for food, or to get at cut worms. 
At any rate, the pheasant is blamed for all depredations of this 
kind, whether they are committed by crows or other birds, and 
the good it does the farmer is overlooked by many. This is 
not true of all, for we know of farmers who are anxious to 
keep them on their farms, and, in order to do it, plant certain 
kinds of grain that are believed to be attractive to the birds. 
Deputy Thiemann reports, that the farmers in Manchester and 
vicinity often plant peas, so that the wild pheasants may be 
well supplied with food. 

A farmer near the line that separates the towns of Medford 
and Winchester says it is common to see pheasants in his 
corn field. The birds, he avers, do not trouble the corn. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMEXT — No. 25. IGl 

except that, in digging for cut worms, they may do slight 
damage . 

jNIr. W. B. Anderson, writing of the pheasant on Vancouver 
Island, B. C, says : — 

This is one of the most useful birds of all to the farmer. He 
sometimes eats a bit of grain, but pays for this tenfold by the 
number of predatory insects he destroys. Farmers there are who 
condemn him and hound him off for his grain-eating propensities, 
but these are the ones who do not pause to think before rushing to 
conclusions. The insect-eating habit is strong in all the birds of the 
order gallinse, to which belong the pheasants, grouse, partridges, 
quail, fowls, etc. ; and the good they do in insect destroying was 
well exemplified this season, when certain persons, preferring to let 
their fowls have the garden crop in preference to the cut worms, 
turned in their chickens. Those in Cumberland and Union who did 
that are the only ones who now have any cabbages or other soft- 
fleshed vegetables. Those who depended on Paris green to accom- 
plish the work lost more or less, especially cabbages and cauliflowers. 
The pheasant was working in the fields just as the bantams and 
other fowls were working in the gardens. Many of them fell victims 
to the poisoned bran placed in the fields to destroy the worm. We 
believe, however, that most of our district farmers are fully aware of 
the fact that these birds are of far greater benefit than harm, and 
accordingly deplore the untimely and unintentional destruction of so 
many of them.* 

The foregoing should be sufficient to show that the pheasant 
is vastly beneficial, to the farmer in particular, even if it some- 
times does exact a small tribute to keep itself from starving. 

Many nests that were built in fields have been broken up, 
and eggs or fledgelings destroyed by mowing machines coming 
in contact with them. But, despite that, and unseasonable 
weather, there has been an increase of pheasants. 

The following extracts from deputies' reports will show the 
present status of the pheasant, and how well it has thriven and 
increased in the past four years : — 

Gape Cod. — Pheasants are reported at Provincetown, Truro, 
Wellfleet, Orleans, Barnstable, Sandwich and Falmouth. — S. B. 


* Quoted in " Forest and Stream," Oct. 20, 1900. 

162 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Gloucester. — Pheasants are getting along excellently in this vicin- 
ity. They are in the woods of Rockport, Lanesville, Gloucester, 
West Gloucester, Essex, Manchester, Ipswich, Rowley, Newbury- 
port, Dauvers, Beverly and numerous other places. I can say from 
personal observation that they are thriving to an extent never 
dreamed of. They are so plentiful in the vicinity of Essex and Ips- 
wich that the farmers are complaining of them for destroying their 
crops. During the past summer broods have been seen with nine 
young ones. The commissioners' endeavors to stock the covers of 
the State with this most beautiful of all game birds are fully appre- 
ciated in this vicinity. — William W. Nixon. 

Manchester. — There are a number of pheasants here. — C. O. 

Pheasants are plentiful. — H. Thiemann. 

Wenham. — Pheasants 'are increasing fast, — too fast to suit the 
farmer ; they are very tame, and we see them almost every day. — F. 
S. Knowlton. 

Beverly. — Pheasants are making wonderful progress in this sec- 
tion. Farmers complain of them, but, so far as I know, none have 
been killed. — Hiram A^ Young. 

Pheasants have increased very much. — G. W. Goldsmith. 

Salem. — Pheasants are undoubtedly increasing, but they are un- 
popular with farmers ; I am afraid some have been killed for destroy- 
ing crops. — T. B. Ballou. 

Lynn. — There is a large increase of pheasants.* — Thomas L. 

Ballardvale. — Pheasants are doing well. — E. H. Shattuck. 

Groveland. — Pheasants are all right. — Gardner Wood. 

Georgetown. — Pheasants are doing well. — H. L. Brown. 

Maiden. — Pheasants have been seen in the neighborhood of Mai- 
den and Stoneham. — Samuel Williams. 

Arlington. — Pheasants are doing well. — J. W. Bailey. 

Heading. — Pheasants are doing well. . . . The male birds are 
the prettiest sight I ever saw in the woods. — H. E. McIntire. 

Marlborough. — Pheasants are quite abundant. — H. C. Hudson 
and H. A. Snow. 

Fitchburg. — I believe pheasants are here to stay ; they are quite 
plentiful. — Fred J. Proctor. 

Spencer. — Pheasants are surely increasing. — A. D. Putnam. 

Montague. — We frequently see some of the pheasants lately liber- 
ated here. — A. M. Lyman. 

* This information applies to all of the eastern and central sections of the State, 
hut perhaps more especially to Essex County. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 163 

Northampton. — Pheasants are seen occasionally ; there are more 
about than are seen, as they are very shy. — W. G. Nicholl. 

Buckland. — Have seen a brood of half-grown pheasants this sum- 
mer, which proves they will breed here. — E. C. Hall. 

New Lenox. — Pheasants seem to have fared better than partridge, 
for three old birds had a fine flock of twenty-eight young on my place 
up to the first of the hunting season ; since then they have wandered 
off into the woods, and many doubtless have been shot. — H. H. 

Berkshire County. — Pheasants are getting to be quite numerous. 
— A. M. Nichols. 

Song and Insectivorous Birds. — While birds included in 
this classification cannot be considered game in any sense, it 
nevertheless seems expedient and desirable to place on record 
a few of the numerous references to them ; for it cannot be 
successfully shown that any birds protected by law, however 
valuable they may be, are more important to the public wel- 
fare or more deserving of public notice and State protection 
than the numerous species embraced under the head of song 
and insectivorous birds. Aside from those who have given 
special attention to the study of their habits, with particular 
reference to their food, there are few who have an adequate idea 
of the public benefit conferred by these species. Without 
them the farmer's work would be practically useless ; the 
horticulturist would be helpless ; our covers would be wastes 
of naked, perishing trees ; and our beautiful parks, which have 
cost millions to build, would be desolate, barren wastes, un- 
attractive to the eye and useless to the public. The war now 
being waged in Boston and vicinity against insect pests will 
become universal throughout the State if the small birds are 
destroyed ; and in that event millions of dollars will not repair 
the damage caused by the reckless, law-breaking shooter. 

A volume larger than this report might easily be written to 
show the necessity of protecting this class of our summer visi- 
tants by every means in our power ; indeed, such has been 
published by the State of New York, — a book of ioQ pages 
quarto, entitled " The Economic Value of Birds to the State." 
It is to be hoped, however, that a brief allusion to this subject 
here, together with some notes which appear elsewhere, may 


be sufficient to impress upon the public mind the necessity for 
prompt and vigorous action, in whatever way is necessary, to 
preserve our small birds from further destruction. 

The commission has done what it could to preserve the birds, 
but there are limitations to its efforts, that will appear else- 
where ; they are a decided handicap. The State is indebted to 
the agricultural department for the able and instructive papers 
issued by it, which show conclusively the economic value of 
insectivorous birds. It is time that due weight should be given 
to these results of careful and painstaking study and research. 
The lessons taught thereby should be heeded now. If they 
are, great benefits may result, while delay or neglect may 
cause future expense and hardship too great to be easily esti- 
mated. It is, however, our intention simply to call attention 
here to the status of the song and insectivorous birds, in order 
that the public may be informed on this subject, so far, at 
least, as the information comes to us. 

Speaking in general terms, there has been an increase in 
small birds, which is probably less in evidence this year than 
it would have been, because of the abnormally cold and stormy 
June, which, there is reason to believe, had the same effect on 
the young of these small species that it had on larger birds. 

As a rule, boys are less destructive than formerly to small 
birds : first, because of the advice and instruction received at 
school, as a result of efforts made by the Audubon Society ; 
and, second, because they have found that it is dangerous to 
themselves to kill these species or disturb their nests or eggs, 
since they are liable to be haled before the courts by our 
deputies if they persist in violating laws protecting insect- 
eating or song birds. The persistent and irrepressible de- 
stroyers of small birds are recent immigrants from southern 
Europe and Asia Minor. 

Nantucket. — There have been many song birds. — W. C. Dunham. 

Weymouth. — Song birds have increased. — B. F. Richards. 

Quincy. — ItaUans are not kilUng as many song birds this year as 
usual. — C. N. Hunt. 

Arlington. — A serious problem before us is how to prevent the 
extermination of our song and insectivorous birds. With our present 
laws, and the way in which they are enforced by our courts, the prospect 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 165 

is not very bright. There has been a great deal of shooting of these 
birds by the same old offenders, — the Boston Italians, — who pretend 
to be hunting squirrels. — J. W. Bailey. 

Waltham. — Italians working on the Clinton pipe line have snared 
and slaughtered game and song birds within a mile of the line. — H. 
G. Frost. 

Gloucester. — Song birds seem to be more plentiful than for a good 
many years, more especially robins. — W. W. Nixon. 

Deer. — The following extracts give in part a correct idea of 
the distribution and increase of deer in this State : — 

New Bedford. — Deer are very plentiful in this vicinity. They are 
frequently seen from passing trains north of this city, and recently a 
fawn which strayed up on the railroad was killed by a locomotive. — 
New Bedford despatch in Boston " Herald," Nov. 22, 1903. 

Sandwich. — Held up by wild deer, while driving through the woods 
between here and Falmouth, was the strange experience of Robert 
W. Clark of this place Saturday evening last. . . . The deer, five in 
number, gave no warning of coming out of the woods, but jumped 
right out of a thick grove of pines into the road directly in front of 
the horse. . . . When the deer came to a halt in the road, Mr. 
Clark thought that they were going to charge the horse and carriage ; 
and for a few moments the situation looked serious, as there were 
two bucks among the number, and they alone could have made 
trouble for both man and beast. — Sandwich news item, Boston 
"Globe," Sept. 21, 1903. 

Plymouth. — Deer are becoming numerous. I have seen several 
upon different occasions. — Walter D. Shurtleff. 

Marshfield. — Two deer made their appearance conspicuously at 
Sea View and Marshfield Hills this afternoon. — Boston " Herald," 
June 19, 1903. 

Weymouth Heights. — Two deer were seen in this vicinity in 
April. — B. F. Richards. 

Swansea. — There are several deer in this section. — E. D. Young. 

Raynham, — Deer have been seen many times. — Henry S. 

Franklin. — Deer are frequently seen in this vicinity, sometimes 
as many as three together. — Herbert A. Bent. 

Sherhorn. — There is a herd of fine deer here, — two bucks, one 
doe and two fawns. The farmers seem pleased that the deer are in 
this neighborhood, even if the animals get into the gardens occasion- 
ally ; I hear no fault found. — J. T. Smith. 

Milford. — Deer are seen quite often. — W. N. Prentiss. 

166 FISH AXD GAME. [Dec. 

Hopedale. — Have seen deer several times this fall. — W. F. 


Stoneham. — It has been reported that three deer were seen in this 
vicinity. — Robert S. Rhuland. 

Wohurn. — Have heard of no deer in this neighborhood, although 
several have been seen in Billerica. — F. J. Brown. 

Lexington. — Deer are frequently reported in and about Lexington. 
— E. D. McDonald. 

Reading. — Deer are seen often in this section. — H. E. McIntirb. 

Wakefield. — Two deer have been seen in Wakefield. — Samuel 

West Upton. — Several deer have been seen in this vicinity. — 
D. A. Warren. 

Hvdson. — A number of deer have been seen in this town. — 
George A. Dudley. 

Millbury. — Deer are common now. — George E. Whitehead. 

Lancaster. — Deer are probably increasing ; as many as six have 
been seen at once. — A. J. Kennedy. 

Gloucester. — Deer are reported seen at Gloucester, West Glouces- 
ter, Essex, Manchester, especially at West Gloucester and Essex, 
where they have been seen nearly every day, three or four being seen 
together at one time. — W. W. Nixon. 

Manchester. — Deer not only eat grass, but have a great liking for 
vegetables ; some people complain, and others plant peas especially 
for them. — Hermann Thiemann. 

We7iham. — Deer are increasing. — Fred S. Knowlton. 

Haverhill. — During the last four months I have seen fourteen 
deer. — Edouard Mailloux. 

Groveland. — Deer are seen every week. — Gardner Wood. 

Georgetown. — Deer are seen often. — H. L. Brown. 

Andover (Ballardvale P. 0.). — Deer are numerous; four have 
been seen at one time, three at another, etc. — Elmer H. Shattuck. 

Lynnfield. — I have seen three deer which were quite tame. — 
George Williams. 

Lynn. — Deer are increasing rapidly all over the State, and if the 
dogs can be stopped from running them, we shall soon have plenty 
of deer in this section. — Thomas L. Burney. 

Ayer. — Deer are gaining in numbers. Last fall three or four in 
a bunch was the usual number; this year, from six to eight were 
seen. — J. I. Mills. 

Uxbridge. — Deer are seen frequently. A buck and two does 
wintered half a mile from my house. One doe had two fawns, and 
the other, one, this summer. — Edwin F. Tuttle. 

Deer are seen often, and are very tame. — R. F. Smith. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 167 

Southbridge. — Deer are seen often. — Augustus Loomis. 
Webster. — Four deer have been seen at our lake. — Joseph P. 

There have been several deer seen here. — C. B. Adams. 

Palmer. — Deer have been increasing rapidly the past year. — J. 


Ludlow Centre. — I have seen from one to three deer at a time 
quite often. — Charles A. White. 

Spencer. — Deer are increasing fast. — A. D. Putnam. 

Princeton. — While I have seen but few deer, I see tracks of them 
nearly every day. — Guy H. Chase, Superintendent, Wachusett 
Mountain State Reservation. 

West Gardner. — Deer have been more numerous this year than 
ever ; it is a common occurrence to see from three to five together in 
the eastern part of the town. — F. S. Casavant. 

North Dana. — There are lots of deer around here. — E. A. 

Mr. H. E. Brown of North Dana says he has seen about forty 
deer inside of a year. — Dennis Shea. 

Williamsburg {Haydenville P. 0.). — Deer are increasing. — M. 
L. Sornberger. 

Belchertown. — Deer are getting more plentiful every year. — A. 
L. Pratt. 

Ware. — There is a large increase in the number of deer. It is 
common to see them among cattle and sheep while riding through 
the country. — A. H. Eldredge. 

Deer have been more numerous this year than ever. Mr. F. A. 
Stowell of Dana reports seeing twelve on his farm this summer ; 
and Mr. Lamberton of Ware says four deer have stayed on his farm 
all summer, without doing any damage to his crops. — Dennis Shea. 

Athol. — Deer are increasing very fast. — A. H. Jefts. 

Buckland. — Deer are quite plentiful; five or six are often seen at 
a time. — M. J. Cranson. 

Deer are seen occasionally in this section. — T. P. Clare. 

Deer seem to increase. — E. C. Hall. 

Berkshire County. — Deer are seen everywhere in the western part 
of the State. — A. M. Nichols. 

Florida (Hoosac Tunnel P. 0.). — Deer are numerous. I have 
seen six at one time, and seldom fail to see one or more as I travel 
from my house to Hoosac Tunnel station every day. — Lyman E. 


Writing under date of June 24, Mr. Ruberg said : — 

168 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

I tell you, Mr. Collins, that if this town Florida could be fenced in, 
it would not need any stocking to be a deer park. I am certain that 
in parts of the town it is not unusual to see as many as eight deer, 
and fourteen have been seen together by reliable persons in one day. 

Adams. — Deer are increasing very rapidly ; I saw six one 
Sunday on Greylock Mountain. — Francis O'Neill. 

North Adams. — Deer have been even more numerous than usual 
about the city for the past few days, and on a recent morning two 
were seen frolicking together in Hillside cemetery. — North Adams 
'' Transcript," June 29, 1903. 

Charlemont. — Miles Ashton of this city while in Charlemont a 
couple of days ago saw a herd of seven deer. It is claimed that a 
herd of fifteen or sixteen have made their home in the vicinity of 
Charlemont during the entire winter. — North Adams "Evening 
Herald," Feb. 26, 1903. 

Pittsfield. — Several small herds of deer have been seen this 
fall. — W. R. Stearns. 

New Lenox. — Deer are doing nicely. I have reason to believe 
they are increasing. — H. H. Dewey. 

Becket. — Deer are seen often, and. are increasing ; they don't 
seem to be very wild. — W. J.^Cross. 

The Belgian Hare. — Comparatively little definite informa- 
tion has come to us concerning the Belgian hare. There is 
frequent mention of ''hares "in the reports of the deputies 
in various parts of the State in connection with rabbits, but 
no descriptive or qualifying term tells what kind of hares is 
meant. Presumably the Belgian is referred to, for there has 
never been a similar general allusion to hares, and there is no 
known reason why the white hare should suddenly increase in 
numbers to a noticeable degree. 

It would appear that in one case which has come to our 
knowledge the Belgian has been successfully crossed with the 
cotton-tail rabbit, although we are informed that other attempts 
in the same direction have failed. 

Supt. Arthur Merrill of Wilkinsonville, in writing to the 
commission under date of March 9, 1903, says : — 

I have read a portion of the report, and among the matters that 
interested me are the statements regarding the running qualities of 
the Belgian hare, as recently I have talked with a Millbury man who 
informed me that on a farm in Sutton a Belgian hare was crossed 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 169 

with a common white rabbit, and their progeny allowed to run at 
liberty, making their home under an out-building, and running about 
the farm more or less. Here several times dogs used by ferreters 
took their walks and spoiled the hunt, as the animals ran, so the man 
expressed it, *' like foxes," and refused to hole up. I have talked 
with many rabbit hunters about here, who have hoped to see the hare 
introduced, as they believe that in this way it will laigely spoil fer- 

Among those who have made special mention of the Belgian 
hare is Deputy Dennis Shea, who has liberated several lots in 
the central section of the State. He says : " We saw one of 
those hares that I let go there [Petersham] last fall, and Mr. 
Connor informed us that they are doing finely." 

This statement is a sample of others that come to us ; but 
there is a consensus of opinion that many oF the Belgian hares 
are killed by owls, foxes and various other enemies. The 
ordinary domestic cat is credited with being very destructive 
to the Belgian, as it is known to be to other small animals 
and to birds. 

However, it is believed that, once the Belgian hare gets 
established, it will maintain itself fully as well as the cotton- 
tail, if not better. Its wide distribution seems to make pos- 
sible its survival. 

Rabbits and Squirrels. — (Hares are frequently mentioned 
by the deputies with rabbits, and we prefer to publish these 
notices as they were written, under this head.) The brief 
notices of rabbits and squirrels given in this chapter will 
convey a good idea of their status throughout the State. 
These animals did not suffer to the same degree from the 
inclement summer weather as the birds did, hence the effect of 
the protection given to them is shown in their increase, except in 
those sections where the food for squirrels fell off abnormally. 

Plymouth. — Game is not abundant, owing possibly to the increase 
of foxes, which destroy a large number of . . . rabbits. — W. D. 

Pembroke. — Gray squirrels are very scarce ; rabbits are abundant. 
Otis Foster. 

Bramtree. — There are a lot of rabbits this year, but gray squirrels 
do not show at all. — A. T. Hoilinshead. 

170 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Boston {New Dorchester P. 0.). — Hares, rabbits and gray squir- 
rels have increased in Milton. — Charles A. Besse. 

Franklin. — Rabbits and squirrels about as in former years.* — 
Herbert A. Bent. 

East Norton. — Rabbits, squirrels and coons are plentiful. — E. C. 

Hopedale. — There are quite a lot of rabbits. — W. F. Durgin. 

Milford. — Squirrels are not numerous ; much of the best cover 
has been cut. — W. N. Prentiss. 

Rabbits are abundant. — J. L. Martin. 

Medford. — Gray squirrels are very plentiful, and tame. — H. L. 

Stoneham. — Rabbits are plentiful; gray squirrels about the same 
as last year. — R. S. Rhuland. 

South Sudbury. — Rabbits are about the same ; gray squirrels 
plentiful. — Parker H. Kemble. 

East Dedham. — Squirrels and rabbits are not plentiful. — Samuel 

Hudson. — Rabbits are quite plentiful. — George A. Dudley. 

Squirrels and rabbits are very plentiful in this section. — Daniel 
D. Rose. 

Marlborough. — Gray squirrels are scarce; there are a few rab- 
bits. — L. Hapgood. 

Upton. — Rabbits are plentiful; they are not hunted with ferrets. 
— P. Shaughnessy. 

Grafton. — Rabbits and squirrels are more plentiful. — George 


Sutton {Wilkinsonville P. 0.). — Not so many gray squirrels as 
last year; rabbits holding their own. — G. H. Brown. 
South Acton. — Rabbits are plentiful. — L. E. Reed. 
We7tham. — Gray squirrels are about the same. — F. S. Knowl- 


Beverly. — There are plenty of gray squirrels and rabbits. — Hiram 
A. Young. 

Woburn. — Rabbits and hares have escaped notice of hunters, so 
far as I am able to hear. Gray squirrels are disappearing from the 
woods, and only exist where they are protected in the neighborhood 
of houses. — F. J. Brown. 

Reading. — There are plenty of rabbits and gray squirrels. — H. E. 

Haverhill. — There are a good deal more squirrels and rabbits than 
last year. — Edouard Mailloux. 

* This applies to the whole south-eastern part of the State. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 171 

North Andover. — Gray squirrels and rabbits seem to be increas- 
ing. Wm. J. TOOHEY. 

Gloucester. — Rabbits and gray squirrels are plentiful, and will 
furnish good sport during the winter. — W. W. Nixon. 

Lancaster. — Gray squirrels and rabbits are abundant. — A. J. 

Fitchburg. — Rabbits are quite plentiful ; squirrels are holding their 
own. — C. O. Gibson. 

Worcester. — There seem to be many hares, rabbits and squirrels 
this year. — George M. Anderson. 

Princeton. — I have seen many squirrels (red and gray) and 
rabbits. — Guy H. Chase. 

LudloiD Centre. — Gray squirrels are plentiful. — Charles A. 

Thorndike. — Rabbits are plentiful. — M. C. Healey. 

Palmer. — Squirrels hold their own; rabbits are numerous. — J. 


Ware. — Gray squirrels and rabbits are in greater numbers than 
ever before. — Dennis Shea. 

Belchertown. — Gray squirrels and rabbits quite plentiful. — A. L. 

Spencer. — Rabbits are very plentiful. — A. D. Putnam. 

Athol. — Squirrels are about the same as formerly. — W. H. Frost. 

Gardner. — Hares and rabbits have been seen more this year than 
for the past two seasons. — F. S. Casavant. 

Northampton. — Gray squirrels seem to be scarce. — T. P. Clare. 

Berkshire County. — Squirrels were plentiful in some parts. I 
counted fourteen gray squirrels at one time in a piece of woods at 
South Williams town just before the season opened ; there was little 
food for them, as nuts were scarce. Rabbits very plentiful this 
season. It is one of the best coon seasons that we have had in a 
number of years. — A. M. Nichols. 

Florida. — Gray squirrels are not plentiful, because the food for 
them is scarce on the mountains this year. — L. E. Ruberg. 

Buckland. — Gray squirrels and rabbits hold their own. — E. C. 

Gray squirrels are abundant, but rabbits are very scarce. — M. J. 

Adams. — Rabbits and hares are very plentiful; gray squirrels are 
scarce, for we have n) nuts of any kind this year. — F. O'Neill. 

Pittsjield. — There are very few gray squirrels, hares and rabbits -in 
this section. — W. R. Stearns. 

172 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Breeding Game Birds and Animals. 

At Wmchester. — There has been practically no change in 
the breeding and rearing of Belgian hares at this station, other 
than a moderate increase in the output. There has been 
material change, however, in the breeding and rearing of game 
birds ; many of the conditions which were so threatening and 
disastrous the previous year having been almost, or entirely, 
eliminated hy the vigorous measures then adopted. Disease 
has been practically stamped out. As a consequence, the 
yield of young birds has been much enlarged ; except for the 
severe weather, the result would have been far beyond that 
achieved. All this will appear under appropriate heads. 

Pheasants. — The rearing of pheasants has been carried on 
as usual, although no season since we began the work has 
been more unfavorable in regard to climatic conditions. At 
best, the results are precarious and uncertain. During the 
latter part of June, the time of the largest hatchings, the cold 
rains caused a great loss of young pheasant chicks. 

The disease introduced last year, in the attempt to acclimate 
several varieties of foreign birds, appeared again, but in a 
milder and much less fatal form ; only about fifty birds were 
lost in consequence of it. Every possible effort has been 
made to eradicate it. The grounds were heavily dressed with 
air-slacked lime, and all the coops repeatedly cleansed with 
sulpho-naphthol. Having had less of the disease and milder in 
form this year leads to the hope that it will entirely disap- 

The new food alluded to in former reports has been in con- 
stant use for the last three years, and has proved to be all and 
more than was claimed for it. Young pheasants will take it 
freely as soon as they are able to feed. 

Every breeder knows that no amount of subsequent feeding 
and care will make up for an unfortunate beginning. One 
strong, healthy bird is worth a dozen stunted ones. 

Young pheasants fed on this food, mixed with maggots, are, 
at six weeks old, double the size of those fed with anything else. 
It is composed of wheat middlings or fine feed, Indian meal, 
finely ground beef scraps and flour of bone, scalded with a 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 173 

lightly cooked custard (milk and eggs), granulated by rubbing 
through a coarse wire sieve, one-quarter-inch mesh. About 
twenty-five bushels of this food have been used at this station 
this season for pheasant and bantam chicks. The eggs, from 
two to three hundred dozen, were furnished by the bantam hens. 

Notwithstanding the many unavoidable drawbacks, there 
were more pheasants for distribution this season than any 
previous year. Our experience this year goes to confirm our 
previous conclusions, — that bantams are the best sitters and 
mothers for pheasant chicks. The larger ones will cover fifteen 
eggs well, and the smaller two or three less. As a rule, they 
are patient sitters, and, what is fully as necessary to success, 
the gentlest and kindest of hen mothers. Heavier hens are 
very likely to kill the young chicks. 

Owing to the constant blasting on a ledge in the vicinity of 
the incubator house, the incubators have been used compara- 
tively little. It was thought best to use the bantam hens almost 
entirely. Deep nests were made of coarse hay, to break the 
jar as much as possible. 

In the wintering of young pheasants it is possibly as well to 
have their coops partially protected from severe storms ; but 
housing or partly housing adult pheasants is a step in the 
wrong direction. We have on the ground iave coops, enclosed, 
— tops, ends and north side. More adult birds have been lost 
there than in the open coops. Here, as Avith the Belgian hare, 
exposure to climatic changes is necessary to the maintenance 
of a hardy, vigorous stock. 

The Mongolian or ring-necked pheasant is a native of a 
climate much more rigorous than ours, and suffers more from 
the heat of summer than from the cold of winter. This has 
been so thoroughly demonstrated that it is no longer an open 

Ex2)eriments in hatching Eggs. — All breeders of birds in 
confinement have experienced disappointment and loss in con- 
sequence of many of the eggs failing to hatch. The average 
loss, whether in incubators or under hens, amounts to about 
fifty per cent, of the eggs. 

An examination of the unhatched eggs shows that many of 
them are as clear and fresh as when laid. They are considered 

174 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

unimpregnated. In others the chicks have died in every stage 
of development, up to the last day of incubation. The causes 
of these failures have never been understood. A great deal has 
been said and NTOtten in regard to it, and directions given for 
specially prepared foods and the treatment of fowls and birds 
to ensure fertility and to produce healthy chicks. Much of 
this is of little value, but is not wholly wrong, for whatever 
tends to produce strong, healthy condition in the parents will 
undoubtedly give strength and vitality to the ofi'spring. Yet, 
despite all efforts, the fact still remains that a large portion of 
the eggs do not hatch. 

The anatomical structure of the female bird is such that, 
when well mated, it seems almost impossible that any eggs 
should escape impregnation ; and this is sustained by examin- 
ing the supposed infertile eggs under the microscope, and by 
the fact that, as a rule, eggs of wild birds all hatch. If there 
is an exception, it is due to some imperfection or injury to the 

A careful study of the eggs of wild birds shows that the shell 
is closely coated with silica, not unlike that which covers the 
stalk of wheat and many other plants, rendering them imper- 
vious to air and water. Many of the egg shells of domesti- 
cated birds lack this coating. 

Breeders know that a dead egg in the incubator will fill the 
chamber with sulphuretted hydrogen gas, which forces itself 
through the pores of the shell, and that the gas is liable to be 
absorbed by other eggs, which is fatal to the embrj^o. Such 
possible fatality is not dependent alone upon deleterious gases, 
for it is well known that in mammalia the introduction of com- 
mon air into the womb is fatal to gestation. Following in the 
line of these facts, long and careful study and experiment have 
led to results that may be helpful to those who are breeding 

At the end of the hatching season a small surplus of bantam 
eggs afforded an opportunity for some experiments which had 
long been contemplated, a record of which is here appended : — 

No. 1. — Forty -five bantam eggs, set in the usual way, 
under bantam hens, fifteen eggs under each, gave a hatch of a 
fraction over fifty per cent. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 175 

No. 2. — Fifteen eggs were immersed for a few minutes in 
a bath of ten per cent, silicate of soda, and dried on a wire 
screen, turning them as the top dried, to ensure the perfect 
glazing of the shell. Imperfections may be obviated by drying 
and dipping them again. Care should be taken that the eggs 
are perfectly coated, it makes but little difterence how thick, 
provided it does not prevent the chicks escaping readily from 
the shell. This did not either retard or accelerate the hatching, 
and at the close of the twenty -first day every egg hatched. 

No. o. — Thirteen eggs were treated with fifteen per cent, 
silicate of soda ; all hatched. 

No. 4. — Thirteen eggs were treated with twenty per cent, 
silicate of soda ; all hatched but one, and that held a dead chick 
about two-thirds grown ; this shell was imperfectly coated. 
The eggs were all carelessly collected, with no intention of 
setting them. 

The advantage gained in Nos. 2, 3 and 4 over No. 1 was 
not only in the number of chicks, but they were remarkably 
strong and healthy ; there was not a weak one among them. 
They came out of the shells rapidly, and only slightly moist. 
The inside membrane adhered closely to the shell, and was as 
smooth as a porcelain cup. 

For the benefit of those breeders who lay so much stress on 
specially prepared foods as a means of obtaining fertile eggs, 
we will say that the bantam mothers in these cases had been 
sitting, more or less, all summer, some of them for a total of 
fifty days, during which time they had hatched two broods of 
pheasants without leaving their little coops. All of that time 
and after, while laying the eggs with which these experiments 
were made, they were fed on nothing but whole or cracked 
corn, and no green food was given them. 

To those who desire to test this method, we recommend the 
careful gathering of the eggs, and coating them the same day. 
After covering them, dry them well, and set them, large end or 
air-chamber down, in a cool place until wanted. An inch of 
dry sawdust or bran on the bottom of the receptacle will hold 
the eggs firmly in a vertical position. 

Whatever is used to coat the shell should be chemically pure, 
and should contain nothing to injure the egg. It should ren- 

176 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

der the shell imper\' ious to air and water, and should be a non- 
conductor of electricit} . 

The an- cell of the egg contains all the air the embryo needs 
until it breaks the shell. The egg is a little world, complete 
in itself, where the magnetic currents, generated by the chemi- 
cal changes, enable the embryo to build up its material form. 

It is hardly possible that these and other experiments, all 
pointing in the same direction, can be only coincident. They 
are not antagonistic to the natural production of bird life ; on 
the contrary, they restore what artificial conditions have more 
or less perverted. While we may not, with our limited expe- 
rience, be able to fully state what may practically result in 
consequence of these experiments, we can assert positively that 
eggs, hermetically sealed in the manner indicated, have hatched 
with phenomenal success ; and this suggests important changes 
in the hatching of eggs, both under the hens and in the incu- 

Crossing Pheasants. — An interesting result was secured by 
crossing golden and Mongolian pheasants. This was, perhaps, 
suggested by the fact that the cock golden pheasant got out of 
the enclosure and did not return; he was probably stolen. 
A ring-necked cock was mated with the golden hens, and the 
result was that we raised some beautiful birds. They are 
nearly or quite as large as the Mongolian, with many of the 
extremely rich colors and long tail of the golden pheasant, 
mixed with distinctive markings of the former. If the new 
type breeds well, and is hardy, it will make an unusually 
beautiful addition to our game birds. No doubt it will be 
welcomed by all lovers of birds, and particularly by those who 
are fond of rich plumage. 

Belgian Hares. — The breeding of these animals has been 
fairly successful. Notwithstanding their exposure to all 
climatic changes, they have remained perfectly healthy, no dis- 
ease having appeared among them. A few of the young ones, 
that had their freedom in the enclosure, had not sense enough 
to keep under cover during the cold rains, and died in conse- 
quence of the exposure. They can stand an}^ amount of cold, 
provided they do not get wet. 

The old breeders are not as prolific as the younger ones, but 

1903. J PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 177 

this is more than compensated for by the stronger and more 
vigorous character of the offspring. 

The rabbits are fed in the morning on a handful of oats 
each, and in the evening on chopped hay moistened and 
sprinkled with middlings or fine feed. In summer they have 
all the green food they want, and in winter are given a ration 
of turnips or carrots once or twice a week. With this food 
they will breed throughout the year. Those born in autumn 
and winter are more desirable than those of the hot season. 

Sutton, — The breeding and rearing of birds and animals at 
the fish hatching station in Sutton — Wilkinsonville village — is 
gradually assuming important proportions. The place appears 
to be well adapted to this work. It is quiet, apparently com- 
paratively free from the depredations of the domestic cat ; there 
is ample room on the State land, and sufficient shade for all 
purposes. There is every reason for anticipating success in 
raising Belgian hares. Six young hares were sent there in the 
fall, but they were not sufficiently developed to breed this year. 
They did well, and when placed in boxes on the side of a hill, 
where they had an opportunity to burrow, they immediately 
began to dig, and soon had deep, warm burrows to protect 
themselves from the inclement weather of the coming winter. 

The rearing of pheasants is now a well-established feature of 
the work at this station, where a careful record is kept of all 
matters which may prove of public interest. 

Report of the Superintendent. — The following report of Mr. 
Merrill, superintendent of the station, presents in a clear and 
comprehensive way the leading facts and observations in con- 
nection with pheasant breeding under his charge : — 

State Fish Hatchery, Wilkinsonville P. O., Sutton, Mass., 

Kov. 9, 1903. 
To the Commissioners on Fisheries and Game. 

Gentlemen : — The brood stock of pheasants was slightly increased 
over that of last year, and consisted of nine cocks and thirty hens ; 
but the number of eggs obtained was somewhat less, owing to a lower 
average per bird, it being less than thirty for the present season, and 
thirty-eight for the year before. The number laid by individual birds 
varied from less than twelve by some of the year-old birds to more 
than sixty by some of the two-year-old birds ; the average of the first 
was twenty-four, of the latter forty. The eggs were obtained early, 

178 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

the first in March, and the greater number in April and May; few- 
were secured in June and none in July, though usually the birds lay 
well in those months, and the eggs then available often give the best 
results. From the total number of eggs obtained (eight hundred and 
fifty-three) five hundred and four chicks were hatched, showing a 
decided improvement in hatching over the past two years, but still 
far from being satisfactory. The improvement is possibly owing to 
superior conditions for keeping the brood stock. If this is so, better 
results may be expected in the future, as, because of the recent 
building of roomy yards, enclosing dry, brush-covered ground, the 
stock is removed for winter from the small breeding pens, where it is 
believed their vitality has been impaired by the dampness and close 

The chicks hatched apparently as strong as usual, and no consider- 
able loss was due to weakness ; but during the latter part of June, 
when the largest lots hatched, a period of excessively cold and rainy 
weather destroyed a large number. During the better weather that 
followed the results were more satisfactory ; but, owing to the rapid 
falling off in the yield of eggs at that time, the number secured from 
the late lots was smaller than usual. The loss among the half-grown 
birds was slight, as, because of ample pen room, they were confined 
before they were exposed to attacks by the enemies that have usually 
destroyed them at this age ; the loss in the pens was practically 
nothing. Although confined young, the birds suffered no check in 
their development, and in August ninety of the oldest were liberated ; 
they were in a very vigorous condition. The remaining twenty-five 
were held for future disposal. 

The usual trouble with vermin attacking the young chicks was ex- 
perienced ; but many ways have been learned of keeping some of the 
troublesome pests at such a distance that the chicks can be reared on 
the open ground about the buildings of the station. However, the 
surrounding brush and tall grass sheltered the enemies that caused 
many chicks to disappear, and it was quite definitely known that cats 
and snakes were the chief agents in destroying them. The area of 
cleared land, although it has been considerably extended, will not 
always permit the coops to be placed where the chicks cannot enter 
the surrounding brush, which affords a cover and food that they 
delight in, but which also shelters the most troublesome of their foes. 
Each year, as far as the time available for that work would permit, 
the brush has been cut and the land smoothed to allow the free use 
of the scythe ; with the continuance of this work and the extension of 
the pens, as new- ones are built around the boundaries of the lot, an 
area will soon be cleared and enclosed where a large number of chicks 
can be kept, and be given reasonable protection. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 179 

The new pens were located on the hillside above the breeding pens, 
and were built thirty-six feet long and ninety-six feet wide, and from 
two to six feet high, according to the inequalities of the ground. At 
the upper or north side a roomy shelter and dusting shed was built. 
The top was made of wire netting tightly stretched over heavy cross- 
wires, which allowed the enclosure to receive the full sun all through 
the day. For shade through the summer a suitable number of trees 
were allowed to stand above the wire, and much of the low brush 
growing on the ground within the enclosure was saved. In the few 
months that the birds have been in the pens they have been more quiet 
and contented, have been in better plumage, and are free from the 
bruises they received by contact with the walls and tops of their 
former close quarters. The pens were intended mainly for wintering 
the brood stock, with the expectation that such roomy, healthy 
quarters would result in an increased vigor among the birds wintered, 
but they also served to hold the young stock until they were old 
enough for distribution, and were the means of producing better birds 
for liberation than have previously been grown in pens. Although 
these pens will be available each year for developing stock for distri- 
bution, they will not be sufficient for that purpose, even with no 
increase of brood stock, and it will be desirable to make additional 
pens for another season ; but it will not be necessary to make them 
with the material and construction used in the finished pens, as they 
are desired for summer use only. The nature of the pens desired 
has been indicated in previous reports, and a more detailed state- 
ment will be made in good season for beginning any work on them. 

Hens have been used exclusively for rearing the pheasants. A 
flock of bantams, as well as various kinds of larger hens suitable for 
the work, have been kept. Ordinarily, the results have been satis- 
factory, and, as the work has been regarded as experimental, it was 
better to depend on hens than to acquire the more expensive equip- 
ment for artificial hatching ; but if any considerable extension of the 
work is contemplated, and for any difficult season like the present, it 
will certainly aid in the work to provide such an equipment. 

The present season, as already noted, differed from any heretofore 
experienced in the severity of the weather at periods during the 
hatching season ; and the effect of the cold storms was generally 
known through the destruction of domestic chicks and many broods 
of grouse. Whenever losses have occurred among the pheasants, 
they were generally due not to neglect, but to lack of attention from 
the hens ; for perhaps in every case the hen would look after the 
pheasant chicks as carefully as she would her own. But the care 
under which a brood of chickens would thrive would often be wholly 
insufficient for the pheasants ; and it was frequently seen that, with 

180 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

a hen assiduously attending to her brood of pheasants, some were 
fatally chilled because she persisted in scratching for them, when 
they needed to be more frequently hovered. 

During many days of severe cold it was necessary to shut the hens 
in darkened coops, in order that the chicks might have needed 
warmth and protection ; at other times chicks partially chilled were 
warmed over a stove, and saved. But it was a matter of constant 
observation that scores were lost by being chilled, and there is strong 
reason for believing that this is a source of heavy loss in any season. 
At other places, where hens are used, similar experiences are reported,, 
with sometimes more unsatisfactory results ; while those places hav- 
ing brooders seem to have had little or no trouble. This justifies 
the belief that it would be profitable to use brooders here, even if 
only to carry the weaker broods through periods of cold weather. 
Hens would continue to be the chief dependence for hatching, and 
there is an ample stock of them on hand, with room for housing 
them ; but, as they must be confined through the summer, there 
should be an extension of their yards, in order to keep them in the 
best condition and to get larger returns for their keeping. For the 
present season they have paid for their own food, the expense of 
raising a large flock of chickens and bantams, and the greater part 
of the supplies for the pheasants. It would not, I think, be expect- 
ing too much of them, in a favorable season, and if given the best 
care possible, if they paid for all of the food and supplies used in 
rearing the pheasants. 

One of the greatest aids that could be provided for getting better 
returns from the hens, as well as securing the best and most con- 
venient means of feeding the pheasants, would be to provide a small 
cooking house. It does not seem practical to do this work in any of 
the present buildings, as all the space in them, and even additional 
room, is urgently needed, some of which might be obtained by storing 
poultry feed in the new building. The building desired would not be 
large, or require much expensive material in its construction, and a 
stove suitable for use is already on hand. 

An improvement in connection with rearing pheasants, which might 
well be considered in advance of its real need, is the construction of 
a basement under the barn. This could be built without any addi- 
tional labor, and the only inaterial required would be cement. The 
stove needed now lies under or near the building. The additional 
room thus provided will be urgently needed, if any work is done with 
incubators and brooders ; and even for present uses the space can 
be provided so economically that it would be profitable to do the 

Respectfully, Arthur Merrill. 




' m 


1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 25. 181 

Experiments Elsewhere. — Messrs. Paul Butler of Lowell 
and Charles W. Dimick of Cambridge continued the experi- 
ments they began last year in attempting to rear partridges, 
but the severe weather of June defeated their efforts. Mr. 
Dimick has, however, secured a number of additional adult 
partridge from Maine, and he hopes to be in a favorable posi- 
tion next spring to continue the experiments. 

Dr. C. F. Hodge of Clark University, at Worcester, has 
also conducted some experiments in breeding partridge, under 
the auspices of the commission. The status of the partridge, 
its excellence as a game bird, and the fact that it is non-migra- 
tory, are reasons, we think, why all possible should be done to 
study it scientifically, with the object in view to ascertain if it 
is practicable to breed it in confinement, or when held in quasi- 
control on enclosed areas of wild land or parks. 

While Dr. Hodge did not meet with the success hoped for, 
lie made some interesting observations, which will doubtless 
add to the general knowledge of the partridge. His report 
follows : — 

Dec. 5, 1903. — . . . I secured twenty partridge eggs from three 
different nests, and have the following observations to report : — 

First. — ^Taking part of the eggs from a nest in two of these cases 
did not cause the partridge to abandon the nest. The third nest was 
too far away to revisit, or at least, while I fully intended to do so, I 
was not able to find the time to make the trip. It is often stated that 
taking even a single egg from a clutch — even if this is done with a 
spoon, so that no scent of the human hand is left about the nest — 
will cause the bird to desert. Although I should like to investigate 
this further, I have as yet found nothing to support this view. 

Second. — Dogs do not seem to be able to scent a partridge on the 
nest. I tested this very thoroughly with three so-called "crack" 
partridge dogs, — two pointers and one English setter. All these 
dogs, as I was told by their owners, had hunted for a number of sea- 
sons, and had scores of birds to their credit. I took them out to one 
of the nests, and allowed them to range all around it. In no instance 
did a dog offer to point the bird, and in no case did a dog even so 
much as flush the bird by accident. Even after flushing the bird, 
none of the dogs paid the slightest attention to the warm nest, when 
led up to within a foot or two of it. While making these tests, all 
the dogs pointed quail and cock partridges wherever they came across 
their tracks. The above fact has often been noted by hunters, and 

182 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

seems to be fully supported by all the evidence I have been able to 

Third. — The food of the young partridge. I succeeded in hatch- 
ing thirteen of the eggs, but six of the chicks were either deformed, 
or too weak to begin to feed. The other seven appeared to be vigorous, 
and began catching flies and other small insects the day after hatch- 
ing. I had reared an abundance of meal worms and maggots, and 
was able to catch any number of flies and other insects by means of 
traps and insect nets. The young birds also ate small earthworms 
and mosquito wrigglers. I tested them with a great variety of pre- 
pared foods, — grated egg, bread crumbs, scraped raw meat, grated 
boiled meat, grits, boiled rice, millet and other small seeds, grass, 
clover, chickweed, partridge and wintergreen berries, etc. They 
would either pay no attention to any of these things, or, if they did 
pick at them at all, would not do so but once. The only prepared 
food which they could be induced to take in some quantity was freshly 
curdled milk, — sweet curds. 

The weather was cold, rainy and generally unfavorable. During 
warm, sunny spells the chicks were given the range of the yard and 
garden, and closely followed in order to study their natural feeding 
habits. On such occasions the young birds showed no inclination to 
keep together ; each one struck out for himself, and hence it required 
as many observers as there were birds at liberty. They would pay 
no attention to a bantam hen with which I tried for a time to rear 
them, and, as she had four chicks of her own, she paid no attention to 
them ; she would, however, brood them and treat them as her own 
chicks when they were with her ; but the partridges cared nothing for 
her calls or for the food of the bantam chicks. How a hen partridge 
manages to keep her brood together is a mystery to me. I supposed 
it might be an advantage to bring them up together, but bantam and 
partridge chicks do not mix any more than oil and water. I shall 
not try to rear mixed broods again. 

I consider the most important fact that I have been able to observe 
with reference to the food of partridge chicks the extreme smallness 
of the insects they seem to prefer. Plant lice, mealy bugs, thrips 
and larvae would be snapped up at almost every step of the young 
chick. They would be snapping incessantly among the leaves and 
grass, and, with my face within a few inches of the chick, I was for 
some time unable to see what it was catching. The young chicks 
would often.spend minutes picking the plant lice from a single lettuce 
plant, and would follow the rows from plant to plant. Their feeding 
instinct seemed to lead them to search especially the under side of 
leaves, where insects habitually hide during the day. I am convinced, 
from these observations, that I tried to feed too many large maggots 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 183 

and other insects ; and, if I am permitted to try the experiment again, 
I shall aim to provide an abundance of plants infested with plant lice 
and thrips. 

Fourth. — Instincts of fear and tamability of partridge chicks. I 
was able to keep the chicks alive for fifteen days. During this time 
numerous photographs were taken, which demonstrate the point I 
wish to make under this head. During the whole time I was not able 
to observe a single indication of wildness or of fear of man. None 
of the birds attempted to run away or to hide, to crouch or " freeze." 
They were as tame as any young chicks I ever reared. At a week 
old they had grown wing feathers, and could make short flights of 
twenty feet or so ; and, by adopting a uniform whistle when feeding, 
I got them to recognize it so that they would run or fly to me 
when the whistle was given. When cold, they would creep between 
my hands and nestle down to brood and go to sleep. While feeding 
they soon learned to perch on my finger, while I carried them about 
among the leaves of the rose bushes, from which they picked the 
aphides and slugs, often spying the latter before I did. I never had 
tamer young birds of any kind, chickens not excepted. I am con- 
vinced that their natural instinct to wander and range widely for 
insect food has led to the opinion that they run away because of 
wildness ; but this is a mistake, for partridge chicks, at least, under 
two weeks old. We lost none of our chicks in this way, but many 
others have ; and, while they may be inclined to ascribe this to the 
instinct of wildness, I am convinced that it is better explained on 
the grounds of pure accident, associated with protective coloration, 
— it is merely the problem of the needle in the haystack. 

One season, I find, is a short time to work on the problem of 
taming the American partridge. I feel, however, that I have learned 
a good deal which will be of great value to me in possible future 
experiments. As it is, I think, if the weather had been more favor- 
able, — it was really so cold and wet that it killed most of the par- 
tridge broods in the woods, — I should now have a flock of six or 
seven tame birds to report to you. ... I should like to stick to this 
until I can show you a flock of tame partridges breeding in semi- 

Very truly yours, C. F. Hodge. 

DiSTPaBUTiON OF Game Birds and Animals. 

At no previous time has the distribution of game birds and 

animals been so large as during 1903. Four hundred and 

tvrenty-four pheasants have been liberated in various sections 

of the State, in compliance with the requests of applicants. 

184 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

The localities where these were liberated, and a list of the 
applicants, will be found in the Appendix. In addition to the 
pheasants liberated, more than a hundred have been kept over 
for liberation next year. 

The Belgian hares distributed numbered two hundred and 
sixteen, which is more than we have ever liberated in the 
covers in any previous year. The points of distribution and 
the persons to whom the hares were sent are shown in the 
Appendix. In all cases, however, both as relates to birds and 
animals, our deputies looked after their liberation in the covers. 

For the first time in a considerable period we have been 
able to comply wdth all applications for birds and animals, 
although the public desire for these has been as large as ever. 

Enforcement of the Law. 
Financial Resources. — As heretofore, it is not practicable 
to indicate with anything like exactness the sum of money 
devoted to the enforcement of law. This is due to various 
reasons. First, there is no specific appropriation for this work, 
nor can there be, without subjecting the department to much 
embarrassment, and actually establishing an obstacle that might 
be a serious hindrance to success. The reason for this is found 
in the fact that the deputies are assigned to a variety of 
duties, as the needs of the service demand; and in the same 
day — practically at the same time — an officer may be giving 
attention to two or three kinds of work. Thus, a certain 
number of deputies may be detailed for the distribution of 
fish, birds or animals, a class of work that is going on more 
or less for eight months of the year. An officer may canvass 
the coast for information relating to fisheries, or he may be 
required to serve in some other capacity. But, wherever he 
is sent, he is so trained that his eyes and ears are open to 
observe any violation of the fish and game laws. In case 
there is such, the messenger is promptly transferred into a 
law^ officer ; and he who may deliver a consignment of fish or 
birds in the morning, or be peacefully seeking information of 
the commercial fisheries, may be in a court room an hour or 
two later, trying to convict some one found in the act of 
breaking the law. Again, the publications containing laws, 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 185 

or abstracts of laws, the issuance of which is an important part 
of the law-enforcing work, are paid for from another appro- 

For these reasons, and others which might be cited, it is 
impossible to give with exactness the amount of money 
actually devoted to the enforcement of law. Perhaps it may 
suffice to say that the sum estimated as necessary for this work, 
$12,340, was appropriated, and this will be nearly used; 
although, as indicated, incidentally much is done with it 
besides the single duty it was intended to pay for. 

The allotment for enforcing law was larger than heretofore 
in the bulk sum ; but, as this amount was intended to supply 
the means for building a launch, the money actually available 
for paying deputies' salaries and expenses was less than usual. 
This was due to the fact that the launch cost considerably 
more than double what was estimated. As a result, it was 
impracticable to have as many paid deputies as common during 
the open hunting season, and for a few days before and after 
that period, when violations are liable to be more frequent 
than at any other time. 

Force employed. — The force has consisted of: (1) salaried 
deputies, serving throughout the year; (2) special deputies, 
on full pay for short terms of service, chiefly on the launch ; 
(3) one special deputy, on very limited salary; (4) special 
deputies, with small annual salaries, for (a) care of State pond 
and (6) fishway ; (5) deputies paid by clubs; and (6) unpaid 

After Jan. 15, 1903, we had on the roll eight permanent 
deputies, one of the regular force having been dropped, and 
three specials. One of the latter was in charge of Mill Pond 
at Yarmouth, another was caretaker of the Lawrence fishway, 
and the other was on a small salary at Nantucket. About 
midsummer the latter resigned. The regular force was 
increased by the addition of two members, and for the first 
time in the history of the commission the system of competi- 
tive examination was introduced. This was due chiefly to the 
fact that there were thirteen applicants for one position ; eleven 
took the examination. The result was satisfactory, and it is 
probable the system will be continued. 



In August, after the launch was put afloat, a man was 
appointed as deput}^, to go on her with the special object of 
acting as engineer, he having served in that capacity the 
previous summer, when Ave had the naphtha dory chartered. 
Later, another man was appointed as a deputy to go on the 
launch. Both of these continued until the close of the year. 
In the spring, at the opening of the trout season, a deputy 
was employed on salary for a few weeks. During most of the 
open season for game three of the salaried deputies were 
detailed for the distribution of fish, pheasants and hares. 
They were also assigned to this duty in the spring for several 
weeks. One of the regular force, John F. Luman, was 
ordered to the office October 1, and retained there until the 
close of the year, in the capacity of acting chief deputy, thus 
relieving the chairman from the onerous duty of directing the 
law-enforcing work while preparing the annual report. He 
performed this duty with much tact and efficiency. 

There has been a material enlargement in the unsalaried 
force, which has numbered about one hundred and seventy-five 
deputies. The men composing this force are distributed all 
over the State, and they are from nearly all walks of life. 
Capitalists, lawyers, doctors, merchants, members or ex-mem- 
bers of the Legislature, farmers, and men in many other walks 
of life, are members of this force, the sole motive of which is 
to secure better protection of fish and game. 

System adopted. — The system for the enforcement of the 
fish and game laws remains the same. It has proved satisfac- 
tory. A full description of it appeared in our last report, and 
need not be repeated. It has been amplified only to the extent 
that a larger number of fish and game law pamphlets and posters 
has been published and distributed, and that the booklets have 
contained new matter in the shape of lists of ponds stocked and 
closed, the date of closing and the nature of the regulations, — 
a class of information helpful alike to citizens and deputies. 

Some fourteen thousand or fifteen thousand documents have 
been distributed, eight thousand of these containing the com- 
plete fish and game laws, and lists of ponds stocked under 
section 19, chapter 91, Revised Laws; and others being ab- 
stracts, posters in English or Italian, or special laws. The 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 187 

press has shown its usual intelligent zeal in spreading broad- 
cast information about the fish and game laws. 

A notable advance in the means for enforcing those laws that 
relate to sea coast fishing and hunting was the building of the 
launch " Scoter," elsewhere more fully described. Since her 
advent, in August, she has had an excellent effect in repressing 
illegal shooting along the coast, and in preventing transgres- 
sions of law in the smelt and lobster fisheries. Two of the 
most notorious dealers in short lobsters, each of whom ran a 
naphtha dory, have been driven out of the business, and others 
have declared their intention to quit the sale of illegal lobsters. 

Had the full penalty of the law been given to some, the 
aggregate fines for lobster cases would have been thousands of 
dollars ; only the small fraction that was imposed amounted to 
quite a sum. 

By reference to the tabulated statement of arrests and con- 
victions, in the Appendix, it will be seen that the system 
adopted has worked well ; for, with the extremely small num- 
ber of active salaried deputies available for the law-enforcing 
work, — amounting to only ^ve persons for the entire State at 
the busiest season, outside of those on the launch, and some 
of those occasionally ill from exposure, — the number of arrests 
exceeds that of any previous year since the Attorney-General 
decided that it was not properly incumbent upon us to enforce 
the law against Sunday fishing. The growing efficiency of the 
deputies, especially in team work, and the readiness with 
which the unsalaried deputies co-operate with the active force 
whenever practicable, are matters for congratulation, and they 
strongly emphasize the beneficial results to be derived from 
having a well-thought-out plan of operation. 

Deputy John F. Luman, who has visited all sections of the 
State in the pursuance of his duties, reports that the work of 
the commission, in the prompt and tactful enforcement of the 
law, has secured large credit from the public for the system 
adopted. As an illustration of the working of the system, he 
refers to an instance where a complaint was given one of the 
salaried deputies in the morning, with orders sending him sixty 
miles into the country, to co-operate with another deputy. 
Arriving at their destination, they went to work on the case, 

188 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

and at 4 p.m. of the same day "landed their man." Many 
similar cases could be cited to show the efficiency of the 
service in the enforcement of law, and how men widely sepa- 
rated and working on different cases one day may be co-operat- 
ing with each other the next day. 

That part of the system which involves the appointment of 
unpaid deputies is evidently growing in public favor, due, it 
is believed, to the effort made to place this service on a high 
plane, and beyond the ill-concealed suspicion or reproach that 
once attached to it. Men of the highest character, and often 
with more than a local reputation, have applied for appointment 
on this force solely because of their interest in the protection of 
fish and game. Not infrequently they have temporarily neg- 
lected their private business to look after the welfare of the State, 
and that, too, without hope, expectation or desire of any per- 
sonal gain. Examples Avhich could be cited evince an unselfish 
devotion to the State, worthy of all praise. It would be a 
pleasant task to individualize these cases, but lack of space 
does not permit it. 

Too much cannot be said in commendation of the salaried 
deputies. Although receiving only small pay, they have labored 
with zeal and esprit de corps that could not be excelled. It has 
been the purpose of the commission to train these men to be 
alert, and to hesitate at no undertaking that has the remotest 
possibility of success. As a result, no risk or hardship is 
too great to deter them from a zealous performance of their 
duty. The}^ have faced with equal resolution the pointed gun 
or bludgeon of the poacher ; have endured hours of exposure at 
night or in storms ; or have boldly chased law-breakers through 
foaming breakers, at imminent risk of life. More could not 
be asked. It is creditable, too, to this little force, that its 
membership embraces those capable of directing the work in 
accordance with the system adopted. Best of all, the force is 
so organized, and the system works so satisfactorily, that tem- 
porary expansion is possible without a jar or hitch to interfere 
with or delay the work. At the same time, men are being 
trained in the duties of deputies without expense to the State, 
and from those so prepared can be selected special deputies, or 
those for longer terms of salaried service. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — ^^o. 25. 189 

The Launch '^Scoter.'' — The "Scoter" was designed by 
the chairman, to meet the special needs of the commission for 
a roomy launch that would combine seaworthiness, speed, 
accommodations for the crew, and a draught sufficiently shallow 
to enable her to chase naphtha fishing dories or other boats 
into shoal water, if they should chance to go there with the 
purpose of escaping pursuit. 

The launch is intended solely for the enforcement of such 
of the fish and game laws as apply to certain coast fisheries, 
especially the lobster and smelt fisheries, and the pursuit of 
sea fowl. Inasmuch as many power-driven boats are now 
employed in fishing, and launches of various sorts may be 
illegally used for pursuing sea fowl, it was necessary to have 
a reasonably swift launch, in order that she could overhaul 
other craft she misfht have occasion to chase. 

At first it was thought a high-poAver open dory Avould ansAver 
the purpose, but after careful consideration it was decided such 
a boat would lack the requisite speed and would not have the 
necessary endurance to make her a profitable investment for 
the State ; and, besides, the crew could not liA^e upon her ; 
they would always be dependent upon hotels, and their living 
expenses would be largely increased. It was, therefore, 
decided to build a launch of moderate dimensions, with a 
canoe-shaped stern, cockpit large enough for any anticipated 
crew, and AAdth a cabin in which the crew could sleep, cook 
and eat. 

The ''Scoter" was built at East Boston by the Jefiries' 
Point Yacht Yard and Boat Building Companj^. The con- 
tract was signed on May 15, 1903, and she was launched on 
August 3, although not then complete. It was some days 
later before she was fitted Avith whistle and pump. Certain 
fittings, such as the aAvnings and canvas covers, were not 
completed for weeks or months. The last of these were 
delivered in November. 

The " Scoter" is a carvel-built, sharp-ended, keel boat, with 
a long, overhanging bow, round bilge, long run, canoe-shaped 
stern, and skag. In the after section the bottom is nearly a 
dead flat. The launch is decked forward and aft, with a cock- 
pit abaft the cabin. The deck runs along each side of the 

190 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

cockpit, with a width varying from a foot to fifteen inches. The 
planks forming the sides of the cabin trunk continue aft (at 
less height) around the cockpit as washboards. Forward of 
the trunk is a circular hatch that locks underneath. This gives 
admission to the forward hold, where are stowed the hawsers 
and anchors. Immediately forward of the hatch is an oak bitt- 
head, to which the riding hawser or a tow line can be belayed. 
The cabin trunk is of the ordinary knockabout or " mandolin " 
type, with oak sides and canvas-covered, pine top. There are 
three circular screw lights on each side of the cabin. The 
interior is panelled and finished in the natural wood. There are 
lockers on each side, fitted with adjustable covers and leather 
cushions. Provision is made for extending the lockers across 
the entire width of the cabin floor, and there are additional 
cushions to cover all the space, in order to increase the sleeping 
accommodations to the maximum. In the day time the bed 
clothing is stowed within the lockers, where also are carried 
wearing apparel, boots, etc. At the forward end of the cabin, 
on the starboard side, is a locker for hanging oil clothes ; at the 
after end of the starboard locker is a knockabout water-closet ; 
there is a dish closet aft on the port side, and underneath the 
latter, with proper connections for drainage, is an ice box for 
the preservation of food. An oil stove furnishes the means 
for cooking. There is an adjustable table, large enough for six 
to sit at. When in use it is suspended from the top of the 
cabin with long iron hooks ; at other times it is fastened close 
underneath the cabin top. 

The frame, including stem, sternpost, keel, keelson, skag, 
breast hooks, deck frame, timbers, bed pieces for engine, and 
bow rails, are of oak. The sides of the cabin trunk, bow rails, 
hatch coaming, washboards, seats, foot gratings, and finish in 
cockpit, top streak of plank, and beads or chafing streaks, are 
also oak. With the exception named, the outside planking is 
one-inch white cedar, copper-riveted at the butts. 

The frames are l^ by If inches, spaced 9 inches from cen- 
tre to centre. These are united with floor frames of the same 
dimensions. The deck frames are 2| by IJ inches, spaced 15 
inches. The keel varies in depth outside planking from 2 to 
5 inches, and merges into the skag; it is 8 inches wide in the 


1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 191 

centre, tapering at ends. The stem is 6 by 3| inches, taper- 
ing to I inch on forward side, and is finished with half-round 
brass on forward edge. It curves easily into the keel. The 
ceiling is ^ inch cedar. The deck is |^ inch pine, covered with 
canvas, and the top of the house is of the same material. 
There is a brass ventilator in the after deck. The cockpit has 
a hard pine floor and oak gratings to lay over the floor. The 
balance rudder is of bronze, and the foot of it steps into a 
metal band that curves beneath the screw from the skag. 

The launch has a ten horse-power two-cylinder Murray and 
Tregurtha naphtha engine, and a mechanical whistle and 
pump. The naphtha is carried in two copper tanks, each sub- 
divided into compartments. One of these is close up under 
the deck on each side of the cockpit, the forward end of each 
tank coming close against the after end of the cabin. This 
armngement, which is satisfactory in other respects, removes 
the danger of ignition or explosion that might result if there 
was a single tank at the bow, as usual, and a fire for cooking 
was lighted in the cabin ; and it also centralizes the weights, 
and to that extent relieves the launch from a tendency to 
pitch heavily if caught outside in a rough sea, as she is liable 
to be. 

There is an awning over the cockpit, which to some extent 
shelters the engine and the men from rain, etc. This is sup- 
ported upon brass standards that screw into lugs on the deck. 
It is, therefore, easy to remove the awning, especially if it is 
necessary to change the appearance of the launch. The 
" Scoter " was designed with the special purpose of being 
easily adapted to disguise, for this is important ; some provi- 
sion has been made in that direction, and more will be made. 
Her effective work may often depend upon the fact that she is 
not known at a distance. 

The launch is equipped with regulation running and signal 
lights, compass and various other necessary articles. 

The *' Scoter" has seen hard service in the period she has 
been at work. She has proved to be a good sea boat ; although 
her bow is sharp, the moderate overhang gives her reserve 
buoyancy, so that she falls easily into a sea, and does not 
plunge deeply. Even when driven at full speed against a 

192 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

north-west gale, while coming in from off Minot's Light, she 
never once plunged her bow under the steep, choppy seas that 
were running. Her speed has never been officially tested, but 
it is estimated she will run between ten and twelve miles an 
hour. The illustration shows her running down Boston harbor 
in a gale at full speed. 

Following are the principal dimensions : length over all, 32 
feet 10 inches ; on water line, 28 feet 3 inches ; beam, ex- 
treme, 7 feet 8 inches; on water line, 6 feet 5 inches; depth, 
amidship, gunwale to rabbet, 2 feet 9 inches ; draft, 2 feet 6 
inches ; length of cabin trunk, 10 feet 6 inches ; extreme 
width at after end (it tapers on the sides with the curve of the 
bow, and is semi-circular at the forward end), 5 feet 6 inches ; 
height at forward end, 5 inches ; at after end, 17 inches ; head 
room in cabin, forward, 3 feet 2 inches; aft, 4 feet 3 inches 
(these are the heights at the sides of the cabin, but these are 
increased several inches in the centre, because of the curve of 
the top of the cabin) ; height of washboards around cockpit, 
9 inches; diameter of hatch, 18 inches. 

The contract price for the "Scoter" was $1,850, but this did 
not include certain equipments, etc., which brought the cost, 
when ready for service, to about $2,100. 

The Worh. — As will be seen in the tabulated statements 
in the Appendix, 169 arrests have been made, and fines 
amounting to $2,240 have been imposed by the courts. Three 
of these arrests were made by local officers, which leaves 166 
arrests made by the deputies of the commission. This is a 
larger number than have been brought before the courts in 
any other year for some time, and is a most creditable show- 
ing for the deputies, in view of the small number of paid 
officials, the lateness of some of the appointments, the late 
date at which the " Scoter'' was available, and the many other 
duties with which the men were charged. The fines resulting 
from the work of our deputies amounted to $1,915. This 
excludes a fine of $50, for the non-payment of which the party 
convicted was sent to jail for three months ; and it also ex- 
cludes fines imposed by the lower courts which were not 
reimposed by the higher courts, before which the cases went 
on appeal; also fines secured by local officers. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Ko. 25. 193 

The large number of cases that were placed on file after 
conviction had been secured, — of which there were 26, or 
about 19 per cent, of the convictions obtained by the deputies 
of the commission, — and the extreme leniency of the courts 
in imposing fines in some other instances, or the discharge of 
law-breakers who pleaded guilty, cannot escape the attention 
of those interested in these matters, especially if they are 
familiar with the penalties imposed by law. This would be 
more apparent if the tabulated statement could easily be made 
to show how small a fraction of the extreme penalty has been 
imposed in some of the lobster cases, amounting in some 
instances to only 3 to 10 per cent, of the possible maximum. 
Light fines for shooting insectivorous birds have also been 
imposed in some cases. 

Whether this leniency is wise or not, is a matter for public 
consideration. It is our duty to make the arrests and to take 
parties guilty of violating fish and game laws before the courts ; 
the responsibility thereafter lies with the courts. 
- The following brief and forcible expression from the highest 
authority clearly presents the respective responsibilities of 
the people, officials and the courts in the suppression of law- 
lessness : — 

Remember that in popular government we must rely on the people 
themselves, alike for the punishment and the reformation. Those 
upon whom our institutions cast the initial duty of bringing male- 
factors to the bar of justice must be diligent in its discharge ; yet in 
the last resort the success of their efforts . . . must depend upon the 
attitude of the courts.* 

At an earlier date the same exalted personage spoke the fol- 
lowing words, which deserve the candid consideration of every 
right-thinking citizen, and especially of sportsmen ; for they 
have a particular application to the enforcement of the fish and 
game laws, — laws which cannot be ignored without danger to 
the State : — 

Ours is a government of liberty, by, through and under the law. 
Lawlessness and connivance at law-breaking — whether the law- 

* Extract from speech of President Roosevelt, reported in the Boston "Herald," 
Oct. 16, 1903. 

194 FISH AXD GA]ME. [Dec. 

breaking take the form of a crime of greed and cunning, or of a crime 
of violence — are destructive, not only of order, but of the true 
liberties which can only come through order. If alive to their true 
interests, rich and poor alike will set their faces like flint against the 
spirit which seeks personal advantage by overriding the laws. . . . 
We ask no man's permission when we require him to obey the law, — 
neither the permission of the poor man nor yet of the rich man.* 

There is a temptation to discuss the law-enforcing work in 
some detail, for it has many elements of interest ; but lack of 
time and space forbids anything beyond brief reference to the 
most important facts. 

It is gratifying to learn, from one who has travelled exten- 
sively in the State, that " There never was a time when better 
feeling existed among the public in general than now in regard 
to the observation of the fish and game laws." This kindly 
feeling has been evident in many ways, but perhaps no more 
forcibly than by the voluntary prosecution of fish and game 
cases before the courts by attorneys or others eminent in the 
law, even when this had to be done at some personal sacrifice. 
Deputy George M. Poland of Wakefield, recently elected a 
Kepresentative, who has a law office in Boston, conducted the 
prosecution in an important deer case without charge to the 
State, and has offered his services free in any fish and game 
ease. Hon. George D. Storrs of Ware, who is an associate 
justice, also one of the selectmen of the town as well as one 
of the most prominent lawyers of the section in which he lives, 
recently volunteered to prosecute an important case without 
charge ; as a result, the case was won, and a notorious poacher 
was punished. 

Examples of public spirit of this kind are worthy of all 
praise, for they exhibit a high purpose to secure a proper 
observance of law, and to benefit the State without personal 

The attention of the commission has been invited to many 
cases where deer have been found dead, wounded, or in cities. 
Several cases have been put into court, where the evidence war- 
ranted a belief of illegal killing or pursuit of deer ; and prompt 

* Extract from speech of President Roosevelt, reported in the Boston "Herald," 
Sept. 8, 1903. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 195 

attention has been given whenever notice lias been received of 
the presence of a deer in a city, and the animal has been 
liberated in the woods at the earliest time practicable. 

It seems almost beyond belief that an animal so shy as a 
wild deer should by anv chance be in the streets of Chelsea, 
almost within the shadow of the gilded dome of tlie State 
House, or be racing along the thoroughfares of the University 
city, just across the Charles River from Boston, and within 
almost a stone's throw of Harvard College ; yet it is true. 

It follows, as a matter of course, that a considerable number 
of deer are accidentally killed by trains, by electric cars and 
by other means ; also that others are drowned, or are run to 
death by dogs. Undoubtedly some are illegalh^ shot, but 
cases of this kind are few, and the difficulty of obtaining 
evidence sufficient to secure conviction is generally insur- 
mountable. Every case that has come to our knowledge has 
been promptly investigated, whether it was one of accident, 
supposed illegal hunting or otherwise ; and frequent post- 
mortem examinations have been made, to ascertain if any 
evidence of foul play could be found. In every instance every 
clue has been followed out so far as practicable, if there was 
any reasonable ground for suspicion of illegal acts. 

Six cases were taken before the courts by our deputies, as 
shown in the tabulated statement. In two of these cases con- 
victions were secured, but the cases were filed ; in another 
case the defendant was convicted in the lower court, appealed, 
and was discharged in the higher court ; and in the other three 
cases the defendants were discharged. 

Although there is yet more chasing of deer b}^ dogs than 
there ought to be, there is much less than formerly. Many 
owners of dogs, knowing that a dog is liable to be shot if 
found chasing a deer, and also that the dog's owner may be 
fined, take more care than heretofore to keep their dogs at 
home under restraint. The law is having a good effect ; it is 
hoped the results will be more widely felt each year. 

The new law, prohibiting the use of powder, dynamite and 
other explosives in fishing waters, was not enacted too soon. 
Aside from the reprehensible actions of poachers, there has 
recently developed a practice of furnishing amusement at 

196 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

summer resorts by having so-called mimic naval battles. For 
this purpose quantities of explosives are used in ponds and in 
littoral waters at the sea shore. The places selected have been 
fishing waters. In each case of which we have learned, a 
warning from our deputies has been sufficient to secure prompt 
compliance with the law. 

We have about one hundred and seventy-five unsalaried 
deputies scattered throughout the State, and these gentlemen 
have a good opportunity to observe what is going on in rela- 
tion to fish and game, with special reference to the observance 
of law. The nearly universal testimony of these deputies is 
to the effect that the practice of Sunday hunting, once prose- 
cuted with absolute indifference to law, has now been nearly 
abandoned. It would be feasible to quote many statements to 
this effect from the annual reports of deputies. Of course 
there are those who are reckless of law, who still venture to 
hunt on Sunday ; but the chance of being haled into court for 
this offence is great, and the activities of the deputies are 
sufficient to keep lawlessly inclined persons " guessing" as to 
when or where they will appear, — all of which has a restrain- 
ing influence upon would-be Sunday hunters. With few 
exceptions, the unpaid men, as well as the salaried deputies, 
are in the covers on Sunday, hence there is greater chance of 
detecting violations of this law than of any other. • This prob- 
ably accounts for the alleged better enforcement of this law. 
As it was, forty arrests were made for Sunday hunting, 
although in some cases this violation was associated with some 
other, such as ferreting. 

There are still those who are ignorant of the fact that the 
courts and the Attorney- General have decided that the enforce- 
ment of the prohibitory Sunday fishing law (section 12, chapter 
98, Revised Laws) is not properly incumbent upon this com- 
mission, but that the responsibility for its enforcement lies with 
the local police. Therefore we have been held responsible for 
the non-enforcement of this Sunday law, although it is no more 
our duty to enforce it than to enforce other laws for the better 
observance of the Lord's Day, which are not, strictly speak- 
ing, fish and game laws. 

Snaring partridges is apparently a thing of the past, except 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 197 

so far as it is allowed by law. In view of the extreme scarcity 
of this species, no one should be privileged to snare partridges, 
at least for a term of years. Deputy W. W. Nixon says : — 

I have not found any snares this fall, although I have searched the 
woods in localities where they have been set in former years. I think 
this practice is nearly if not wholly stopped. 

Many similar statements could be quoted, but they would be 
only cumulative evidence. 

Eleven persons have been convicted for shooting or catching 
song or insectivorous birds. In one other case a party was 
arrested for hunting on Sunday who was believed to have been 
shooting small birds. N'early all violations of this kind are 
committed by Italians. Deputy Nixon says : — 

The worst violator of the fish and game laws whom we have to con- 
tend with is the Italian, who shoots everything that wears fur or 
feathers. These people are dangerous parties to meet in the woods, 
with a loaded gun in their hands ; and an officer takes his life in his 
hands when attempting to arrest any of them. 

The difficulty of dealing with this class is materially enhanced 
by the lack of a search law, and the danger is increased because 
no action has been taken to penalize those who have threatened 
to shoot the deputies while in the performance of their duty. 
The following extract, from a Maiden despatch of November 
9, published in the Boston "Advertiser" of Nov. 10, 1903, 
will show conclusively that the statement made by Deputy 
Nixon is based on something more substantial than mere 
fancy : — 

While Policeman Davis was attempting to arrest two Italians whom 
he had found hunting for birds in the Middlesex Fells reservation 
to-day, one of the Italians fired at the officer, riddling his clothing 
and filling his face with birdshot. Davis's wounds are not considered 
serious. The man who fired the shot escaped. 

It is somewhat remarkable that this occurrence took place 
only four or five days after an Italian pointed his gun at Deputy 
Burney, and threatened to shoot him if he (Burney) persisted 
in an attempt to arrest him. At that time Deputy Nixon held 

198 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

another who had been taken. In this case the arrest was 
promptly made ; a charge of assault as well as of shooting 
small birds Avas put before the court ; but the party was fined 
only for killing birds. This is one of several cases where par- 
ties have been discharged for assault on deputies, or the case 
was filed. 

The arrests made indicate a wide-spread disposition on the 
part of the lawlessly inclined to indulge in illegal fishing, 
including fishing in closed ponds and brooks. There were 
fifty-seyen cases of this kind. These do not include the cases 
relating to the possession, sale or attempted sale of short trout, 
trout out of season, etc., of which there were seyen, nor do 
they include lobster cases, of which there were twelye. This 
makes an aggregate of seyenty-six cases, or nearly one-half of 
the whole, for yiolations of the fishing laws. 

Eegarding the enforcement of the lobster laws, the eifect 
has not been so much in the number as in the character of the 
arrests, and also in the dread of the " Scoter." Some of those 
who heretofore could pursue their nefarious practice of selling 
illegal lobsters, almost with impunity, have found it unprofit- 
able to continue in the trade since her advent. Although 
they might escape capture by hurriedly dumping overboard 
their illegal lobsters, the frequent compulsory repetition of 
this disposition of the stock in trade, together with the 
imminent danger of being caught red-handed and haled into 
court, has had a discoiu-aging influence on the poachers. It 
has been claimed that the Work of the ' ' Scoter " in repressing 
yiolations of fish and game laws along the coast has been as 
effective as that of two hundred deputies could be without a 
boat. This is probably an extravagant estimate, but it is the 
opinion of one who knows what this work has been. 

As an instance of the way in which the work is carried on,, 
the following may be related : — 

One of the deputies was with a party at Gloucester on a. 
Saturday afternoon, and assisted in making two arrests for 
having illegal lobsters in possession, the points where these 
arrests were made being widely separated. He attended court 
Monday, when the cases were tried. Monday afternoon he 
reported at headquarters in Boston. Tuesday forenoon he 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 199 

arrested a man in Fall Elver for having short lobsters, and 
secured his conviction. In the afternoon of the same day, 
with the assistance of an unpaid deputy, he arrested six men 
for fishing in a closed pond. As soon as the court had dis- 
posed of these cases, he went to New Bedford and arrested a 
man for having tern's eggs in possession, contrary to law ; 
conviction was promptly secured, with a line. Saturday after- 
noon the deputy was again in Gloucester, and assisted in mak- 
ing two more important arrests for having illegal lobsters in 
possession ; and the same evening, he, with other deputies 
who were at Gloucester with him, went to Newburyport ; they 
were out bright and early the next morning to watch for Sun- 
day gunners. 

On one occasion a party of deputies drove twelve or fourteen 
miles in a carriage in the darkness and chill of an early autumn 
morning, to get to a place on the sea shore where it was sus- 
pected Sunday hunting was prosecuted. Several were arrested. 
Among these were two men who were off on the water shoot- 
ing from a boat. Securing a light skiff, two of the deputies 
put off after them. Because of a signal, or for some other 
reason, the shooters suspected those in the skiff were officers 
of the law, therefore they pulled toward an inlet, across the 
mouth of which was a shallow bar. The sea was breaking over 
the bar so heavily that the hunters felt the men in the skiff, 
who were in hot pursuit, would not dare to venture into the 
swirl of boiling foam in their frail boat, although the risk for 
the larger and more buoyant craft was not so great. There- 
fore, expecting thus to escape easily, the hunters went over 
the bar on the crest of a wave. But one of the deputies was 
from Gloucester, and he had a knowledge of boats and boating. 
Without hesitation the skiff went into and through the breakers, 
the pursued were captured, and they had to endure the chagrin 
of being compelled to pull back again over the bar to a 
point where a satisfactory landing could be made. Conviction 

These instances are only two of many that could be related ; 
but they will probably suffice, as side lights, to show how the 
work is done, and with what zeal and disregard of personal 
comfort the deputies have performed their duties. 

200 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Ferreting is still practised to some extent, and it will be 
practically impossible to stop it as long as there is no search 
law. Nine arrests have been made for ferreting, and the con- 
victions which have followed have had a good effect. 

Other arrests have been made for various offences, so that 
the work has covered nearly the widest possible range of effort. 
That the effect has been good is beyond question, but it is 
certain that nothing less than a continuous vigorous effort will 
suffice to keep the lawless in check. So far as the enforce- 
ment of the laws relating to coast fishing and hunting is 
concerned, it may as well be conceded that it is practically 
impossible to enforce them thoroughly without larger provision 
than we now have. The '' Scoter" can do a lot of work, but 
it is simply absurd to expect a single launch to cover the entire 
coast line at the same time. It will require several such boats 
to patrol the coast effectively, and to adequately enforce all 
the laws which relate to fishing and hunting along our shores. 

It has been alleged that certain parties have raised pheasants, 
liberated them, — presumably on their own land, — and then 
shot them by the wholesale. This has been done, it is alleged, 
because of the mistaken opinion that it was legal to do it, — 
an opinion credited to legal authority. In order to prevent a 
repetition of this, through any misapprehension of the correct 
meaning of the law, we have secured the following decision 
from the Honorable Attorney-Greneral of the Common- 
wealth : — 

Office of the Attorney-General, 
Boston, Dec. 8, 1903. 

Capt. J. W. Collins, Chairman, Department of Fisheries and Game. 

Dear Sir : — The Commissioners on Fisheries and Game desire the 
opinion of the Attorney-General upon the question whether it is 
lawful for persons who have raised, bred or purchased live pheasants 
to take or kill the same, or have them in possession for any other 
purpose than that of propagation. 

R. L., c. 92, § 16, provides: "Whoever, prior to the thirteenth 
day of February in the year nineteen hundred and five, takes, kills or 
has in his possession, except for the purpose of propagation, a 
Mongolian, English or golden pheasant, shall be punished by a fine 
of twenty dollars for each bird." 

I am further informed that certain persons have hunted and shot 
pheasants, claiming the right to do so upon the ground that the birds 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 201 

had been raised or bred by them, or their friends, who permitted or 
authorized such hunting and shooting. 

I am of the opinion, however, that such taking or killing of birds 
described in the statute is in violation of its terms, and I am of 
opinion that conviction must follow, upon proof of the facts stated. 
It is evident that the only purpose for which one may take or have in 
captivity pheasants of the species named is for propagation ; and it 
surely cannot be contended that one can kill for that purpose. 

The act apparently contemplates the keeping of pheasants for the 
purposes of breeding, and in strict captivity. If the birds be hunted 
and killed, as stated in the facts, while at large and beyond the con- 
trol and possession of the person who alleges ownership in them, 
even if upon his own land, the killing is, nevertheless, in my judg- 
ment, a violation of the law. 

I am very truly yours, 

Herbert Parker, Attorney- General. 

Another matter which has provoked much difference of opin- 
ion is the correct interpretation of that sentence of section 2Q, 
chapter 91, Revised Laws, as revised by chapter 294, Acts of 
1903, which says : " And the use of more than ten hooks by 
one person shall be deemed a trawl within the meaning of this 

While high legal authority have correctly held that the ordi- 
nary meaning of the word ' ' trawl " is a matter of no special 
moment in this connection, since the Legislature, with the ap- 
proval of the Governor, has the undoubted constitutional right 
to make any application of the word it chooses, within the 
meaning of a certain act, others have held, so it is alleged, 
that one could legally use as many hooks as he chooses for ice 
fishing, for the reason that hooks attached to " tip-ups " cannot 
constitute a trawl. The following decision of the Attorney- 
General settles this question : — 

Office of the Attorney-General, 
Boston, Dec. 31, 1903. 

Capt J. W. Collins, Chairman, Department of Fisheries arid Game. 

Dear Sir : — The. Fish and Game Commission desire the opinion 

of the Attorney-General upon the construction of St. 1903, c. 294, 

amending R. L., c. 91, § 26, which is as follows : " Whoever draws, 

sets, stretches or uses a drag net, set net, purse net, seine or trawl in 

any pond, or aids in so doing, shall be punished by a fine of not less 

202 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

than twenty nor more than fifty dollars ; and the use of more than 
ten hooks by one person shall be deemed a trawl within the meaning 
of this section. No floating devices shall be used in connection with 
such trawls. The provisions of this section shall not affect the rights 
of riparian proprietors of ponds mentioned in section twenty-three or 
the corporate rights of any fishing company." 

Without, for the moment, referring to the attitude assumed, or the 
opinions formed, or action taken by or in behalf of the Fish Commis- 
sion, I confine myself to a consideration of what appears to me to be 
the true construction of the act quoted. 

While I entertain no doubt that the Legislature may prescribe the 
legal definitions of its own language, I yet hold to the opinion that 
the act must, if possible, be so construed as to give to the descriptive 
words therein used the signification generally and commonly attached 
to them ; and it is not to be presumed that the Legislature intended 
to attach a meaning inconsistent with that generally adopted, unless 
such intent conclusively appears in the phrase of the act under con- 

It is to be noted that the act refers to the drawing, setting, stretch- 
ing or using of a drag net, set net, purse net, seine or trawl. The 
use of the specific words "drag net," "set net," "purse net" and 
" seine," seems to be intended to cover, under those designations, all 
those specific devices or appliances that might otherwise be included 
within the generic word "trawl," which word has also a specific mean- 
ing ; and I think it must be held from the context that the Legislature 
intended to use the word " trawl," in connection with " hooks," in its 
specific rather than its general sense. A trawl, as such, I understand 
to be, according to its generally accepted meaning or definition, a line 
of any length to which is attached a series of shorter lines, upon which 
hooks are set, such trawl being necessarily a single continuous appli- 
ance, used either from the hand or set and overhauled from time to time. 

The portion of the section using the words to which I have referred 
does not require, and, in my opinion, does not even suggest, that the 
Legislature intended to characterize, in violation of all accepted defi- 
nitions of the term, as a trawl a number of lines to each of which is 
attached a single hook, and which lines are independent of each other 
and in no wise connected. The construction which would make the 
use of more than ten independent lines with single hooks a violation 
of the statute, because declared to be a trawl, must, in my opinion, 
depend entirely upon the clause, " and the use of more than ten hooks 
by one person shall be deemed a trawl within the meaning of this 
section." But this clause must be read in connection with the context 
of the act ; and I cannot bring myself to believe that the Legislature 
meant to say that ten independent lines were lawful, and did not con- 


1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 203 

stitute a trawl, but that eleven such lines used by any one person 
should constitute a trawl. 

And, further, I am of opinion that the Legislature may have in- 
tended — and when we are seeking for intent, we must seek for a 
reasonable intent — to prohibit the use of a single line to which should 
be attached more than ten hooks ; and that the evil intended to be 
prevented by the act was the use of set lines employing more than ten 
hooks ; and that the limitation to the number ten was due to a con- 
sideration of the fact that spoon hooks, so called, or gang hooks, used 
with rod and line, were recognized as legitimate sporting devices, with 
which the Legislature did not intend to interfere. 

I have thus intimated to you what, entirely independent of any 
other opinions which have come to my knowledge, appears to me to 
be a reasonable construction of the act ; and such a construction as I 
am inclined to think the court of last appeal would adopt, since it is 
a construction that does not involve the violent assumption that the 
Legislature, by indirect phrase, intended to put an entirely new and 
unprecedented signification upon a word already having a generally 
adopted and understood meaning. 

It is obvious that a construction different from that which I have 
suggested may be put upon this act, and it may be held that the phrase, 
*'the use of more than ten hooks by one person shall be deemed a 
trawl," ought to be held to mean that more than ten independent lines 
are collectively to be held, withi?? the meaning of the act, to be a 
trawl ; but I incline to believe that the suggestions that I have first 
made are the more natural and reasonable ones, and suggest that line 
of construction most consistent with the principles and rules of law 
invoked where the question of construction is doubtful or complex. 

I believe that if the Legislature had intended specifically to pro- 
hibit the use of several independent lines, as ordinarily employed in 
fishing through the ice, they would have so stated. 

I am not much enlightened or aided in my attempt to correctly 
construe this somewhat doubtful act by the sentence, '' No floating 
devices shall be used in connection with such trawls," except that 
this specific provision with regard to floating devices to me seems to 
indicate that traps or appliances such as are used in ice fishing would 
have also been specifically mentioned, had this form of fishing been 
the object of the prohibitive legislation. 

I would further suggest that the prohibition against floating devices 
used in connection with such trawls seems to indicate that the trawl 
in the legislative mind was the trawl commonly known as such ; and 
that the Legislature did not intend entirely to prohibit the use of 
trawls, but only to prohibit the application of any floating device 

204 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

I may add, rather apart from the legitimate scope of a legal 
opinion, that, as laws in restraint of fishing or fowling or the taking 
of wild game are rather impatiently received by the general public, 
legislation along these lines should be very explicit, and carefully 
phrased ; and that prosecutions instituted upon a strained or possibly 
untenable construction of an act impair the very purposes of legiti- 
mate legislation. 

Yours very truly, 

Herbert Parker, Attorney -General. 

New Legislation. 

AVe recommend the following changes in the fish and game 
laws : — 

We recommend the enactment of the following laws, which 
the delegates from the lobster-producing States, who attended 
the convention held September 23 and 24 at the State House, 
voted to recommend to their respective Legislatures : — * 

(1) All lobsters or parts of lobsters sold for use in this state, or 
for export therefrom, must be sold and delivered in the shell, under 
a penalty of twenty dollars for each offence ; and whoever ships, 
buys, sells, gives away or exposes for sale lobster meat after the 
same shall have been taken from the shell, shall be liable to a penalty 
of one dollar for each pound of meat so bought, sold, exposed for 
sale, given away or shipped. Any person or corporation in the 
business of a common carrier of merchandise, who shall knowingly 
carry or transport from place to place lobster meat after the same 
shall have been taken from the shell, shall be liable to a penalty of 
fifty dollars upon each conviction thereof. All lobster meat so 
illegally bought, shipped, sold, given away, exposed for sale or 
transported, shall be liable for seizure, and may be confiscated. 
Nothing contained herein shall be held to prohibit the sale of lobsters 
that are legally canned and hermetically sealed. 

(2) No person or corporation shall engage in the lobster fishery 
in this state without a permit from the fish and game commissioners, 
which permit shall be furnished free of cost to the applicant, and 
shall contain a copy of the laws for the protection of the lobster. 
Any person who engages in lobster fishing without a permit from the 
fish and game commission shall forfeit not less than one hundred 

* This does not fully apply to Maine, which already has in operation the law 
prohibiting the sale of lobster meat except in the shell, and there it has been found 
to work very satisfactorily. It is unquestionably one of the most effective laws for 
the protection of the lobster that has ever been enacted. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 205 

dollars, or be liable to imprisonment, or both fine and imprisonment, 
in the discretion of the court. 

A person holding a permit, who is convicted of a violation of 
any of the lobster laws, shall surrender his permit to the fish and 
game commission, and it shall not be reissued within one year from 
the date of its surrender. Failure to surrender a permit will make 
the holder liable to a penalty of not less than fifty dollars, and the 
confiscation of the pots and boats used by him for lobster fishing. 

We recommend that section 9, chapter 91, Revised Laws, 
be revised by adding, after the ^Yord " maintained," the words 
'* or where in their judgment fishways are needed, and they ; " 
by adding, after the word "rivers," the words "or whether 
in their judgment a fishway is needed for the passage of fish 
over any dam;" and adding, after the word "therein," the 
words ' ' and where, how and when a new fishway must be 
built," — so that the section shall read as follows : — 

Section 9. The commissioners may examine all dams upon rivers 
where the law requires fishways to be maintained, or where in their 
judgment fishways are needed ; and they shall determine whether the 
fishways, if any, are suitable and sufficient for the passage of the fish 
in such rivers, or whether in their judgment a fishway is needed for 
the passage of fish over any dam ; and shall prescribe by an order in 
writing what changes or repairs, if any, shall be made therein, and 
where, how and when a new fishway must be built, and at what times 
the same shall be kept open, and shall give notice to the owners of 
the dams accordingly. The supreme judicial court or the superior 
court shall, upon the petition of the commissioners, have jurisdic- 
tion in equity or otherwise to enforce any order made in accordance 
with the provisions of this section, and to restrain any violation of 
such order. 

We recommend the amendment of section 68, chapter 91, 
Revised Laws, by adding after the last word in the section the 
following words : " Notice of the acceptance of the provisions 
of this section by any town shall be sent to the fish and game 
commission by the clerk of such town. Neglect or refusal to 
send such notification within thirty days after the passage of 
this act, or the acceptance of the provisions of this section, 
shall subject the town clerk to a fine of ten dollars ", — so that 
the section shall read as follows : — 

206 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

Section 68. Whoever takes or captures pickerel in a river, stream 
or pond, in a town which accepts the provisions of this section or has 
accepted the corresponding provisions of earlier laws, in any other 
manner than by naturally or artificially baited hook and hand line, 
shall forfeit one dollar for every pickerel so taken, if proceedings 
therefor are commenced within sixty days after the time of commit- 
ting the offence. Notice of the acceptance of the provisions of this 
section by any town shall be sent to the fish and game commission 
by the clerk of such town. Neglect or refusal to send such notifi- 
cation within thirty days after the passage of this act, or the accept- 
ance of the provisions of this section, shall subject the town clerk to 
a fine of ten dollars. 

We recommend the amendment of section 12, chapter 92, 
Revised Laws, by taking therefrom the words "ruffed grouse, 
commonly called partridge, or," — so that the section shall 
read as follows : — 

Section 12. The provisions of the preceding section shall not 
apply to the trapping or snaring of hares or rabbits upon his land by 
an owner of land, or by a member of his family if authorized by 
him, between the first day of October and the first day of December. 

We recommend the enactment of a search law, as follows : — 

Section 1. Any commissioner on fisheries and game, deputy 
commissioner on fisheries and game, member of the district police, or 
officer qualified to serve criminal process, may, with or without a 
warrant, search any boat, car, box, locker, crate or package, and 
any building, where he has reason to believe any game or fish taken 
or held in violation of law is to be found, and may seize any game or 
fish so taken or held, and any game or fish so taken or held shall be 
forfeited : provided^ hoivever, that this section shall not authorize 
entering a dwelling house, or apply to game or fish which is pass- 
ing through this Commonwealth under authority of the laws of the 
United States. 

Section 2. A court of justice authorized to issue warrants in 
criminal cases shall, upon complaint under oath that the complainant 
believes that any game or fish unlawfully taken or held is concealed 
in a particular place, other than a dwelling house, if satisfied that 
there is reasonable cause for such belief, issue a warrant to search 
therefor. The search warrant shall designate and describe the place 
to be searched and the objects to be searched for, and shall be 
directed to any officer named in section one of this act, commanding 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 207 

him to search the place where the game or fish for which he is 
required to search is believed to be concealed, and to seize such game 
or fish. 

Section 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 


The commission has received from the United States Bureau 
of Fisheries, Department of Commerce and Labor, consign- 
ments of eggs of brook and rainbow trout, landlocked salmon 
and pike perch, also a shipment of shad fr}^ We have likewise 
received from the Bureau statements of its fish cultural work in 
this State, and various of its publications, including monthlj^ 
statistical statements of the fish landed from fishing vessels 
at Boston and Gloucester. 

Capt. E. E. Hahn, master of the Bureau's schooner " Gram- 
pus," generously permitted the chairman to accompany that 
vessel on a cruise along the coast of Maine. 
• The post-ofl5ce authorities and others have permitted the dis- 
play of posters containing abstracts of the fish and game laws. 

The railroads within the State, notably the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford, the Boston & Albany and the Boston & 
Maine, have, as formerly, carried free shipments of fish, birds 
and animals intended for distribution or propagation. 

Mr. O. T. Olsen of Grimsby, Eng., has furnished us with 
important information about the management of an otter trawl ; 
also illustrations of an otter or trawl board, and a plan of a 
trawl . 

We are indebted to Capt. L. D. Baker of Boston, Hon. 
John H. Casey of Lee, and the Fitchburg Rod and Gun Club, 
for hospitalities and courtesies. 

Mrs. George Westinghouse of Lenox very generously per- 
mitted the chairman to go in her electric launch to examine 
Laurel Lake ; and her secretary, Mr. A. G. Uptegrafi", managed 
the launch while the work was being done. 

Dr. George W. Field collected valuable information for the 
commission regarding the cause of death of fish in inland waters, 
about lobsters, etc., free of charge to the State. 

Dr. C. S. Hodge of Clark University, W^orcester, has cour- 
teously undertaken the study of a disease which has afflicted 
trout at our Sutton hatchery. 

208 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 1903. 

The commission has been privileged to extend courtesies in 
the following instances : — 

To the United States Bureau of Fisheries, permitting the 
collection of egg-bearing lobsters ; the operation of two-pound 
nets for scientific purposes, etc. 

We have continued to assist Mr. W. E. Castle of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, at Cambridge, in securing and hold- 
ing in confinement material necessary for the conduct of special 
scientific researches. At the close of this year we are attempt- 
ing to hatch the second generation of trout from a selected 
series, with the object of establishing certain facts in heredity. 

Letters of introduction to prominent citizens in Grimsby 
and Newcastle, Eng., have been furnished by the chairman 
to ]Mr. John E. Neal, a leading fish merchant of Boston. 

Deputy Thomas S. Holmes has been authorized to collect 
lampreys at the Lawrence fishway, to be used for scientific 
purposes at various institutions of learning. 

We have furnished trout eggs and fry to the Mt. Holyoke 
Colleo^e for 1)ioloo:ical research. 

Permits have been issued to the following parties to collect 
birds and eggs for scientific purposes : Robert O. Morris, 
Springfield; A. C. Bent, Taunton; George H. Mackay, Xan- 
tucket ; Homer L. Bigelow, Boston ; Owen Durfee, Fall 
River ; Dr. J. W. Bailey, Boston ; Frederic H. Kennard, 
Boston; Clarence W. Buckminster, Georgetown; Albert E. 
Jewett, Clinton ; Dr. C. F. Hodge, Worcester ; J. Bion 
Richards, Fall River. 

Permits to take sand eels for bait have been issued to the 
following : Charles F. Lattime, William H. Simmons, William 
H. Pierce, Joseph Thurlow, Albion P. Hilton, James H. 
Thurlow, Newburyport ; Samuel Kilborn, Samuel S. Bailey, 
Samuel Bayley, John W. Post, Charles A. Bayley, Charles H. 
Small, Albert E. Post, John D. Kilborn, Edward E. Wells, 
Charles P. Rust, Peter Rhodes, John T. Harris, Edward Poole, 
Samuel A. Hicks, Robert L. Gove, Thomas Roberts, Stephen 
Caswell, Clarence Leet, Albert H. Leet, J. Lewis Grant, 

Daniel D. Wells, Ipswich. 



List of Commissioners. 

United States Bureau of Fisheries, Washington, D. C. 

George M. Bowers, Commissioner, 

Hugh M. Smith, Deputy Commissioner. 

Irving H. Dunlap, Chief Clerk. 

Barton W. Evermann, Assistant in charge of Division of Inquiry 

respecting Food Fishes. 
John W. Titcomb, Assistant in charge of Division of Fish Culture. 
Alvin B. Alexander, Assistant in charge of Division of Statistics and 

Methods of the Fisheries. 

Superintendents of United States Fisheries Stations. 
Charles G. Atkins, Craig Brook, East Orland, Me. 
E. E. Race, Green Lake, Me. 
Edgar N. Carter, St. Johnsbury, Vt. 
Waldo F. Hubbard, Nashua. N. H. 
C. G. Corliss, Gloucester, Mass. 
E. F. Locke, Woods Hole, Mass. 
L. G. Harron (in charge), Bryan's Point, Md. 
John E. Brown (in charge), Central Station, Washington, D. C. 
George A. Seagle, Wytheville, Va. 
Alexander Jones, Erwin, Tenn. 
S. G. Worth, Edenton, N. C. 
J, J. Stranahan, Cold Spring, Bullochville, Ga. 
Livingstone Stone, Cape Vincent, N. Y. 
S. W. Downing, Put-in-Bay, Ohio. 
Frank N. Clark, Northville, Mich. 
S. P. Wires, Duluth, Minn. 
R. S. Johnson, Manchester, Iowa. 
Dr. S. P. Bartlett, Quincy, 111. 
H. D. Dean, Neosho, Mo. 
John L. Leary, San Marcos, Tex. 
DeWitt C. Booth, Spearfish, So. Dak. 
E. A. Tulian, Leadville, Col. 
James A. Henshall, Bozeman, Mont. 
H. H. Buck, Baker Lake, Wash. 
J. Nelson Wizner, Clackamas, Ore. 
Giles H. Lambson, Baird and Battle Creek, Cal. 
R. K. Robinson, White Sulphur, West Va. 

212 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 


W. W. Van Arsdale, President, San Francisco. 

W. E. Gerber, Sacramento. 

Office in Mills Building, San Francisco, Cal. 


Charles W. Harris, Denver. 

A. A. Gordon, Secretary, Denver. 

T. J. Holland, Superintendent of Hatclieries, . . . Denver. 


George T. Mathewson, President, Thompsonville, 

Robert G. Pike, Middletown. 

E. Hart Geer, Secretary, Hadlyme. 


William Anderson, Delaware City. 

Evan G. Shortlidge, Wilmington. 


John Y. Detwiler, President, . . . . . . New Smyrna. 

John G. Ruge, Secretary, Appal achicola* 

Charles R. Walker, Sanford. 

A. T. Dallis, Superintendent of Fisheries, .... LaGrange. 


Nathaniel H. Cohen, President, , Urbana. 

S. P. Bartlett, Secretary and Superintendent, . . . Quincy. 

A. F. Lenke, Treasurer, Chicago. 

Z. T. Sweeney, . . Columbus. " 

George A. Lincoln, Cedar Rapids. 

D. Trovin, Pratt. 




Inland Fish and Game. 

L. T. Carleton, Chairman, 
Henry O. Stanley, . 
Edgar E. Ring, Secretary, 




Sea and Shore Fisheries. 
A. R. Nickerson, Boothbay Harbor. 


Jesse W. Downey, New Market. 

Clarence L. Vincent, Snow Hill. 


Joseph W. Collins, Chairman, Boston. 

Edward A. Brackett, Secretary, Winchester. 

John W. Delano, Superintendent of Hatcheries, . . Marion. 
Office, State House, Boston, Mass. 


F. B. Dickerson, President, . . . . . . Detroit. 

George M. Brown, Vice-President, Saginaw. 

George D. Mussey, Secretary, Detroit. 

J. H. Johnson, Treasurer, Detroit. 

Seymour Bower, Superintendent of Hatcheries, . . Detroit. 

C. D. Joslyn, Detroit. 


Game and Fish Commissioners. (Office at Capitol.) 

Uri L. Lamprey, President, 

W. P. Hill, Vice-President, 

D. W. Meeker, Secretary, 

H. G. Smith, Treasurer, . 

S. F. Fullerton, Executive Agent, 

St. Paul. 
St. Paul, 


Frank P. Yenawine, President, 
J. H. Zollinger, Vice-President, 
Richard Porter, Secretary, 

St. Joseph. 



John Gable, Jr., Browning;. 

214 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

George J. Chapman, St. Louis. 

Phillip Kopplin, Superintendent of Hatcheries, . . St. Louis. 

M. E. O'Brian, St. Joseph. 


Game and Fish Commission. 

Governor, John H. Mickey, ex officio, .... Lincoln. 

George L. Carter, Chief Deputy, Lincoln. 

W. J. O'Brien, Superintendent of Hatcheries, . . . South Bend. 

New Hampshire. 

Nathaniel Wentworth, Chairman, Hudson Centre. 

C. B. Clarke, Concord. 

Merrill Shurtleff, Lancaster. 

New Jersey. 

Benjamin P. Morris, President and Treasurer, . . . Long Branch. 

Richard T. Miller, Camden. 

David P. McClellan, . . . . . . . . Morristown. 

Percy H. Johnson, Bloomfield. 

New York. 

Forest^ Fish and Game. 

DeWitt C. Middleton, Commissioner, .... Watertown. 

John D. Whish, Secretary, Albany. 

J. Duncan Lawrence, Bloomville. 

Office at Capitol, Albany. 


J. L. Rodgers, President, Columbus. 

Paul North, Cleveland. 

D. W. Greene, Dayton. 

George C. Blankner, Secretary, . . . . . Columbus. 

J. C. Porterfield, Chief Warden, Columbus. 

Thomas B. Paxton, Cincinnati. 

Louis J. Weber, McConnelsville. 


Governor, George E. Chamberlain, ..... Salem. 

Secretary of State, F. I. Dunbar, Salem. 

State Treasurer, C. S. Moore, . . ... . . Salem. 

H. G. VanDusen, Master Fish Warden, .... Astoria. 





Fisheries Commission. 

S. B. Stillwell, President, 
W. E. Meehan, Secretary, 
H. C. Deranth, Treasurer, 
John Hamberger, 
James W. Correll, 

Scran ton. 





Game Commission, 
William M. Kennedy, President, 
C K. Sober, 
James H. Worden, 
William H. Myers, 
Charles B. Penrose, 
J. O. H. Denney, 
Joseph Kalbfus, Secretary, 



Harris burg. 





Rhode Island. 

Henry T. Root, President, Treasurer and Auditor, 
J. M. K. Southwick, Vice-President, . 

Charles W. Willard 

A. D. Mead, Ph.D., Brown University, 
William P. Morton, Secretary, . 

Adelbert D, Roberts, 

William H. Boardman 







Central Tails. 


John Sharp, 

Salt Lake City. 


H. G. Thomas, 
E. A. Davis, 



John W. Bowdoin, Chairman, 
Seth F. Miller, Secretary, . 
George B. Keezell, 
Henry M. Tyler, 
Robert J. Camp, 





Governor, Henry McBride, 
State Treasurer, C. W. Maynard, 
T. R. Kershaw, Commissioner, 


216 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 


Governor, Robert M. LaFollette, ex officio, . . . Madison. 

Edwin E. Bryant, President, Madison. 

William J. Starr, Eau Claire. 

Calvert Spensely, Treasurer, Mineral Point. 

James J. Hogan, . . . . - . . . .La Crosse. 

Henry D. Smith, Appleton. 

Currie G. Bell, Bayfield. 

Edward A Birge, ex officio. Professor of Zoology, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Secretary, Madison, 

James Nevin, Superintendent, ....... Madison. 


D C. Nowlin, State Game Warden, Lander. 




Distribution of Food Fish. 

Brook Trout. 

Fry distributed from the Sutton Hatchery during the Months of April and 

May, 1903. 


Name of Brook. 



C.V.Dudley, . 


Northbridge, . 


H. W. Barnes, . 


Northbridge, . 


George L. Gill, . 


Northbridge, . 


George Pogue, . 

Misco and Cold Spring, 

Grafton, . 




Grafton, . 


Frank Vinton, . 


Grafton, . 


F, H. Clapp, 

Chamberlain, .... 

North Grafton, 


George B. Allen, 


North Grafton, 


Albert Hatch, . 


North Grafton, 


E. A. Brigham, . 


North Grafton, 


H. C. Puffer, 




R. R. Andrews, . 




H. R. Stiles, 

Timber Swamp, .... 



W.y. Marsh, 




L. H. Bowers, 

Powder Mill 



G. R. Bowers, . 




C. A. Pierce, 




H. F. Snow, 

Oak Orchard, .... 



R. L. Soper, 

Powders Hollow, . . 



Alfred Read, 

Little River 



W.J.Morton, . 




A. W. Hitchcock, 

Cold Spring, .... 



W. A. Soper, 




C. W. Goodwin, . 

Allen and Beeman, 

West Brookfield, . 


P. S. Callahan, . 

Lead Mine 

Southbridge, . 


J. P. Love, . 

Brown and Pot Ash, . 

Webster, . 


J. P. Kelley, 

Cold Spring, .... 



John H. Hagburg, 




C. IST, Hargraves, 


Framingham, . 


O. F. Fuller, 

Fox and Wallis 



Harry Clark, 




L. G. McKnight, 


Gardner, . 


William Pratt, . 


Gardner, . 


Albert J. Ray, . 


Westminster, . 


W. H. Frost, 




W. H. Frost, 

Popple Camp 



W. H. Frost, 




W. H. Emerson, 

Browns and Streeter, . 

East Douglas, . 


Clarence M. Wood, 

Kenney, Morss and Westfield, . 

Chester, . 


William L. Lincoln, 

Ware and Crouch, 

Paxton, . 


W. D. Lepper, . 


Marlborough, . 


William J. Cox, . 


Marlborough, . 


H. C Hudson, . 


Marlborough, . 


F.M.Ellis, . 


Marlborough, . 


W. M. Brigham, . 


Marlborough, . 










Fi'y distributed from the Winchester Hatchery during the Months of A'pril 

and May, 1903. 


Name of Brook. 



C. W. & F. W. Ames, 

Boutwell and Keyes, . 

Woburn, . 


John H, Garvey, 

Bennett, . . 

Woburn, . 


D.P.Carney, . 


Woburn, . 


E. E. Wood, 


Woburn, . 


William A. Lang, 


Lowell, . 




Lowell, . 


Frank E. Shaw, . 


Lowell, . 


Gr. L. Huntoon, . 


Lowell, . 


Caleb L. Smith, . 


Chelmsford, . 


G. W. Alcott, 


Chelmsford, . 


W H. Redman, . 


Chelmsford, . 


W. E. Badger, . 

Richardson, . . . . 

Dracut, . 


B. C. Morrisson, 


Tewksbary, . 


Abram E. Brown, 

Elm and Smith, .... 

Bedford, . 


John Saunders, . 


Andover, . 


Charles M. Kimball, . 

Houghtons and Rocky, 



Charles M. Kimball, . 

Taylors and Cemetery, 

South Acton, . 


L. J. Knowlton, . 




C. P. Abbott, 




H. W. Longfellow, , 


Georgetown, . 


Harry L. Brown, 


Georgetown, . 


R. B. Robinson, . 

Town Farm, .... 

Georgetown, . 


Charles A. Lunt, 

Tanhouse and Batchelder, . 

Rowley, . 


Claude Tarbox, . 


Rowley, . 

, 4,000 

Moody Kimball, . 




William H. Leonard, . 


East Foxborough, . 


Dwight F. Lane, 

Pine Swamp, .... 

Dighton, . 


James F. Pane, . 


Dighton, . 


N. H Wood, 


East Norton, . 


W. H. Edgerly, . 

Town River, .... 

West Bridgewater, . 


William A. Andrews, 




C.H.Norwell, . 


Reading, . 


A. E. Roberts, . 


Reading, . 


C. A. Currier, . 

Shaker Glen, .... 



H. M. Munroe, . 




A. 8. Mitchell, . 

Browns, . . . . . 



A. B. Clark, 


Peabody, . 


C, A. Wiggin, . 


Peabody, . 


J. L. Buffington, 

Shingle Island 

Fall River, 


J. G. Blaisdell, . 


Fall River, 


J. M. Morton, 


Fall River, 


John W. Holmes, 


Fall River, 


Nathan D.Chase, 


Fall River, 


A.H.Gardner, . 




N. B. Everett, . 

Bread and Cheese, 



Dana C. Everett, 


Assonet, . 



Fry distributed frovi the Eadley Hatchery during the Months of Axoril 

and May, 1903. 

B.E. Bliss, . 
F. M. Smith, 
T. F. Buckley, . 
B. C. Brainard, . 
M. F. McGraih, . 
George Hoffman, 
George M. Prentice, 
A. D. Moore, 
Edward Miller, . 
L. H. Porter, 
William G. Nichols, 
Harry Hill, . 
Thomas F. Ahearn, 
Georye F. Buckner, 

Leaping Well Reservoir, . 
Leaping Well, 




McGrath, .... 
Goepel, .... 



Parsons, .... 


Loudville River (brown trout), 
Turkey Hill, 

Ahearn, .... 

South Hadley, 
South Hadley, 
South Hadley, 
South Hadley, 
Granby, . 
Granby, . 
Granby, . 
Holyoke, . 
Chicopee Falls 










Eadley Hatchery — Concluded. 


Name of Brook. 



F. S.Isbell,. 
W. H. Thayer, . 
F. L. Bisbee, 
M. L. Bradford, . 
John F. Luman, . 
R C Newell, . 
D. F. Hartnett, . 


Bullard and Nash, 


Running Gutter, . 

King and Hartwell, 

Hillside and Mahoney, 

Loftus and Lawler, 

Easthampton, . 
Hattield, . 
Palmer, . 
Palmer, . 
Palmer, . 

i 10.000 


Fry distributed from the Adams Hatchery during the Months of April 

and May, 1903. 

Sanborn G-. Tenney, 

E. W. Blackinton, 

W. F. Darby, 
J. W. Thompson, 
H.J.Sheldon, . 
F.I. Wilder, 
William P. Martin, 

F. L. Snow, 
George F. Sayles, 
M. A. Bliss, 

O. E. Robinson, . 

W.E. Clogher, . 


C. M. Drake, 

C M.Drake, 


"W. E. Benjamin, 

H.F.Hubbard, . 

M. VV. Smith, 

"Wellington K. Henry 

C. H. Sago, . 

A. A. Shipper, . 

John F. Hood, . 

C.H.Russell, . 

G. D. Gregory, . 
G. D. Gregory, . 

Treadwell Hollow, 

New Ashford, 

McNamara, . 

Green River, 


Chapman, . 

Bowen, . 

Fisk, . 

Patton, . 



Gulf, . 

No8. 1 and 2, 

Daily, . 

Clark and Cole, 

Shaw and Crosby 


North Packard, 

South Packard, 



Uncahamet and Brattle 



Dry, . 

Chapin, Simon and Casey, 

Thorp and Reservoir, 

Indian Hill, . 



North Adams, 















Goshen, . 

Goshen, . 

Goshen, . 

Goshen, . 


South Egremont, 


Gill, . 

































Fingerling Brook Trout Plants. 

C. A. Pierce, 
Alfred Read, 
R. K. Andrews, , 
L. H. Bowers, 
H. P. Moseley, . 
R. L. Soper, 
C.L. Bush. . 
E. W. Reed, 
John Meliew, 
C. W.Egaleston, 
E. C. Smith, 
E. D. Corbin, 
George S. Ladd, . 

C. W Bradford, . 
J. P. Schneider, . 
George W. ShermaU] 
John F. Luman, . 
M. Lawlor, . 

D. F. Hartnett, . 
Nelson St. John, . 

Powder Mill, 

"White, . . , . 

Sandy Mill, . 

Cold Spring, 

Powder Hollow, . 

Slab, . . . . 

Bigelow and Bollow, . 

Harrington, . 

Mad, . . . . 

Webb, . . . . 

West, . . . . 




Penny and Mill, . 

Shermans, . 




King, . . . . 

North Brookfleld, 
North Brookfleld, 
North Brookfleld, 
North Brookfleld, 
North Brookfleld, 
North Brookfleld, 
"Warren, . 
Warren, . 
Palmer, . 
Palmer, . 
Palmer, . 
Palmer, . 







Fingerling Brook Trout Plants — ContiDiied. 

Applicants . 

Name of Brook. 



Everett Flood, . 
Leominster Grun Club, 
Leomiusier Gun Club, 
Leominster Gun Club, 
Leominster Gun Club, 
Leominster Gun Club, 
Leominster Gun Club 
W. F. Darby, 

E. H. Pratt, 
N. B. Baker, 
■William E. Clogh 
C. E. Kobinson 
G. K. Baird, 
"Wellington K. Henry 
W. S. Warren, 
P. H. Clarisey, 

F. N. Groesbeck 
W. M. Cooper, 
M. R. Goddard, 
J. 8. Ames, . 
A. E. Knowlton, 
William Pratt, 
John F. Sweeney 
F. L. Hager, 
C. D. Moulton, 
O. W. Wright, 
J, E. Stewart, 
W. W. Young, 

E. L. Gilson, 
O. L. Howlett, 
P. S. Callahan, 
Dominico Pocai 
C. F. Condry, 
C. H. Cooke, 
Joseph P. Love, 
J. P Kelley, 
W. H Lewie, 
C. V. Dudley, 
George L. Gill, 
Orrin C. Cook, 
Harry Clarke, 
George Pogue, 
Frank Vinton, 
H H. Adams, 
George B, Allen, 
Albert Hatch, 

C. N. Hargraves, 
W. A. Whitman, 
Frank B. Newton, 
H. P. Andrews, . 
C. H. Lasselle, . 
Charles M. Kimball, 
Charles M Kimball, 
Charles M. Kimball, 
W. S. Sheldon, 

F. J. Piper, . 
F. J. Piper, , 
F. J. Piper, . 
W. A. Kemp, 
J. P. Benedict, 
W. D, Lepper, 
J. Hazzard, . 
W. M. Brighara, 
Edwin Vickers, 
H. C. Hudson, 
Homer King, 
C. L.Allen,. 
J. A. Holden, 
W. H. Haynes, 
Dwight F. Lane, 
James F. Paul, . 
William H. Leonard 
W. W. Ottendorff, 



Mammoth, . 

McGoverns, . 

Chisel, . 

Steam Mill, . 


Green River, 

Treadwell, . 




Robinson Farm, 


Uncahamet, . 


Cady, . 

Gady, . 




Poor Farm, 

Bailey, . 


Crow Hill, 

Chase, . 

Gale, . 


Round Meadow, 



Saw-mill and 



Poor Farm, 

Brown, . 

Cold Spring, 

Picnic, . 

Purgatory anc 


Mill Plain, 


Misco, . 

Cold Spring, 



Nurse, . 


Duffer, . 

Fames, . 

Hog, . 





Willard and 

Barberry Hill, 

Pearl Hill, 

Bixby, . 

Noker and Sucker, 




Jerico, . 





Ball, . 

Hop, . 

Cranes, . 

Pine Swamp, 





d Burt, 

Monson, . 






Sterling, . 



North Adams, 


Hinsdale, . 

Hinsdale, . 




Dalton, . 

Dalton, . 

Gardner, . 

Gardner, . 

Gardner, . 

Gardner, . 

Gardner, . 



Orange, . 




Holland, . 





Webster, . 






Millville, . 

Grafton, . 

Grafton, . 

Grafton, . 

North Grafton, 

North Grafton, 

South Framingham 

South Framingham 

South Framingham 

Hudson, . 

Bolton, . 

South Acton, 

South Acton, 

South Acton, 






Groton, . 








Holden, . 


Berkley, . 

Dighton, . 

East Foxborough 

Medway, . 




Fingerling Brook Trout Plants — Concluded. 


Name of Brook. 


Albert W. Lewie, 
L. C. Humphrey, 
William A. Andrews 
George A. Philbrook 
Samuel Shaw, 

A. V. Smith. 
G-eorge W. Alcott, 
Edward B. Haskell, 
Frank A. Griffin, 
William A. Lang, 
Caleb L. Smith, . 
George Drinan, . 
T. L. Paige, 

J. F. Page, . 
George Cutler, . 
T. R. Hill, . 
E. B. Dickinson, 
R. W. Aldrich, . 
J. P, Anderson, . 
H. R. Davidson, . 

E. P. Bartlett, . 
S.E. Bliss, . 
George Hoffman. 

B. C.'Brainard, . 
T. F. Buckley, . 

F. E. White, 
F. M. Smith, 
William Chase, . 
L, W. Taylor, . 
H. S. Taylor, 
Charles Spooner, 
Edward Miller, . 
L. H. Porter, 

W. G. Rotherham, 
J. S. Outhouse, . 
J. M. Haigis, 
James W. Wild, . 
L. P. Woodward, 

E. C.Frost, . 
W. H. Walker, . 
W. H. Thayer, . 
W. G. Bisbee, . 
W. G. Rice, 

H. C. Puffer, 
Charles C. Russell, 
Charles C. Russell, 
Charles C. Russell, 
Charles C. Russell, 
Charles C. Russell, 
J. F. Bartlett, 

F. D. Balden, 
Henry Bassett, . 
L. H. Sears, 
A.A. Shippee, . 
George H. Pomeroy, 
F. P. Newkirk. . 
Thomas F. Ahearn, 
P. M. Carthy, 
John F. Golden, . 

C. P. Abbott, 
Moody Kimball, . 
Moody Kimball, . 
Moody Kimball, . 
George S. Fuller, 

A. W. Flye, 

L. J. Knowlton, 

B. Frank Smith, . 




Pratts and Fords, 

Clarks Spring, 





Ambrose Hale, . 

Blind, .... 

Richardson, . 

East Street, . 

Dickinsons, . 


Hop, .... 

Taylor, ... 




Amethyst, . 

Leaping Well, 

Leaping Well, 

Leaping Well, 






Creamery, . 



Loudville, . 

Sluice, .... 



Overy, .... 

Clarks, .... 

Apple Valley, 


Mill, .... 

Blake, .... 



Pole Swamp, 




Punch, .... 

Fall, .... 





Broad, .... 

Broad, .... 



Dows, .... 

Mill, .... 

Batchelder and Tanhouse, 


Smallpox, . 











Billerica, . 

Billerica, . 





Amherst, . 

Amherst, . 

Amherst, . 

Amherst, . 

Amherst, . 

Pelham, , 

Pelham, . 

Pelham, . 

Pelham, . 

South Hadley, 

South Hadley, 

South Hadley, 

South Hadley, 

South Hadley, 

South Hadley, 


Granby, . 

Granby, . 

Granby, . 



Shelburne Falls 

Ashland, . 









Ludlow, . 







Whately, . 


Hawley, . 





Methuen, . 

Methuen, . 


Rowley, . 



North Andover 



Andover, . 





Ponds stocked and closed in Accordance with Section 19, Chapter 91 of the 

Revised Laws. 

Name of Pond. 









Pike Perch 

Nuttings, . 




Flax, . 

Lynn, . 


















Otis, . 





Laurel Lake, . 







Royal ston, . 





White, . 






Haggets, . 






Spectacle, . 

Littleton, . 











Hampton, . 

Westfield, . 





Lake Pearl, 

Wrentham, . 






Princeton, . 












West Barnstable, 












Dana, . 






Holliston, . 





Quabbin Lake, . 

Greenwich, . 









Ponds stocked but not closed. 

Name of Pond. 





Pike Perch 

Pike Perch 


South West, 

Forge, .... 

Fort Meadow, . 

Lake Quinsigamond, 

Dorothea, .... 


Athol, . 
Gran by, 
Worcester, . 











Ponds restocked. 

Name of Pond. 



Pike Perch 

Pike Perch 


smelt Eggs. 

Middle, . 
Hard wick. 
Round, . 
Onota Lake, . 
Snows, . 
Watuppa Lake, 
Winnecunnet Lake, 

North Dana, 
Ware, . 
Pittsfield, . 
Ware, . 
Fall River, . 










2,500,000 1 6,000,000 

Brooks stocked with Brown Trout Fingerlings, and closed in Accordance with 
Section 5, Chapter 91 of the Revised Laws. 

Name of Brook. 


Brown Trout. 

Shawsheen River, 



Andover, .... 
Tewksbury, .... 
Billerica, .... 








Distribution of Pheasa:n^ts. 

Pheasants were liberated in the covers in various sections 
of the State, as indicated in the following list, which also 
embraces the names of applicants for birds : — 

Chester B. Williams 
Moody Kimball, 
C. P. Abbott, . 
William H. Leonard 
Rupert S. Morrill, 
Harry D. Hunt, 
Charles C. Russell, 
Shepard R. Dyer, 
Charles M. Kimball 
J. Myron ]\Ioore, 
Charles E. Bass, 
G. F. Geffkin, . 

F. M. Draper, . 
Thomas B. Rounds 
Sanborn G. Tenney 
Arthur Y. Stevens, 
C. H. Greene, . 

G. H. Perkins, . 
Edward Miller, 
Henry P. Andrews, 
M. A. Morse, . 
JohnE. McClellan, 

F. M. Smith, . 
H. C. Fay, 

C. Y. Dudley, . 
Dana Malone, . 
Howard Marston, 
JohnKenrick, . 
Frank M. Chace, 
John L. Rankin, 
Henry O. Whiting, , 
C. W. Bradford, 

G. S. Aleott, . 

Way land. 



East Foxborough. 


North Attleborough. 



South Acton. 




East Norton. 


William stown. 








South Hadley. 






Fall River. 





1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 225 

Alexander Pope, Hingham. 

Clifford E. Robinson, Hinsdale. 

Moody Kimball, Newburyport. 

F. I. Shaw, Lakeviile. 

Charles S. Cook, Halifax. , 

Cyrus A. Taft, Whitinsville. 

George L. Brown, Littleton. 

E. P. Bartlett, Pelham. 

George Clark, Millville. 

A. M. Lyman, Montague. 

Henry Boynton, Lowell. 

Lyncian P. Hapgood, Athol. 

Edward L. McMahon, Billerica. . 

John N. Cole, Andover. 

David E. Barnum, Burlington. 

W. H. Walker, Greenwich. 

J. Franklin Wight, Wellesley Farms. 

H. E. Reynolds, Braintree. 

John W. Duncan, ....#.. Boston. 

G. H. Doty, Waltham. 




DiSTiiiBUTio:^- OF Belgiax Habes. 

Belgian hares have been liberated in the covers, as indicated 
in the following list, in compliance with applications received 
from the persons whose names appear 

Sanborn G. Tenney, 
G. H. Perkins, 
Charles Russell, 
Charles M. Kimball 
James H. Krum, Jr 
Edward Miller, 
Louis H. Warner, 
P. H, Clarisey, 
Edward Brooks, 
Thomas Stackhouse 
C. H. Morse, . 
F. M. Haskins, 
C. W. Hammond, 
W. E. Brown, 
O. F. Fuller, . 
L. D. Baker, . 
C. V. Dudley, . 
Arthur W. Beckford 
Thomas B. Rounds, 
John L. Rankin, 
C. H. Babcoek, 
C. E. Bass, . 
C. H. Greene, . 
W. D. Lepper, 
B. W. Williams, 
Michael Shea, . 
George Pogue, 
F. M. Smith, . 
E. P. Bartlett, . 
Sutton Hatchery, 
J. W. Delano, 




South Acton. 

North Adams. 





Marshfield Hills. 







North bridge. 

Dan vers. 









New Bedford. . 


South Hadley. 




1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 227 

Arrests axd Coxvictioxs. 

The following tabulated statement gives in detail the result 
of the enforcement of the iish and game laws, so far as arrests 
and convictions are concerned. 

The total number of arrests was 169, and the aggregate of 
convictions was 139. Among those convicted, 4 appealed, 26 
cases were filed in addition to those cases where there was more 
than one charge and one complaint was filed while a fine was 
imposed for the other, and 2 were continued for sentence or the 
action of the court was unreported ; 24 of the persons arrested 
were discharged, 1 was placed on probation ; in 3 cases where the 
parties arrested were charged with more than one violation of 
law they were discharged on one and convicted on the other ; 
and in 3 similar cases one of the charges was filed after con- 
viction and thej were fined on the other. In 2 cases it was 
reported that prisoners were discharged after pleading guilty ; 
and the case of 1 was nol jjrossed. 

For further detail, see chapter on the enforcement of law. 





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sion trout out of season, . 
Shooting game out of season, 
Sunday hunting, and hunting with fer 

Hunting with ferret, . 
Shooting game out of seasoi 
Illegal fishing. 
Illegal fishing. 
Illegal fishing, 
Shooting song birds, . 
niegal possession of a heroi 
Illegal possession of a heror 
Illegal hunting, . 
Illegal hunting, . 
Sunday hunting, . 
Fishing on closed brook, 
Shooting song birds, . 
Hunting with ferret, . 
Hunting with ferret, . 
Hunting with ferret, . 
Hunting with ferret, . 
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Illegal fishing. 
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Chasing deer, 
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Alford, . 

Hard wick, 

Ware, . 

Ware, . 

Ware, . 

Ware, . 

Ware, . 







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Hard wick. 


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George G. In gland, 
(icorge L. Stone, 
W. 11. Tolherst, 
Ralph Volin, . 
Daltieo Salvatory, 
Domino Roberts, 
Frank Blake, . 
Robert S. Rhodes, 
Louis R. Anson, 
Joseph Dellea, 
Sumner Burrage, 
Xavier Bouvier,t 
Xavier Bouvier,f 
Eli Cross, 
Noe Cross, 
Louis Giard, . 
Bert Roberts, . 
James Rowley, 
Martin Petonyak, 
Michael Petonyak, 
Adam Petonyak, 
James Barbei-, 

F. R. Thayer, . 
Arthur Germaine, 
Frank Laschapelle,:] 





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Ralph L. Murray, . 
M. J. Luchia, . 
Gustave T. B. Bagley, 
Daniel Buxton, 2d, . 
Henry R. Osborne, . 
Walter H. Burnham, 
Charles Millo,t 
David Scipe,t . 
Frank Geralit, 
Assil Misduck, 
Jules Cotton, . 
William Butler, 
Henry Young, 
William Jaques, 
Lawrence Tilton, . 
Patrick Kegan, 
George M. Farwell, 
Ernest 0. Pope,§ . 





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1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 23.5 


Acts of 1903. 

[Chapter 155.] 

An Act to remove the conditions on which a certain fund 

acquired by the sale of fishery rights is held by the town 

of weymouth. 
Be it enacted, etc., asfolloias: 

Section 1. Section five of chapter ninety-two of the acts of the 
year eighteen hundred and forty-six is hereby repealed. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [4p- 
proved March 16, 1903. 

[Chapter 162.] 

An Act to provide for the better protection of marsh and 

beach birds. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section five of chapter ninety-two of the Revised Laws is hereby 
amended by striking out the word " May ", in the third line, and in- 
serting in place thereof the word : — JMarch, — so as to read as fol- 
lows : — Section 5. Whoever takes or kills a plover, snipe, sandpiper, 
rail or any of the so-called shore, marsh or beach birds between the 
first day of IMarch and the fifteenth day of July, or a wild or passen- 
ger pigeon, gull or tern at any time, shall be punished by a fine of 
ten dollars for every bird so taken or killed ; but the provisions of 
this section shall not apply to the great American herring gull nor to 
the great black-backed gull between the first day of November and 
the first day of May following. [Approved March 18, 1903. 

236 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

[Chapter 196.] 

An Act relative to the making and publication of returns of 

inspection of fish. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. Section five of chapter fifty-six of the Revised Laws, 
which provides for an annual return and publication relative to the 
inspection of fish, is hereby repealed. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Ap- 
proved April 6, 1903. 

[Chapter 205.] 

An Act to prohibit the sale of all trout except those arti- 
ficially REARED. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. It shall be unlawful at any time within three years 
after the passage of this act to buy or sell trout, or to offer trout for 
sale, within the Commonwealth : provided., however^ that nothing in 
this act shall prevent the sale of trout artificially propagated or main- 
tained or hatched from the egg in the house of the owner and grown 
in pools of said owner, in so far as the sale thereof is permitted by 
the laws of this Commonwealth now in force. 

Section 2. Whoever violates any provision of this act shall be 
punished by a fine of one dollar for each trout so bought, sold or 
offered for sale. [Approved April 5, 1903. 

[Chapter 206.] 

An Act to provide for the better protection of woodcock and 

ruffed grouse. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section two of chapter ninety- two of the Revised Laws is hereby 
amended by striking out the words '* prior to the thirteenth day of 
July in the year nineteen hundred and three", in the fifth and sixth 
lines, so as to read as follows : — Section 2. Whoever takes, kills or 
has in possession, or buys, sells or offers for sale, a woodcock or a 
ruffed grouse, commonly called partridge, between the first day of 
December and the first day of October following, whenever or wher- 
ever such bird may have been taken or killed, or whoever at any time 
buys, sells, offers for sale or has in possession for sale a woodcock or 
ruffed grouse, commonly called partridge, whenever or wherever such 
bird may have been taken or killed, shall be punished by a fine of 
twenty dollars for each bird. [Approved April 9, 1903. 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 237 

[Chapter 216.] 

An Act to provide for the protection of shellfish in the town of 


Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. No person shall take any shellfish from their beds or 
wilfully obstruct the growth of any shellfish within the town of Edgar- 
town, except as is hereinafter provided. 

Section 2. The selectmen of said town may give permits in writing 
to any person to take shellfish from their beds within said town, at such 
times, in such quantities, and for such uses, as they shall deem ex- 
pedient. But any inhabitant of said town may without such permit 
take from the beds in said town shellfish for the use of his family, not 
exceeding in quantity one bushel, including shells, in any one day ; 
and any fisherman may without such permit take shellfish from the said 
beds for bait for his own use, not exceeding in quantity one bushel, 
including shells, in any one day. 

Section 3. No person shall take from their beds in said town, or 
sell or offer for sale, or have in his possession, any little neck clams 
or quahaugs measuring less than one and one half inches across the 
widest part. 

Section 4. Whoever violates any provision of this act shall be 
punished by a fine of not less than ten nor more than one hundred 

Section 5. The district court of Dukes County shall have con- 
current jurisdiction with the superior court of all offences under 
this act. 

Section 6. So much of section eighty-five of chapter ninety-one 
of the Revised Laws as is inconsistent herewith shall not apply to the 
town of Edgartown. [Approved April 9, 1903. 

[Chapter 244.] 
An Act to provide further for the protection of certain marsh 


Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. Whoever takes or kills any heron or bittern, or has 
in possession any such bird or part thereof, whenever or wherever 
taken, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding ten dollars for 
every bird so taken or killed, or bird or part of bird so had in 

Section 2. Nothing in this act shall prevent the owner or keeper 
of any trout pond or trout hatchery from killing any heron or bittern 
engaged in the act of destroying fish ; nor shall anything herein 

238 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 

contained prevent the taking or possession of said birds by natural 
history associations, museums, or holders of certificates authorizing 
the collection of specimens for scientific purposes. \^Approved April 
16, 1903. 

[Chapter 245.] 
An Act to provide for the better protection of deer. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section seventeen of chapter ninety-two of the Revised Laws is 
hereby amended by striking out the whole of said section and insert- 
ing in place thereof the following: — Section 17. Whoever, before 
the first day of November in the year nineteen hundred and eight, 
hunts, chases, wounds, injures or kills a deer, except his own tame 
deer kept on his own grounds, shall forfeit one hundred dollars for 
each offence : provided, however, that nothing contained herein shall 
prevent an owner or occupant of cultivated land from driving a deer 
therefrom, but dogs shall not be used for this purpose, nor shall the 
deer be wounded or injured. [Approved April 16, 1903. 

[Chapter 246. J 
An Act to provide for the better protection of fish. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section one hundred and thirty-three of chapter ninety-one of the 
Revised Laws is hereby amended by striking out the whole of said 
section and inserting in place thereof the following : — Section 133. 
Whoever puts or throws into any waters for the purpose of taking or 
destroying fish therein any poisonous substance, simple, mixed or com- 
pound, or whoever kills or destroys fish by the use of dynamite or 
other explosive, or explodes dynamite or powder in fishing waters, 
shall forfeit ten dollars for each offence : provided, hoiuever, that the 
provisions of this act shall not apply to operations of the federal gov- 
ernment, of the state government, or of any municipal government 
in this Commonwealth, nor to the use of explosives for raising the 
body of a drowned person. \_Approved April 16, 1903. 

[Chapter 274.] 

An Act to authorize the commissioners on fisheries and game 

TO restock certain great ponds with food fish. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section nineteen of chapter ninety-one of the Revised Laws is 
hereby amended by inserting after the word " enforced", in the tenth 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 239 

line, the words: — The commissioners may restock a pond with fish 
and extend the provisions of this section for an additional period of 
three years whenever they receive a petition therefor as herein pro- 
vided, — so as to read as follows : — Section 19. The commissioners, 
upon the petition of the mayor and aldermen of a city or of the select- 
men of a town within which a great pond or a portion thereof is 
situated, or of thirty or more inhabitants thereof, shall cause the 
waters of such pond to be stocked with such food fish as they judge 
to be best suited to such waters. They shall thereupon prescribe, for 
a period not exceeding three years, such reasonable regulations rela- 
tive to the fishing in such ponds and their tributaries, with such 
penalties, not exceeding twenty dollars for one offence, as they deem 
to be for the public interest, and shall cause such regulations to be 
enforced. The commissioners may restock a pond with fish and extend 
the provisions of this section for an additional period of three years 
whenever they receive a petition therefor as herein provided- Five 
hundred dollars shall be annually appropriated by the Commonwealth 
to carry out the provisions of this section. \_Approved April 29 y 

[Chapter 287.] 

An Act to provide for the better protection of song and in- 
sectivorous BIRDS. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section seven of chapter ninety-two of the Revised Laws is hereby 
amended by inserting after the word " dollars", in the seventh line, 
the words : — for each bird taken or killed or each nest or egg de- 
stroyed, disturbed or taken contrary to the provisions of this section, 
— so as to read as follows : — Section 7. Whoever takes or kills a 
wild or undomesticated bird not named in sections two, three, four 
and five, except English sparrows, crow blackbirds, crows, jays, 
birds of prey, wild geese and fresh water and sea fowl not named in 
said sections, or wilfully destroys, disturbs or takes a nest or eggs 
of any wild or undomesticated birds, except such as are not protected 
by the provisions of this section, shall be punished by a fine of ten 
dollars for each bird taken or killed or each nest or egg destroyed, 
disturbed or taken contrary to the provisions of this section ; but a 
person over tvrenty-one years of age, who has a certificate from the 
commissioners on fisheries and game or from the president of the 
Boston Society of Natural History that he is engaged in the scientific 
study of ornithology or is collecting in the interest of a scientific insti- 
tution, may at any season take or kill or take the nests and eggs of 
an undomesticated bird, except woodcock, ruffed grouse and quail ; 
but the provisions of this section shall not authorize a person to enter 

240 FISH AXD GAME. [Dec. 

upon private grounds without the consent of the owner thereof for 
the purpose of taking nests or eggs or killing birds. Said commis- 
sioners or the president of said society may at any time revoke such 
certificate. [Approved April 30, 1903, 

[Chapter 291.] 

An Act relative to the annual report of the board of com- 
missioners ON fisheries and game. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. The annual report of the board of commissioners on 
fisheries and game shall hereafter include the year ending on the 
thirty-first day of December, and shall be submitted on or before the 
fifteenth day of January next following. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [_ Ap- 
proved April 30, 1903, 

[Chapter 294.] 
An Act to prohibit the use of trawls in certain ponds. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section twenty-six of chapter ninety-one of the Revised Laws is 
hereby amended by striking out the whole of said section and insert- 
ing in place thereof the following: — Section 26. Whoever draws, 
sets, stretches or uses a drag net, set net, purse net, seine or trawl 
in any pond, or aids in so doing, shall be punished by a fine of not 
less than twenty nor more than fifty dollars ; and the use of more 
than ten hooks by one person shall be deemed a trawl within the 
meaning of this section. No floating devices shall be used in connec- 
tion with such trawls. The provisions of this section shall not affect 
the rights of riparian proprietors of ponds mentioned in section 
twenty-three or the corporate rights of any fishing company. \_Ap- 
proved April 30, 1903. 

[Chapter 298.] 
An Act to prohibit the taking of fish by nets and seines in 


Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. For a period of three years after the passage of this 
act no person shall draw, set, stretch or use any drag net or set net, 
purse or sweep seine of any kind, except as is hereinafter provided, 
for taking fish anywhere in the waters of the towns of Barnstable and 
Mashpee on Nantucket Sound, so-called, northerly of or within a 
straight line extended from Point Gammon to Succonussett Point ; 
nor in any bay, harbor, cove or bight of said waters, nor in any inlet 
or stream flowing into the same : provided, nevertheless, that nothing 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 241 

herein contained shall be so construed as to forbid or make unlawful 
the catching of menhaden or other small fish for bait purposes ; nor 
the use of nets for the taking of herring ; nor the use of dredges or 
drag nets for the taking of scallops. 

Section 2. Whoever violates any provision of this act or aids or 
assists in so doing, shall be punished by a fine of not less than fifty 
dollars nor more than five hundred dollars for each offence, or by im- 
prisonment for a term not exceeding six months. 

Section 3. Any net, seine or movable device for catching fish 
used in violation of any provision of this act, together with any boat, 
-craft, vessel, steamer or fishing apparatus employed in such illegal 
tise, and any fish found therewith, are hereby declared to be public 
nuisances and forfeited ; and it shall be lawful for any inhabitant of 
«aid Barnstable or Mashpee or any constable, police officer or deputy 
sheriff in the Commonwealth, to seize and detain, without warrant, 
for a period not exceeding forty-eight hours, any such net, seine or 
movable device, boat, craft, vessel, steamer or fishing apparatus 
found in use contrary to the provisions of this act, and any fish found 
therewith, to the end that the same may be libelled, if necessary, by 
due process of law. District courts and trial justices shall have con- 
current jurisdiction with the superior court of all offences and pro- 
■ceedings under the provisions of this act, regardless of the value of 
the property libelled. [Approved April 30^ 1903, 

[Chapter 329.] 
An Act relative to possession of bodies or feathers of certain 


Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. Section eight of chapter ninety-two of the Revised 
Laws is hereby amended by inserting after the word '' section ", in 
the third line, the words: — or of section five of this chapter, — so 
as to read as follows : — Section 8. Whoever has in possession the 
body or feathers of a bird, the taking or killing of which is prohibited 
by the provisions of the preceding section or of section five of this 
^chapter, whether taken in this Commonwealth or elsewhere, or wears 
such feathers for the purpose of dress or ornament, shall be punished 
by a fine of ten dollars ; but the provisions of this section shall not 
prohibit the taking or killing of such birds by the holders of certifi- 
cates provided for in the preceding section, nor shall they apply to 
natural history associations or to the proprietors of museums, or other 
<}ollections for scientific purposes, or to non-residents of the Common- 
wealth passing through it or temporarily dwelling therein. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect on the first day of January 
in the year nineteen hundred and four. [Approved May 7, 1903, 


[Chapter 344.] 

An Act to provide for the payment of a bounty for killing a 

wild cat, canada lynx or loupcervier. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. Whoever in any town kills a wild cat, Canada lynx or 
loupcervier not being in captivity shall, upon producing satisfactory 
evidence of such killing, be entitled to receive from the treasurer of 
the town the sum of five dollars ; and all sums so paid out shall be 
repaid to the town treasurer by the treasurer of the county in whicb 
the town is situated : provided, that a sworn statement thereof shall 
be transmitted by the town treasurer to the county treasurer. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [^Approved 
May 12, 1903. 

[Chapter 348.] 

An Act to authorize the commissioners on fisheries and game to 
call or attend a convention of commissioners of lobster-pro- 
ducing states and of the british provinces. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Section 1. The commissioners on fisheries and game are hereby 
authorized to call a convention of the fish and game commissioners 
of the lobster- producing states and of the British provinces to meet 
at Boston during the year nineteen hundred and three, to determine 
on recommendations for uniform laws and regulations for the better 
preservation of the lobster, and for other like purposes. If such a 
convention is called elsewhere than at Boston the commissioners are 
authorized to attend the same, instead of calling a convention as pro- 
vided in section one. 

Section 2. The said commissioners may expend a sum not exceed- 
ing two hundred dollars in carrying out the purposes of this act. 

Section 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
May 15, 1903. 

[Chapter 407.] 
An Act relative to recovery for damages caused by wild deer. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows : 

Whoever suffers loss by the eating, browsing or trampling of hi& 
fruit or ornamental trees, vegetables, produce or crops by wild deer 
may, if the damage is done in a city, inform the officer of police of 
said city who shall be designated to receive such information by the 
mayor, and if the damage is done in a town, may inform the chair- 

1903.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 243 

man of the selectmen of the town wherein the damage was done, 
who shall proceed to the premises where the damage was done and 
determine whether the same was inflicted by deer, and if so, appraise 
the amount thereof if it does not exceed twenty dollars. If, in the 
opinion of said officer of police or chairman, the amount of said 
damage exceeds twenty dollars, he shall appoint two disinterested 
persons, who, with himself, shall appraise under oath the amount 
thereof. The said officer of police or chairman shall return a certifi- 
cate of the damages found, except in the county of Suffolk, to the 
treasurer of the county in which the damage is done, within ten days 
after such appraisal is made. The treasurer shall thereupon submit 
the same to the county commissioners, who, within thirty days, shall 
examine all such bills, and if any doubt exists, may summon the 
appraisers and all parties interested and may make such examination 
as they may think proper, and he shall transmit such bills, properly 
approved, to the auditor of accounts, and they shall be paid out of 
the treasury of the Commonwealth in the same manner as other 
claims against the Commonwealth. In the county of Suffolk the 
certificate of damages shall be returned to the treasurer of the city or 
town in which the damage is done, who shall exercise and perform 
the rights and duties hereby conferred and imposed upon the county 
commissioners in other counties. The appraisers shall receive from 
the county, — or in the county of Suffolk, from the city or town 
treasurer, — one dollar each for every such examination made by 
them, and the officer or the chairman of selectmen acting in the case 
shall receive twenty cents a mile, one way, for his necessary travel. 
[Ajjproved June 2, 1903. 

244 FISH AND GAME. [Dec. 


The following tables show in detail, by counties, the statistics 
of the shore net and lobster fisheries of Massachusetts for the 
year ending Oct. 1, 1903, as reported to this commission. 
These tables embrace the fisheries with pound nets, weirs,* 
floating fish traps, fyke nets, seines, gill nets and pots, the 
latter being used for catching lobsters. They do not, however, 
include other branches of the shore fisheries, such as hand line 
or trawl line fishing, the oyster or clam fishing, etc. 

Table No. 1 shows the number of fishermen employed in the 
net and lobster fisheries along the coast. There has been a 
decrease of 86 in the persons employed, as compared with 
1902. This decrease is most noticeable in Plymouth and 
Earnstable counties ; in Norfolk County there has been an 
increase from 6 to 33. 

Table No. 2 shows, by counties, the number and value of 
boats and other forms of apparatus employed in the net and 
lobster fisheries. There were 879 boats, with a value of $100,- 
844, employed in these fisheries in 1903 ; also 163 pound nets 
and trap nets, worth $102,195 ; 1,942 seines, gill nets and fyke 
nets, valued at $19,651 ; 20,121 lobster pots, worth $25,493.35 ; 
and shore property and accessory apparatus, with a value of 
$39,345.10. The total investment in these branches of fishery 
was $287,528.45. This is an increase over 1902 of $11,536.05, 
and over 1901 of $57,665.85, in the capital invested. Con- 
sidered in detail, the following changes are shown between 1902 
and 1903 : there has been a decrease of 56 boats, with a valua- 
tion of $7,149.50 less than last year; an increase of 48 pound 
nets and trap nets, with an additional value of $7,965 ; a de- 

* Pound nets are often called weirs, and this is notably the case at Cape Cod 
where the term pound net is rarely or never used. 




crease of 734 in the number of seines, nets, etc. , with a shrinkage 
in value of $5,564.50 ; an increase of 63 lobster pots, with an 
increase in valuation of $603.30 ; and an enhanced valuation of 
shore property, etc., of $15,681.75. The increase of valuation 
of shore property, etc., over 1901, amounts to $26,074.20. 

Table No. 3 shows, by counties and by species, the quan- 
tities and values of products. These aggregate 17,865,209 
pounds, with a value, at prices paid the fishermen, of $370,- 
094.16. The catch of 1903 exceeds that of 1902 by 277,742 
pounds, and the increase in valuation is $14,644.75. The 
details of increases and decreases have been so fully considered 
under the head of shore weir and net fisheries that reference is 
made to that chapter for further information. 

Mention may be made here that the catch of two pound nets 
operated by the United States Bureau of Fisheries in Buzzards 
Bay, for scientific purposes, has not been included in the tabu- 
lations. From the returns submitted, it is, however, possible 
to state the catch of these nets and the valuation of the fish 
taken. The total catch in the two pound nets was 442,360 
pounds, of which 27,984 pounds had no commercial value, and 
the aggregate value was $6,264.39. The catch of marketable 
fish, by species, was as follows : alewives, 400 pounds ; blue- 
fish, 1,382 pounds; bonito, 5,165 pounds; butterfish, 8,188 
pounds ; flounders, 1,300 pounds ; hake, 100 pounds ; king- 
fish, 65 pounds; mackerel, 8,902 pounds; menhaden, 284,813 
pounds; pollock, 1,701 pounds; scup, 57,967 pounds; sea 
bass, 1,470 pounds; shad, 3 pounds; squeteague, 35,035 
pounds; squid, 6,650 pounds; tautog, 757 pounds; whiting, 
185 pounds. 

Table No. 1. — Showing, by Counties, the Number of Men employed in the 
Shore Net and Lobster Fisheries of Massachusetts in 1903. 

























Table No. 2. — Shoiving, by Counties, the Apparatus employed in the Shore 
Net and Lobster Fisheries of Massachusetts in 1903. 












Pound nets and trap nets, 
Seines, gill nets and fyke nets, 
Lobster pots, . 
Shore property and accessory 





$16,578 00 

10,850 00 

3,338 50 

5,170 00 

2,430 15 


$1,732 00 

4,023 00 
299 45 


$5,813 00 

60 00 
4,053 00 

588 90 

Totals, .... 


$38,366 65 


$6,054 45 


$10,514 90 



Pound nets and trap nets, 
Seines, gill nets and fyke nets. 
Lobster pots, . . . . 
Shore property and accessory 
apparatus, . . . . 

Totals, . . . . 


Number. Value 



$13,047 00 

515 00 
9,374 50 

14,576 10 
$37,512 60 


Number. Value. 





$40,596 00 

69,095 00 

10,189 50 

1,636 25 

15.046 75 

$136,563 50 


ISTumber. Value 



$8,605 00 
1,200 00 
2,844 00 

540 76 
$13,379 35 


Boats, . . . 
Pound nets and trap nets, 
Seines, gill nets and fyke nets 
Lobster pots, . 
Shore property and accessory 



Number. Value. 





$12,553 00 

21,050 00 

1,149 00 

902 00 

2,875 25 
$38,529 25 


Number. Value. 



$1,920 00 

1,555 00 
145 00 

2,987 75 

$6,607 75 


Number. Value 





$100,844 00 
102,195 00 
19,651 00 
25,493 35 

39,345 10 

$287,528 45 




Table No. 3.— Showing, by Counties and Species, the Yield of the Shore 
Net and Lobster Fisheries of Massachusetts in 1903. 












Alewivee, .... 


$598 00 





Bluefish, .... 







Flounders and flatfish, . 


24 00 







2,752 80 







1,441 65 







1,844 46 





Salmon, .... 







Bcup, .... 


3 25 





Sea base, .... 







Sea herring, 


16,527 85 




$340 00 



19 50 





Squeteague, . 


283 51 





Striped bass, . 








650 90 







17 00 





Other edible or bait 

species, .... 


12,487 38 




180 00 

Refuse fish, 






-Lobsters, .... 


27,810 39 


$15,409 95